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7 enterprise patch management best practices

It might not be the most exciting responsibility, but the value of a well-executed patch management strategy can't be denied. Use these best practices to build a smooth process.

Enterprise patch management requires the right balance of preparation, speed and agility. Without the proper processes and tools at the ready, patch updates can quickly fall behind. And failing to stay on top of patching can result in unnecessary exposure to security breaches or inoperable systems, applications and services.

These days, there are more endpoints than ever to keep an eye on, from applications and servers to infrastructure and IoT devices, and data breaches can lead to theft or loss of sensitive information. Additionally, if those systems are left exposed, the chances of service disruptions escalate significantly, and the business might not be able to properly serve its customer base.

Simply relying on network and perimeter-based security such as firewalls, intrusion prevention systems (IPS) and other cybersecurity tools is no longer sufficient. Zero-day exploits crop up regularly, and the ability of perimeter-based tools to protect newly identified security vulnerabilities is waning by the day. Thus, these types of vulnerabilities are best handled directly by patching software and firmware.

While patch management isn't known to be the most fun or interesting responsibility of IT administrators, if done right, the results can prove invaluable. Learning enterprise patch management best practices is well worth the time and effort.

Here are seven tips to ensure your patch management process flows smoothly and with fewer unforeseen hazards.

1. Always know what you're responsible for patching

Identify targets and where they're located. The endpoints, servers, apps and services your IT department is responsible for patching are in constant flux. They may reside on premises, in the cloud or on the internet. Those responsible for creating an organizationwide patch strategy must always be aware of changes. While it may be possible to manually track IT resources, most find it beneficial to use various device, network and application monitoring tools for continuous monitoring and inventorying. Patch management inventory and scanning tools can also detect and track devices that are missing critical updates, ensuring nothing falls through the cracks.

2. Categorize systems into groups based on criticality

Not all applications, systems and platforms are equal from a patch management perspective. Critical network and server infrastructure, for example, is likely to cause far more damage if a vulnerability is exploited than non-mission-critical applications and services. As such, organizations should carefully evaluate and categorize systems by criticality and patch the most critical ones before all others.

3. Create standard and emergency patching procedures

An enterprise patching strategy should consist of two procedures: standard and emergency. Standard patching procedures detail what happens during normal, regularly scheduled patching. This includes specific calendar dates and maintenance windows when various infrastructure components will receive patching updates. The standard schedule is useful because it creates a timetable for administrators to work from so that patching doesn't fall behind. Also, the scheduling is great for informing department managers and end users well in advance when a work-affecting maintenance window will occur.

Emergency patch procedures are for when a patch, usually a security patch, must be installed outside the standard patching window. Use emergency patching windows as sparingly as possible, and take great care determining the thresholds that have to be met for a window to be approved. Emergency processes must also include the communications steps and channels for properly notifying affected departments, end users and customers.

4. Understand each vendor's patch release schedule

The number and types of operating systems, applications and end device firmware vary widely from one organization to the next. So, too, will vendor patch announcements and release schedules. For example, Microsoft uses a monthly patch schedule -- known as Patch Tuesday -- to release its software patches. Other vendors have their own schedules. IT admins must understand when regularly scheduled patches are released, as well as each vendor's process for notifying them about emergency patches.

Once a patch is released, you can't simply apply it and assume it will work without side effects.

5. Design and maintain a realistic patch testing environment

Once a patch is released, you can't simply apply it and assume it will work without side effects. It's inevitable that some patches will break a feature, process or other interaction that your business depends on. The purpose of a software patch testing environment is to see what impact a patch has in an environment that closely matches your production environment. Designing and maintaining the environment, however, is easier said than done. The key is to make sure the test environment is updated right along with production. Any architecture changes made to production that could be affected by software patches must be mimicked in the test environment. Fortunately, server virtualization has made it much easier and cheaper to create a test environment that closely matches the production environment.

Administrators need ample time to test newly released patches before rolling them out to production. Patch management timelines can fall off the rails when a patch breaks something in production and has to be rolled back. Allocate appropriate amounts of time to properly test patches for adverse effects before putting them into your live environment.

6. Use the right tools for automating patch management

Manually managing software and firmware patch installation across a wide range of enterprise servers, appliances and clouds can quickly become overwhelming without the right tools and processes in place. Because of the sheer number of different devices and software that must be kept up to date with the latest code, automated patch management tools are often used. These tools, which are becoming increasingly sophisticated and useful by the day, can automate repetitive, tedious tasks to shorten the time between a patch's release and its implementation.

7. Review the patch process and results

Once a patch has been successfully applied, it's important to look back to see where improvements in the patching process can be made. Patching processes and procedures should always be evolving toward greater efficiency.

The most common method to stay on top of patch management results is to use the patch management tool's reporting feature, which records the results of each update in an automatically generated report. Details in a report can include the following:

  • an inventory and count of the devices and applications detected on the corporate network;
  • number of installed patches;
  • number of missing patches;
  • names of systems that remain vulnerable, and to what extent;
  • patches that have been approved and scheduled; and
  • patches waiting to be approved.

Using this information, IT managers can track the performance of existing procedures and make adjustments to remove bottlenecks or improve turnaround times.

Speed matters more than ever

Given the numerous threats that exist today, combined with the average enterprise's ever-increasing reliance on technology to conduct business, the risk of failing to rapidly identify, patch and monitor the results of performance and security updates is growing by the day. Therefore, great care and consideration should be taken to implement patch management strategies that will help keep systems performing safe and optimally now and long into the future.

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