Fast Guide to acronyms used in manufacturing

The following glossary or acronyms are those most used in internal communications within the manufacturing industry.

7W: seven wastes

ABB: activity-based budgeting

ABC: activity-based costing

ABM: activity-based management

ABVS: automated best value system

ACV: all commodity volume

ADC: automated data collection

ADE: automated data entry

ADP: automatic data processing

AIAG: Automotive Industry Action Group 

AIDC: automatic identification and data capture

AIM: application integration middleware

AIMS: agile infrastructure for manufactured systems

AMT: advanced manufacturing technology

AMT: Association for Manufacturing Technology

AOI: automated optical inspection

AP: accounts payable

APICS: American Production and Inventory Control Society

APO: advanced planner and optimizer

APQP: advanced product quality planning

APS: advanced planning and scheduling

APS: advanced planning systems

APQP: advanced product quality planning 

AR: accounts receivable

ASN: advanced shipping notice

ASQ: American Society for Quality

ASRS: automated storage retrieval systems

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

ATE: automated test equipment

ATR: automated trouble reporting

ATO: assemble to order

ATP: advanced technology program

ATP: available to promise

AXI: automated X-ray inspection

AVL: approved vendor list

BAM: bottleneck allocation methodology

BIC: best in class

BIST: built-in self-test

BMP: best manufacturing practices

BOH: balance on hand

BOM: bill of materials

BPEL: business process execution language

BPMN: Business Process Modeling Notation

BPR: business process reengineering

BTF: build to forecast

BTO: build to order

BTS: build to stock

B2B: business-to-business

B2C: business-to-consumer

CAD: computer-aided design

CAE: computer-aided engineering

CAFE: corporate average fuel economy

CAGR: compound annual growth rate

CAIV: cost as (an) independent variable

CALS: continuous acquisition and lifecycle support

CALS: commerce at light speed

CAM: computer-aided manufacturing

CAM: customer asset management

CAM-I: Consortium for Advanced Manufacturing -- International

CAMU: computerized assembly mock-up

CAPA: corrective and preventive actions

CAPOSS: capacity and operation sequence scheduling

CASA: computer and automated systems association

CASE: computer-aided system engineering

CBSA: component-based solution assembly

CBT: computer-based training

CCB: change control board

CCM: color changing material

CCR: central contractor registration

CEMS: Contract Electronic Manufacturing Services

CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Litigation Act

CFAR: collaboration forecasting and replenishment

CFD: computational fluid dynamics

CFI: custom factory integration

CFM: continuous flow manufacturing

CG: consumer goods

CGMP: current good manufacturing practices

CI: continuous improvement

CIDM: customer-integrated decision-making

CIPE: compressed integrated product engineering

CLASS: capacity loading and operation sequence scheduling

CLM: Council for Logistics Management

CM: change management

CM: configuration management

CM: contract manufacturer

CMM: capability maturity model 

CMRP: capacitated material requirements planning

CNC: computer numerical control

COA: continuous ordering agreement

COB: chip on board

CAFC: container on flatcar

COB: close of business

COGS: cost of goods sold

COO: cost of ownership

COS: class of service

COTS: commercial off the shelf

CP: cost performance

CPIM: Certified in Production and Inventory Management

CPM: Certified Purchasing Manager

CPPS: cost performance products sector

CQA: Certified Quality Auditor

CQE: Certified Quality Engineer

CRC: cyclic redundancy check

CRM: customer relationship management

CRP: capacity requirements

CRP: continuous replenishment program

CRT: current reality tree

CSBB: Client Side Browser Based

CSI: customer satisfaction index

CSP: commerce service provider

CTE: Committee on Trade and the Environment

CTG: Council for Trade in Goods

CTO: configure to order

CTP: capability to promise

