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Internet technologies

This WhatIs.com glossary contains terms related to Internet technologies, including definitions about port numbers, standards and protocols and words and phrases about how the Internet works.

STR - XSL

  • Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) - Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a connection-oriented network protocol for transmitting multiple streams of data simultaneously between two endpoints that have established a connection in a network.
  • stress testing - Stress testing is the process of determining the ability of a computer, network, program or device to maintain a certain level of effectiveness under unfavorable conditions.
  • style sheet - A term extended from print publishing to online media, a style sheet is a definition of a document's appearance in terms of such elements as: The default typeface, size, and color for headings and body text How front matter (preface, figure list, title page, and so forth) should look How all or individual sections should be laid out in terms of space (for example, two newspaper columns, one column with headings having hanging heads, and so forth).
  • subscription economy - A subscription economy is a model for trade of desired content, products and services in exchange for recurring, scheduled payments.
  • Sugar - Sugar is a graphical user interface GUI developed for the $100 laptop (XO).
  • Sun Microsystems - Sun Microsystems (often just called "Sun"), the leading company in computers used as Web servers, also makes servers designed for use as engineering workstations, data storage products, and related software.
  • supercomputer - A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the highest operational rate for computers.
  • SYN flood attack - A SYN flood attack is a type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a computer server.
  • T-carrier system - To see the relationship between T-carrier, E-carrier, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • T1 (T-1) - Also see the T-carrier system, of which the T1 is a part.
  • TCP Wrapper - TCP Wrapper is a public domain computer program that provides firewall services for UNIX servers.
  • TCP/IP - TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the internet.
  • third-party cookie - A third-party cookie is a cookie that is placed on a user's hard disk by a website from a domain other than the one a user is visiting.
  • three-phase commit (3PC) - Three-phase commit (3PC) is a protocol that consists of a distributed algorithm used to ensure all transactions in a system are agreed upon and are committed to.
  • time-to-live (TTL) - Time-to-live (TTL) is a value for the period of time that a packet, or data, should exist on a computer or network before being discarded.
  • timeline - A timeline is the presentation of a chronological sequence of events along a drawn line that enables a viewer to understand temporal relationships quickly.
  • tl;dr (TL;DR) - TL;DR is an abbreviation for "too long; didn't read" that is used to indicate that the person posting about an article either didn't read it in its entirety or didn't read it at all.
  • Tomcat - Tomcat is an application server from the Apache Software Foundation that executes Java servlets and renders Web pages that include Java Server Page coding.
  • Top 10 spyware threats - The top 10 spyware list describes the 10 common spyware threats behind famous spyware attacks and is frequently identified by Webroot's Spy Audit, a free spyware scanner tool.
  • Top searches of 2008 - What were people searching the WhatIs.
  • touch screen - A touch screen is a computer display screen that is also an input device.
  • traceroute - Traceroute is a utility that records the route (the specific gateway computers at each hop) through the Internet between your computer and a specified destination computer.
  • tree network - In telecommunication networks, a tree network is a combination of two or more star networks connected together.
  • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) - Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is an Internet software utility for transferring files that is simpler to use than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) but less capable.
  • Tumblr - Tumblr is a free microblogging site.
  • TV operating system - A TV operating system (TV OS) is the bootable software in smart TVs and set top boxes that allows a user to control and access to a smart TV’s advanced features and connected devices through a graphical user interface (GUI).
  • Twitch - Twitch (Twitch.
  • UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) - UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) is an XML-based registry for businesses worldwide to list themselves on the Internet.
  • ultra-mobile personal computer (UMPC or Ultra-mobile PC) - Ultra-mobile PC (UMPC) is a design specification for a hand-held computer that is larger than a PDA but smaller than a laptop.
  • ultrabook - An ultrabook is a category of thin and light laptop computers designed to bridge the market gap between tablets and premium notebook PCs.
  • unified endpoint management (UEM) - Unified endpoint management (UEM) is an approach to securing and controlling desktop computers, laptops, smartphones and tablets in a connected, cohesive manner from a single console.
  • Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) - Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, or UEFI, specifies how a software program connects a computer's firmware to its operating system and attached computing hardware.
  • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) - A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a character sequence that identifies a logical (abstract) or physical resource -- usually, but not always, connected to the internet.
  • unique user - In Web marketing, a unique user is, for a specified period of time such as a day or month, an individual that has visited a Web site or received specific content, such as ads, e-mail, or newsletters.
  • Universal Naming Convention (UNC) - In a network, the Universal Naming Convention (UNC) is a way to identify a shared file in a computer without having to specify (or know) the storage device it is on.
  • uploading - Uploading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, usually larger computer system.
