What is self-sovereign identity?
Self-sovereign identity (SSI) is a model for managing digital identities in which individuals or businesses have sole ownership over the ability to control their accounts and personal data. Individuals with self-sovereign identity can store their data to their devices and provide it for verification and transactions without the need to rely upon a central repository of data. With self-sovereign identity, users have complete control over how their personal information is kept and used.
In all models of identity management, a digital identity requires identifiers that ensure users are who they say they are. With self-sovereign identity, however, identifiers do not need an intermediary. This means a user's self-sovereign identity can be registered to a claim, such as a block on a blockchain. The person can then share that identifying data when making a transaction, for example, with a bank.
With self-sovereign identity, users can enter an app on their phone where their identity data is stored, then use an identification number and identity information to verify who they are. Self-sovereign identity adds security and flexibility to users and enables them the ability to share data only when they choose.
Self-sovereign identity concepts
Self-sovereign identity is made up of claims, proofs and attestations:
- A claim is an assertion of identity made by the user.
- Proofs are the forms or documents that act as evidence for a claim. For example, a proof could be a passport or birth certificate.
- An attestation, or validation, is when the other party validates the claim is true. Attestations can be stored in the user's device and are typically machine readable.
Pros and cons of self-sovereign identity
Some pros to using self-sovereign identity include the following:
- It is more secure and prevents common attacks to personal data, such as breaches.
- Data is more private.
- Users have a higher control over their own data.
- The process is more efficient.
- Users do not have to rely on identity providers that may sell and monetize their data.
Cons of self-sovereign identity include the following:
- Users are responsible for their own security.
- Multiple identity platforms may be required, meaning users may have to use multiple apps.
- Keeping track of personal data and permissions can be complex.
- Certain data intermediaries may not be removable.
- Proof data is normally unstructured and could be easily faked.