Organizations should understand how Android and iOS devices compare for enterprise users. One major difference is how the two OSes approach employee privacy.
Data privacy is at the front of employees' and administrators' minds in an increasingly mobile work landscape. With mobile devices -- especially BYOD smartphones -- users have a good amount of control, so organizations must be careful to balance data protection with user privacy. It's important to take the following factors into account to keep mobile data secure:
- Device ownership. BYOD policies let employees use their personal devices for work-related tasks. This creates privacy concerns as personal and work data can collide.
- Variety in the device landscape. Employees use a wide range of devices, including smartphones, laptops and tablets. This makes it difficult to implement consistent privacy measures across all platforms.
- Data storage and sharing. Employees might store sensitive data on their devices, both personal and corporate, which can lead to security vulnerabilities if devices are lost, stolen or compromised.
- Securing personal information. Organizations must respect an employee's right to privacy regarding personal data on the device.
- Employee monitoring. Monitoring employee devices for security purposes can lead to privacy concerns if not implemented transparently and ethically.
- Data access control. Implementing effective access controls ensures only authorized personnel can access sensitive device information.
- Data encryption. Enforcing data encryption on employee devices can protect sensitive information. Administrators must consider potential performance and usability issues, however.
- Remote work. The rise of remote work further complicates privacy concerns, as employees access corporate data from various locations and networks.
On top of all these factors, IT administrators might wonder what role the device type or OS plays. Androids and iPhones are both popular mobile devices, but their hardware and software differ in some significant ways. IT should understand the differences and key considerations for each platform.
Apple's approach to data privacy
Apple has always positioned itself as a champion of user privacy, and a few policies reflect that. Apple devices encrypt all information at rest and in transit. They also use secure boot chains to ensure only trusted software loads during device startup. Other practices include application sandboxing to isolate apps and their data from each other, as well as user-granted permissions for location and contact access.
Apple also introduced App Tracking Transparency in iOS 14.5, which requires apps to get users' consent before tracking their data across apps or websites owned by other companies. In addition, the Apple App Store's Application Privacy labels, commonly called Privacy Nutrition Labels, inform users about how applications use and share data. These features, while primarily designed for individual users, can also extend their benefits to employee devices, preventing any potential cross-app data leakage that might pose security risks.
There are several other iOS features that support privacy for users and data, including the following:
- Timely security updates. Apple releases iOS updates directly to its devices. This ensures a more consistent and timely distribution of security patches.
- App Store review process. Apple's stringent app review process helps prevent malicious or harmful apps from being available on the App Store. This enhances the overall security and privacy of iOS apps.
- App Tracking Transparency. This feature gives users more control over app tracking and data collection. Apps must now obtain explicit user permission before tracking user data across other apps and websites.
- Data encryption. Strong iOS encryption protects data at rest and during transmission. This provides a higher level of security for sensitive information on the device.
- Privacy labels. App developers must provide privacy labels on iOS apps in the App Store. This gives users a clear overview of an app's data collection practices before downloading.
- Hardware security. Apple's custom-designed hardware provides additional security measures for device encryption and user authentication. One example of this is the Secure Enclave, a coprocessor security chip that stores cryptographic keys in an isolated location to prevent them from being compromised.
Still, iOS does have some privacy weaknesses. Admins should keep the following issues in mind when looking into enterprise iPhone management:
- Limited customization. Apple offers less flexibility and customization options than Android, which might be a limitation in certain enterprise use cases.
- App sideloading. Unlike Android, iOS restricts the ability to sideload apps from outside the App Store, which can be a drawback for organizations needing extra control.
- Closed ecosystem. Apple's closed ecosystem can make it challenging to integrate certain third-party services or applications.
- Containerization limitations. Apple offers User Enrollment and managed Apple IDs, which let users create separate personal and corporate iCloud accounts on their devices. This option includes additional safeguards for user privacy by limiting how much mobile device management (MDM) can restrict or be enforced on a device. This is in comparison to Android's work profile software, however, which separates personal and corporate data more clearly.
Android's approach to privacy
Android, managed by Google, also offers a comprehensive set of privacy features. Android's privacy model is based on items such as explicit user-granted permissions. As a result, users must explicitly grant permission for an app to access sensitive resources or data.
For organizations using Android Enterprise, there is an added level of security and privacy. IT administrators can manage devices within a fully controlled and secure environment using work profiles, which separate work and personal data. For corporate-owned devices, Android offers fully managed mode. This is a designated configuration with elevated privileges and enhanced management capabilities.