  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a unique identifier used to locate a resource on the Internet.
  • URL-minder - URL-minder is an agent or robot program (bot) that notifies you when a particular Web page has changed.
  • URN (Uniform Resource Name) - A URN (Uniform Resource Name) is an Internet resource with a name that, unlike a URL, has persistent significance - that is, the owner of the URN can expect that someone else (or a program) will always be able to find the resource.
  • usability - Also see human-computer interaction and graphical user interface.
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) - User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a communications protocol that is primarily used to establish low-latency and loss-tolerating connections between applications on the internet.
  • User Principal Name (UPN) - In the Windows operating system's Active Directory, a User Principal Name (UPN) is the name of a system user in an e-mail address format.
  • user session (visit) - In tabulating statistics for Web site usage, a user session (sometime referred to as a visit) is the presence of a user with a specific IP address who has not visited the site recently (typically, anytime within the past 30 minutes).
  • Ustream - Ustream is an online video service provider that enables anybody with a camera and Internet connection to conduct a live interactive video broadcast to a global audience from anywhere in the world.
  • UTF-16 (16- bit Unicode Transformation Format) - UTF-16 (16- bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a standard method of encoding Unicode character data.
  • UUID (Universal Unique Identifier) - A UUID (Universal Unique Identifier) is a 128-bit value used to uniquely identify an object or entity on the internet.
  • vanity URL (vanity uniform resource locator) - A vanity uniform resource locator is a truncated URL that extends an organization's brand.
  • vector graphics - Vector graphics are computer images created through a sequence of commands or mathematical statements that place lines and shapes in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional space.
  • vertical search engine - A vertical search engine is a search engine that is dedicated to a particular area of focus.
  • video resume - A video resume is a brief account of a job applicant's professional experience, qualifications and interests, submitted to a prospective employer in video form.
  • Vimeo - Vimeo is a U.
  • Vint Cerf (Vinton Gray Cerf) - Vint Cerf (Vinton Gray Cerf) is an American computer scientist best known as an Internet pioneer.
  • virtual classroom - A virtual classroom is an online learning environment.
  • virtual embodiment - Virtual embodiment is the perception of sensory feedback related to an individual’s virtual, non- physical body (also known as an avatar) and the effect it has on the individual’s cognition.
  • virtual hosting - On the Internet, virtual hosting is the provision of Web server hosting services so that a company (or individual) doesn't have to purchase and maintain its own Web server and connections to the Internet.
  • virtual meeting room - A virtual meeting room is a cloud-based collaboration space that allows people in disparate geographical locations to meet in real time.
  • Visual Studio .NET - Visual Studio .
  • voice SEO - Voice SEO is the optimization of keywords and keyword phrases for searches through voice assistants.
  • VoIP phone - A VoIP phone is a hardware- or software-based telephone designed to use voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology to send and receive phone calls over an IP network.
  • VoIP trunk gateway - A VoIP trunk gateway is an interface that facilitates the use of plain old telephone service (POTS) equipment, such as conventional phone sets and fax machines, with a voice over IP (VoIP) network.
  • von Neumann bottleneck - The von Neumann bottleneck is a limitation on throughput caused by the standard personal computer architecture.
  • WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) - WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) is an Internet system in which specialized subject databases are created at multiple server locations, kept track of by a directory of servers at one location, and made accessible for searching by users with WAIS client programs.
  • wallet - A wallet is a small software program used for online purchase transactions.
  • WAN (wide area network) - A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically distributed telecommunications network that interconnects multiple local area networks (LANs).
  • Web 2.0 - Web 2.0 are websites and applications that make use of user-generated content for end-users.
  • web analytics - Web analytics is the process of analyzing the behavior of visitors to a website.
  • Web presence - A Web presence (or Web site) is a collection of Web files on a particular subject that includes a beginning file called a home page.
  • Web Proxy Autodiscovery (WPAD) - Web Proxy Autodiscovery (WPAD) is a proposed Internet protocol that allows a client, such as a Web browser or a streaming media application, to automatically locate and interface with cache services in a network so that information can be delivered more quickly to the user.
  • web server - A web server is software and hardware that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and other protocols to respond to client requests made over the World Wide Web.
  • web services - Web services are a type of internet software that use standardized messaging protocols and are made available from an application service provider's web server for use by a client or other web-based programs.
  • Web site - This definition is also listed under presence, site and Website.
  • Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) - Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) is a set of industry standards that an enterprise can use to manage its information operations in the distributed computing environment of the Internet.
  • webOS - WebOS is an LG-owned, Linux based, smart TV operating system that is set up to allow control and access of LG Smart TV’s more advanced features and connected devices through a graphical user interface (GUI).
  • WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communications) - WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communications) is an open source project that enables real-time voice, text and video communications capabilities between web browsers and devices.
