null Definitions

  • J

    JAQL (json query language)

    JAQL is a query language for the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data interchange format. Pronounced "jackal," JAQL is a functional, declarative programming language designed especially for working with large volumes of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data.

  • M

    MariaDB

    MariaDB is an open source relational database management system (DBMS) that is a compatible drop-in replacement for the widely used MySQL database technology.

  • master data

    Master data is the core data that is essential to operations in a specific business or business unit.

  • master data management (MDM)

    Master data management (MDM) is a process that creates a uniform set of data on customers, products, suppliers and other business entities from different IT systems.

  • Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB

    Azure Cosmos DB is a Microsoft cloud database that supports multiple ways of storing and processing data. As such, it is classified as a multimodel database.

  • Microsoft SQL Server

    Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system, or RDBMS, that supports a wide variety of transaction processing, business intelligence and analytics applications in corporate IT environments

  • Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)

    Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) is an integrated environment to manage a SQL Server infrastructure.

  • Microsoft SQL Server Parallel Data Warehouse (SQL Server PDW)

    Microsoft SQL Server Parallel Data Warehouse (SQL Server PDW) is a pre-built data warehouse appliance that includes Microsoft SQL Server database software, third-party server hardware and networking components.

  • Microsoft SSIS (SQL Server Integration Services)

    Microsoft SSIS (SQL Server Integration Services) is an enterprise data integration, data transformation and data migration tool built into Microsoft's SQL Server database.

  • Microsoft Visual FoxPro (Microsoft VFP)

    Microsoft Visual FoxPro (VFP) is an object-oriented programming environment with a built-in relational database engine.

  • MongoDB

    MongoDB is an open source NoSQL database management program. NoSQL is used as an alternative to traditional relational databases.

  • MPP database (massively parallel processing database)

    An MPP database is a database that is optimized to be processed in parallel for many operations to be performed by many processing units at a time.

  • multimodel database

    A multimodel database is a data processing platform that supports multiple data models, which define the parameters for how the information in a database is organized and arranged.

  • N

    NewSQL

    NewSQL is a term coined by the analyst firm The 451 Group as shorthand to describe vendors of new, scalable, high performance SQL databases.

  • NoSQL (Not Only SQL database)

    NoSQL is an approach to database management that can accommodate a wide variety of data models, including key-value, document, columnar and graph formats.

  • O

    OLAP (online analytical processing)

    OLAP (online analytical processing) is a computing method that enables users to easily and selectively extract and query data in order to analyze it from different points of view.

  • OLAP cube

    An OLAP cube is a multidimensional database that is optimized for data warehouse and online analytical processing (OLAP) applications.

  • OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog)

    An OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) is an online bibliography of a library collection that is available to the public.

  • P

    pivot table

    A pivot table is a statistics tool that summarizes and reorganizes selected columns and rows of data in a spreadsheet or database table to obtain a desired report.

  • primary key (primary keyword)

    A primary key, also called a primary keyword, is a key in a relational database that is unique for each record.

  • privacy

    On the Internet, privacy, a major concern of users, can be divided into these concerns: What personal information can be shared with whom Whether messages can be exchanged without anyone else seeing them Whether and how one can send messages anonymously Personal Information Privacy Most Web users want to understand that personal information they share will not be shared with anyone else without their permission.

  • Q

    query

    A query is a question or a request for information expressed in a formal manner. In computer science, a query is essentially the same thing, the only difference is the answer or retrieved information comes from a database.

  • R

    raw data (source data or atomic data)

    Raw data (sometimes called source data, atomic data or primary data) is data that has not been processed for use.

  • RDBMS (relational database management system)

    A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a collection of programs and capabilities that enable IT teams and others to create, update, administer and otherwise interact with a relational database.

  • relational database

    A relational database is a collection of information that organizes data points with defined relationships for easy access.

  • RFM analysis (recency, frequency, monetary)

    RFM analysis is a marketing technique used to quantitatively rank and group customers based on the recency, frequency and monetary total of their recent transactions to identify the best customers and perform targeted marketing campaigns.

  • S

    schema

    In computer programming, a schema (pronounced SKEE-mah) is the organization or structure for a database, while in artificial intelligence (AI) a schema is a formal expression of an inference rule.

  • semantic technology

    Semantic technology is a set of methods and tools that provide advanced means for categorizing and processing data, as well as for discovering relationships within varied data sets.

  • snowflaking (snowflake schema)

    In data warehousing, snowflaking is a form of dimensional modeling where dimensions are stored in multiple related dimension tables. 

  • sparsity and density

    Sparsity and density are terms used to describe the percentage of cells in a database table that are not populated and populated, respectively. The sum of the sparsity and density should equal 100%.

  • spatial data

    Spatial data is any type of data that directly or indirectly references a specific geographical area or location.

  • SQL Server buffer pool

    An SQL Server buffer pool, also called an SQL Server buffer cache, is a place in system memory that is used for caching table and index data pages as they are modified or read from disk. 

  • SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS)

    SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) is a SQL Server subsystem that enables the creation of graphical, mobile and printed reports using SQL Server and other data sources.

  • SQL-on-Hadoop

    SQL-on-Hadoop is a class of analytical application tools that combine established SQL-style querying with newer Hadoop data framework elements.

  • star schema

    A star schema is a database organizational structure optimized for use in a data warehouse or business intelligence that uses a single large fact table to store transactional or measured data, and one or more smaller dimensional tables that store attributes about the data.

  • stream processing

    Stream processing is a data management technique that involves ingesting a continuous data stream to quickly analyze, filter, transform or enhance the data in real time.

  • Structured Query Language (SQL)

    Structured Query Language (SQL) is a standardized programming language that is used to manage relational databases and perform various operations on the data in them.

  • synthetic backup

    Synthetic backup is the process of generating a file from a complete copy of a file created at some past time and one or more incremental copies created at later times... (Continued)

  • T

    T-SQL (Transact-SQL)

    T-SQL (Transact-SQL) is a set of programming extensions from Sybase and Microsoft that add several features to the Structured Query Language (SQL), including transaction control, exception and error handling, row processing and declared variables.

  • TensorFlow

    TensorFlow is an open source framework developed by Google researchers to run machine learning, deep learning and other statistical and predictive analytics workloads.

  • three-phase commit (3PC)

    Three-phase commit (3PC) is a protocol that consists of a distributed algorithm used to ensure all transactions in a system are agreed upon and are committed to.

  • transcription error

    A transcription error is a specific type of data entry error that is commonly made by human operators or by optical character recognition (OCR) programs.

  • tree structure

    A tree data structure is an algorithm for placing and locating files (called records or keys) in a database.

  • U

    U-SQL

    U-SQL is a Microsoft query language that combines a declarative SQL-like syntax with C# programming, enabling it to be used to process both structured and unstructured data in big data environments.

  • USA Patriot Act

    The USA Patriot Act is a law enacted in 2001, granting new and extended data-collection abilities to federal agencies in an effort to combat terrorism after the September 11 attacks.

  • V

    VoltDB

    VoltDB is an in-memory database. The software is available in an open-source community edition and in a commercial release from vendor VoltDB Inc.

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