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The venerable C language uses a runtime environment -- the C compiler inserts runtime instructions into the executable image (the compiled .exe file). The runtime instructions create runtime environments that can manage the processor, handle local variables and so on throughout the program's execution. However, since runtime environments are typically incorporated as an integral part of the C executable (nothing separate needs to be installed or configured), the role of the runtime environment is easily overlooked or forgotten.
There are also more direct iterations of runtime environments, such as for Java applications. Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is an established set of tools for creating Java applications. JRE includes Java virtual machines, program classes and associated program libraries. JRE also provides a common platform for running Java applets or applications on any computer with JRE installed. By comparison, Microsoft's .NET Framework uses common language runtime for running .NET applications.
There are also more interpreted runtime environments. A prime example is Adobe Flash Player, which uses a runtime plug-in to handle flash code -- allowing the same code to run on myriad different devices, whether through browsers or native OSes. Even stand-alone execution application models invoked by APIs, such as Portable OS Interface threads (POSIX threads or pthreads) will typically include some form of runtime environment in order to implement the application's execution.
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