  • Weebly - Weebly is a freemium website creation and Web-hosting service.
  • weighted fair queueing (WFQ) - Weighted fair queueing (WFQ) is a method of automatically smoothing out the flow of data in packet-switched communication networks by sorting packets to minimize the average latency and prevent exaggerated discrepancies between the transmission efficiency afforded to narrowband versus broadband signals.
  • What is a Server? - A server is a computer program or device that provides a service to another computer program and its user, also known as the client.
  • What is hybrid cloud? Everything you need to know - A hybrid cloud is a cloud computing environment that uses a mix of on-premises, private cloud and third-party, public cloud services with orchestration between these platforms.
  • white hat link building - White hat link building strives to drive traffic to a website through search engine optimization techniques, such as relevant linking to other, relevant content that enhances users' experience, generation of quality content and more.
  • white hat SEO - White hat SEO is the body of approved search engine optimization tactics designed to increase a website's position on a search engine results page (SERP).
  • whitelist (allowlist) - A whitelist (allowlist) is a cybersecurity strategy that approves a list of email addresses, IP addresses, domain names or applications, while denying all others.
  • wiki - A wiki (sometimes spelled "Wiki") is a server program that allows users to collaborate in forming the content of a Web site.
  • Windows 3.0 - Windows 3.0 was the 3rd version of Microsoft’s GUI-based operating system, released in 1990.
  • Windows 3.1 - Windows 3.1 was the 4th version of Microsoft’s GUI-based operating system, released in 1993.
  • Windows 95 - Windows 95 was the 5th version of Microsoft’s GUI operating system, released in 1995.
  • Windows Imaging Format (WIM) - The Windows Imaging Format (or WIM) is used for the creation and distribution of disk image files.
  • Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) - Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of specifications from Microsoft for consolidating the management of devices and applications in a network from Windows computing systems.
  • Winsock - Winsock is a programming interface and the supporting program that handles input/output requests for Internet applications in a Windows operating system.
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) - Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol, specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.
  • wireless broadband (WiBB) - Wireless broadband (WiBB) is high-speed internet and data service delivered through a wireless local area network (WLAN) or wireless wide area network (WWAN).
  • Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) - Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) is a security level for the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), specifically for the applications that use WAP.
  • WordPress - WordPress is free, open source publishing software that can be installed locally on a web server and viewed on a proprietary web site or hosted in the cloud and viewed on the WordPress web site.
  • workaround - A workaround is a method, sometimes used temporarily, for achieving a task or goal when the usual or planned method isn't working.
  • World Wide Web (WWW) - The World Wide Web -- also known as the web, WWW or W3 -- refers to all the public websites or pages that users can access on their local computers and other devices through the internet.
  • WSTx (Web Services Transactions) - WSTx (Web Services Transaction) is a set of XML markup specifications designed to permit the use of open, standard protocols for secure, reliable transactions across the Web.
  • XACML (Extensible Access Control Markup Language) - XACML (Extensible Access Control Markup Language) is an attribute-based access control policy language (ABAC) or XML-based language, designed to express security policies and access requests to information.
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language) - XML (Extensible Markup Language) is used to describe data.
  • XML Schema Definition (XSD) - XML Schema Definition or XSD is a recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to describe and validate the structure and content of an XML document.
  • XQuery - XQuery is a specification for a query language that allows a user or programmer to extract information from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) file or any collection of data that can be XML-like.
  • XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) - XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language), formerly called Extensible Style Language, is a language for creating a style sheet that describes how data sent over the Web using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) is to be presented to the user.
SearchNetworking
  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

  • overlay network

    An overlay network is a virtual or logical network that is created on top of an existing physical network.

SearchSecurity
  • X.509 certificate

    An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public key infrastructure (PKI) ...

  • directory traversal

    Directory traversal is a type of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a web server to access data in a directory ...

  • malware

    Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is intentionally harmful to a computer, network or server.

SearchCIO
  • data latency

    Data latency is the time it takes for data packets to be stored or retrieved. In business intelligence (BI), data latency is how ...

  • chief data officer (CDO)

    A chief data officer (CDO) in many organizations is a C-level executive whose position has evolved into a range of strategic data...

  • information technology (IT) director

    An information technology (IT) director is the person in charge of technology within an organization. IT directors manage ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

  • customer intelligence (CI)

    Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources ...

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