DAMA: design anywhere manufacture anywhere

DAQ: data acquisition

DBMS: database management system

DC: distribution center

DCS: distributed control system

DDE: dynamic data exchange

DEM: dynamic enterprise modeling

DES: distributed execution system

DFA: design for assembly

DFAA: design for automated assembly

DFB: distributed feedback

DFD: design for disassembly

DFE: design for environment

DFL: demand flow leadership

DFM: demand flow management

DFM: demand flow manufacturing

DFM: design for manufacturability

DFS: distributed factory system

DFSC: design for supply chain

DFT: demand flow technology

DMD: direct metal deposition

DMI: digital migration interface

DNC: direct numerical control

DOC: Department of Commerce

DOD: Department of Defense

DOE: Department Of Energy

DOE: design of experiments

DOL: Department of Labor

DOLAP: desktop online analytical processing

DP: design postponement

DRC: design rule checking

DRP: distribution requirements planning

DSB: dispute settlement body

DSC: digital still camera

DSO: days sales outstanding

DSOM: distributed system object model

DSP: digital signal processor

DSRP: demand solutions requirements planning

DSS: decision support system

DTP: distributed transaction processing

DUT: device under test

DVD: digital video disk

DW: data warehousing

EAI: external application interface

EBR: electronic batch record

EBXML: electronic business XML

EC: electronic commerce

EC: engineering change

ECC: error correction code

ECM: engineering change management

ECN: electronic change notice

ECO: engineering (or electronic) change order

ECR: efficient consumer response

ECR: engineering change request

ECRC: electronic commerce resource center

EDA: electronic document access

EDA: electronic design automation

EDA: engineering design aids

EDGAR: electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval

EDI: electronic data interchange

EDIFACT: electronic data interchange for administration, commerce and transport

EDM: electronic discharge machine

EDM: electronic data management

EDMS: engineering document management systems

EEOC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

EES: engineering execution systems

EFI: electronic freight invoice

EFT: electronic funds transfer

EIC: earned income credit

EIS: executive information system

EISA: industry standard architecture

ELV: end of life vehicle

EMAS: eco-management and audit scheme

EMI: early manufacturing involvement

EMS: effective management systems

EMS: enhanced messaging service

EMS: environmental management system

EMS: electronic manufacturing services

E&O: excess and obsolete

EOQ: economic order quantity

ERA: electronic remittance advice

ERC: Engineering Research Center

ERP: enterprise resource planning 

ERS: evaluated receipt settlement

ESE: environmentally sustainable electronics

ETM: enterprise transportation management

ETO: engineer to order

ETP: enterprise transportation planning

EV: electric vehicle

EVA: economic value added

EVM: earned value management

EZ/EC: Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Community

FA: flexible automation

FAS: final assembly schedule

FASAB: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board

FBE: framework-based environment

FCA: flip chip assembly

FCP: finite capacity planning

FCS: finite capacity scheduling

FDI: foreign direct investment

FEM: finite elements method

FIFO: first in, first out

FIP: factory information protocol

FIS: factory information system

FLSA: Fair Labor Standards Act

FMEA: failure mode and effective analysis

FMS: flexible manufacturing system

FP: finite planning

FPDS: federal procurement data system

FPI: federal prison industries

FPT: fine pitch technology

FRA: Federal Railroad Administration

FROG: free roaming on grid

FRT: future reality tree

FRU: field replaceable units

FSAN: full services access network

FTA: Federal Transit Authority

GAAP: generally accepted accounting principles

GAO: General Accounting Office

GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GATS: General Agreement on Trade in Services

