SYN flood (half open attack)

SYN flooding is an attack vector for conducting a denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a computer server

The attack involves having a client repeatedly send SYN (synchronization) packets to every port on a server, using fake IP addresses. When an attack begins, the server sees the equivalent of multiple attempts to establish communications. The server responds to each attempt with a SYN/ACK (synchronization acknowledged) packet from each open port, and with a RST (reset) packet from each closed port. 

In a normal three-way handshake, the client would return an ACK (acknowledged) packet to confirm that the server's SYN/ACK packet was received, and communications would then commence. However, in a SYN flood, the ACK packet is never sent back by the hostile client. Instead, the client program sends repeated SYN requests to all the server's ports. A hostile client always knows a port is open when the server responds with a SYN/ACK packet.

The hostile client makes the SYN requests all appear valid, but because the IP addresses are fake ones, it is impossible for the server to close down the connection by sending RST packets back to the client. Instead, the connection stays open. Before time-out can occur, another SYN packet arrives from the hostile client. A connection of this type is called a half-open connection. Under these conditions, the server becomes completely or almost completely busy with the hostile client and communications with legitimate clients is difficult or impossible. For this reason, SYN floods are also known as half-open attacks. 

The transmission by a hostile client of SYN packets for the purpose of finding open ports and hacking into one or more of them, is called SYN scanning

See also: denial of service (DoS), distributed denial of service DDoS, ping of death

This was last updated in April 2014

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