Like Apple, Android also supports data encryption at rest and in transit and offers a secure boot system. Other useful Android features for employee privacy include the following:
- Data safety. Each Google Play app includes a Data Safety section that outlines how the app uses and shares user data.
- Work profiles. Android's work profile feature lets IT and users create a separate and secure container for work-related apps and data. Personal and work data are kept separate, enhancing privacy and security. Additionally, users can turn this profile off to disconnect from work notifications outside of business hours.
- Google Play Protect. This is a built-in security tool on Android devices that scans apps -- including those not installed from the Google Play Store -- for malware and other harmful content.
- Device options. Android's open source ecosystem offers a wide range of options in terms of hardware, form factors and costs. These options enable organizations to choose devices that best fit their specific needs. For example, organizations that need a high degree of security and durability might turn to rugged devices. These devices come with additional OS controls and applications, enhancing the existing features and capabilities of the core OS. While the extra controls might affect user privacy, they are designed to give organizations greater control over the device.
Android's flexibility does create some privacy challenges, however. Admins should consider the following weaknesses in Android's privacy approach:
- Fragmentation. While the breadth of device options benefits the ecosystem, it has drawbacks. With various manufacturers and devices running different versions of the OS, Android's fragmentation can lead to delayed security updates, leaving some devices vulnerable to exploits.
- Third-party apps. Android phones provide users and organizations with various options for application installation. While this flexibility can be an advantage, it also raises security and privacy concerns. Letting users install apps from outside the official app store or MDM can expose them to potential malware or security issues. Google Play Protect specifically combats this issue. Additionally, organizations should implement MDM policies that disable installation from unknown sources to ensure Android users stick to official channels for app installation.
- Data collection by apps. Some Android apps might request access to excessive data beyond their actual requirements, leading to potential privacy concerns.
Factors to compare between iPhone and Android
When comparing Android and iOS, it's important to remember that no platform is inherently better than the other. The right choice depends on an organization's specific needs and operational requirements. IT teams can take the following actions to find a suitable privacy approach:
- Conduct a thorough assessment of the organization's privacy needs.
- Consider the use cases for the devices and how the hardware and OS fit into that vision.
- Evaluate MDM to ensure IT has all the capabilities necessary for the use case of the devices.
- Consult with IT professionals and make an informed decision that aligns with the organization's privacy goals.
Both iOS and Android offer robust privacy features suited to enterprise use. Admins should consider each platform's features and ecosystem to determine which one strikes the best balance between privacy, security and functionality.
IT should first examine each platform's specific privacy policies. In addition to app permission features such as Apple's Application Privacy labels and Google Play's Data Safety section, admins should compare the data collection and handling policies of both OSes. Although both companies have made progress in safeguarding user privacy, important disparities might still exist in their approaches to managing user data.
Consider the native privacy features and tools available on each platform as well. Apple's User Enrollment feature can enable organizations to manage BYOD endpoints while limiting the amount of control IT has over a device. If an organization wants even greater separation between corporate and personal data, Google's work profile feature lets users turn off their work profile when they need to disconnect from work.
Another factor IT should consider when looking at iOS and Android privacy is security features. One significant difference between the two is how they approach OS security updates. Apple and Google regularly release security updates to patch vulnerabilities. However, Apple tends to push updates more consistently and quickly across its devices.
Android updates are often delayed due to the involvement of multiple manufacturers and carriers in the update process. When choosing an Android device, admins should consult with the manufacturer to understand their OS update and device patching roadmap. Instead of the latest and greatest Android OS, many organizations might need the Android security firmware and patches to ensure their devices are secure.
Admins should also evaluate each platform's data protection and encryption features. Both iOS and Android provide encryption and can be enforced by MDM. It's important to review both platforms' MDM options, ensuring they meet the organization's security requirements.
OS ecosystem and fragmentation
The platform's ecosystem is another vital consideration. Admins should evaluate how well the platform integrates with their existing IT infrastructure and security protocols. This includes compatibility with current enterprise applications and services.
Device fragmentation is a major component of this. The Android ecosystem offers a wide range of devices from various manufacturers. This means different hardware configurations, form factors and software versions. While this diversity gives users and organizations options and cost advantages, it has some drawbacks. Fragmentation within the ecosystem can result in inconsistent security patching and overall privacy management across different Android devices. IT teams should weigh these benefits and limitations in the context of their organization's needs to make the best decision for employee privacy.