GDP: gross domestic product

GEM: generic equipment model

GMP: good manufacturing practices

GMROI: gross margin return on investment

HASA: highly accelerated stress audit

HH: hand held

HMD: head mounted display

HMI: human machine interface

HP: high performance

HPC: high performance computing

HPPS: high performance product sector

HPV: high production volume

HR: human resources

HRM: human resource management

HSM: hierarchical storage management

HUD: heads up display

HMI: Human machine interface

IDIS: integrated disbursement and information system

IG: inspector general

IIoT: industrial internet of things

IMCS: inventory management and control system

IMT: international mobile telephone

IMTI: Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative

IMS: intelligent manufacturing systems

I/O: input output

IPC: Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits

IPPD: integrated product and process development

IPR: intellectual property rights

IPS: in-plane switching

IPT: integrated product team

IRI: Industrial Research Institute

IRM: integrated resource management

IS: information system

ISO: International Standards Organization

ISV: independent software vendor

ITA: information technology agreement

ITAC: International Telework Association and Council

ITS: intelligent transportation system

ITSS: information technology solutions shop

ITU: International Technical Union

JIT: just in time

KBE: knowledge-based engineering

KGD: known good die

KPI: key performance indicator

LC: low cost

LCA: lifecycle assessment

LCC: leadless chip carrier

LCCA: lifecycle cost analysis

LCL: less than container load

LCPC: lifecycle product cost

LMDS: local multi-point distribution system

LNA: local noise amplifier

LP: lean production

LSI: large scale integration

LTL: less than truckload

LVS: layout verification systems

MADE: manufacturing automation and design exploration

MC: mass customization

MCS: manufacturing control system

MEMS: micro-electromechanical systems

MEP: manufacturing extension partnership

MES: manufacturing execution system

MESA: Manufacturing Execution System Association

MOU: memorandum of understanding

MPM: manufacturing process management

MPS: master production schedule

MRP: manufacturing resource planning

MRP: material requirements planning

M&S: modeling and simulation

MSDS: material safety data sheet

MTO: make to order

MTS: make to stock

MTTR: mean time to restore

MV: machine vision

NCMS: National Center for Manufacturing Sciences

NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology

NMTA: National Machining and Tooling Association

NPI: new product introduction

NRLA: National Labor Relations Board

NTR: normal rrade relations

OASIS: Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards

OCC: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency

ODM: original design manufacturer

ODM: original device manufacturer

ODS: ozone depleting substance

OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OEE: original equipment effectiveness

OEE: overall equipment effectiveness

OEM: original equipment manufacturer

OFPP: Office of Federal Procurement Policy

OLTP: online transaction processing

OMB: Office of Management and Budget

OOP: out of production

OPC: OLE for process control

OPT: optimized production technology

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OTC: on-time delivery to commit date

OTCR: on-time delivery performance to customer request date

PA: power amplifier

PAC: production activity control

PBT: persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic

PDM: product data management

PDP: product development process

PI: principal investigator

PID: problem identification document

PIM: product information management

PIP: partner integration process

PLM: product lifecycle management

POM: production/operations management

POS: point of sale

PPAP: production part approval process

PP&E: property, plant & equipment

PR: process reengineering

PRO-Net: Procurement Marketing and Access Network

PRT: prerequisite tree

PTAC: Procurement Technical Assistance Center

PTO: Patent and Trademark Office

QA: quality assurance

QB: quality breakdown

QC: quality control

QFP: quad flat package

QRM: quick response manufacturing

RAP: revenue acquisition process

RCA: root cause analysis 

R&D: research and development

RDF: resource description framework

RDT&E: research, development, testing and evaluation

RMA: return material (or merchandise) authorization

ROI: return on investment

ROIC: return on invested capital

RONA: return on net assets

ROP: reorder point

RPM: rapid response manufacturing

RSC: retail service center

RTD: research and technical development

RTM: read the manual

SCC: Supply Chain Council

SCM: supply chain management

SCOR: supply chain operations reference

SCR: synchronized customer response

SDWT: self-directed work teams

SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission

SFA: sales force automation

SG&A: selling, general and administrative expenses

SIG: special interest group

SIV: signal integrity verification

SKU: stock keeping units

SLICE: simple low-cost innovative engine

SM: smart manufacturing

SMART: self-monitoring analysis and reporting technology

SME: Society of Manufacturing Engineers

S&OP: sales and operations

SOP: standard operating procedure

SOP: system on a package

SOW: statement of work

SPC: statistical process control

SPM: standard process modules

SPS: standard procurement system

SRM: standard reference material

STARS: standard accounting and reporting system

STEP: standard for the exchange of product model data

SWIFT: simulated work input and flow time

SWOT: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

TACT: total average cycle time

TCM: time critical manufacturing

TCM: transportation control measures

TDC: total delivered cost

TDM: team data manager

TEWE: technology for enterprise-wide engineering

TIG: Technology Implementation Group

TIM: test inspection measurement

TLA: three-letter acronym

T&M: tools and methodology

TOPS: team-oriented problem solving

TPA: technology and product assurance

TPI: total profit improvement

TPM: total productive maintenance

TPOP: time-phased order point

TQC: total quality control

TQM: total quality management

T/R: transmit/receive

TRI: toxic release inventory

TRT: transition tree

TSCA: Toxic Substances Control Act

TVA: throughput value added

TW: tin whiskers

TWG: Technology Working Group

UC: unit cost

USITC: United States International Trade Commission

VAD: value-added distribution

VAR: value-added reseller

VE: value engineering

VFIIP: Virtual Factory Information Interchange Project

VMI: vendor managed inventory

VPDM: virtual product data management

VPM: virtual product model

VRML: virtual reality modeling language

WARN: Workers' Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act

WBS: work breakdown structure

WCM: world-class manufacturing

WIMP: woefully inept manufacturing process

WIP: work in progress

WMS: warehouse management system

WTO: World Trade Organization

See also: process manufacturing, digital manufacturing, repetitive manufacturing, virtual manufacturing, hybrid manufacturing, right to repair and Six Sigma.

This was last updated in March 2022

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