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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

10 - EAS

  • 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) - 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) is a telecommunication technology that offers data speeds up to 10 billion bits per second.
  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) - 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) is an Ethernet standard that supports data speeds of up to 100 billion bits (gigabits) per second (Gbps).
  • 10BASE-T - 10BASE-T is an Ethernet standard for local area networks and one of several physical media specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) - The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaborative project between a group of telecommunications associations with the initial goal of developing globally applicable specifications for third-generation (3G) mobile systems.
  • 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) - 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) is a standard that enables the transfer of Ethernet frames at speeds of up to 40 gigabits per second (Gbps).
  • 5G New Radio (NR) - 5G New Radio (NR) is a set of standards that replace the LTE network 4G wireless communications standard.
  • access layer - The access layer is where host computers and end users connect to the network.
  • access network - An access network is a user network that connects subscribers to a particular service provider and, through the carrier network, to other networks such as the Internet.
  • Access Network Query Protocol (ANQP) - The Access Network Query Protocol (ANQP) is a query and response protocol that defines services offered by an access point (AP), typically at a Wi-Fi hot spot.
  • ACK - In some digital communication protocols, ACK is the name of a signal that data has been received successfully (for example, with an acceptable number of errors).
  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology that facilitates fast data transmission at a high bandwidth on existing copper wire telephone lines to homes and businesses.
  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) - Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open source published standard for asynchronous messaging by wire.
  • airplane mode - Airplane mode is a setting on cell phones, smartphones and other mobile communication devices that prevents the device from sending or receiving calls and text messages.
  • alternate data stream (ADS) - An alternate data stream (ADS) is a feature of Windows New Technology File System (NTFS) that contains metadata for locating a specific file by author or title.
  • analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adaptor (ATA) is a device used to connect a standard telephone to a computer or network so that the user can make calls over the Internet.
  • apogee - When a satellite follows a non-circular orbit around the earth, the satellite's path is an ellipse with the center of the earth at one focus.
  • application layer - The application layer sits at Layer 7, the top of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model.
  • application streaming - Application streaming is an on-demand software delivery model that takes advantage of the fact that most applications require only a small fraction of their total program code to run.
  • ARM server - An advanced RISC machine (ARM) server is an enterprise-class computer server that employs a large array of ARM processors rather than a complement of x86-class processors.
  • auto attendant (automated attendant) - An automated attendant (AA) is a telephony system that transfers incoming calls to various extensions as specified by callers, without the intervention of a human operator.
  • bandwidth (network bandwidth) - Network bandwidth is a measurement indicating the maximum capacity of a wired or wireless communications link to transmit data over a network connection in a given amount of time.
  • base station - In telecommunications, a base station is a fixed transceiver that is the main communication point for one or more wireless mobile client devices.
  • baseband unit (BBU) - A baseband unit (BBU) is a device that interprets baseband frequencies in telecom systems including computer networks, the internet, phone networks and radio broadcasting systems.
  • beamforming - Beamforming is a type of radio frequency (RF) management in which a wireless signal is directed toward a specific receiving device.
  • bit stuffing - Bit stuffing refers to the insertion of one or more bits into a data transmission as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
  • bits per second (bps or bit/sec) - In data communications, bits per second (bps or bit/sec) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
  • Blue Cloud - Blue Cloud is an approach to shared infrastructure developed by IBM.
  • bogon - A bogon is an illegitimate IP address that falls into a set of IP addresses that have not been officially assigned to an entity by an internet registration institute, such as the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA).
  • BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) - BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is an internet protocol that lets a network user automatically be configured to receive an IP address and have an operating system booted without user involvement.
  • bulk data transfer - Bulk data transfer is a software application feature that uses data compression, data blocking and buffering to optimize transfer rates when moving large data files.
  • bus network - A bus network is a local area network (LAN) topology in which each node -- a workstation or other device -- is connected to a main cable or link called a bus.
  • call control - Call control is a process that is used in telecommunications networks to monitor and maintain connections once they have been established.
  • call deflection - Call deflection is a feature of voice over IP (VoIP) that automatically redirects a call from the called endpoint to another endpoint (usually a voice mailbox) when the called endpoint is busy.
  • call detail record (CDR) - A call detail record (CDR) in voice over IP (VoIP) is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each call, the total usage time in the billing period, the total free time remaining in the billing period, and the running total charged during the billing period.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • campus network - A campus network is a proprietary local area network (LAN) or set of interconnected LANs serving a corporation, government agency, university or similar organization.
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • carrier network - A telecommunications carrier network is the collection of devices and underlying infrastructure used to transmit data from one location to another.
  • carrier-to-noise ratio - In communications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written as CNR or C/N, is a measure of the received carrier strength relative to the strength of the received noise.
  • CCNA certification - Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) is a technical certification that Cisco offers for early-career networking professionals.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a challenge and response authentication method that Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) servers use to verify the identity of a remote user.
  • chatting - While the term chatting or chitchat refers in general to communication between two or more parties that can occur in person, in today's modern age, it can also occur over the internet via Short Message Service (SMS) text message and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) or, for example, through tools like Slack and Microsoft Teams and social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol requiring a client or server to wait for an acknowledgment before transmitting data again.
  • checksum - A checksum is a value that represents the number of bits in a transmission message and is used by IT professionals to detect high-level errors within data transmissions.
  • churn rate - Churn rate is a measure of the number of customers or employees who leave a company during a given period.
  • CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) - CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) is a method of assigning IP addresses that improves the efficiency of address distribution and replaces the previous system based on Class A, Class B and Class C networks.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a complete circular path that electricity flows through.
  • Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) - Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) is a series of technical certifications for senior networking professionals who design, build, implement, maintain and troubleshoot complex enterprise networking infrastructures.
  • Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) - Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) is an intermediate-level certification in the Cisco certified professional program.
  • Cisco Webex - Cisco Webex is a video conferencing and collaboration product suite.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • client-server network - A client-server network is a communications model in which multiple client programs share the services of a common server program.
  • Clos network - A Clos network is a type of non-blocking, multistage switching architecture that reduces the number of ports required in an interconnected fabric.
  • cloud computing - Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet.
  • cloud PBX (private branch exchange) - A cloud PBX (private branch exchange) is a business phone system for connecting employees to a telephone network using a managed service running in the cloud.
  • cloud radio access network (C-RAN) - Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is a centralized, cloud computing-based architecture for radio access networks.
  • cloud storage API - A cloud storage API is an application programming interface that connects a locally based application to a cloud-based storage system so that a user can send data to it and access and work with data stored in it.
  • cloud storage gateway - A cloud storage gateway is a hardware- or software-based appliance that serves as a bridge between local applications and remote cloud-based storage.
  • cloud telephony (cloud calling) - Cloud telephony, also known as cloud calling, is a type of unified communications as a service (UCaaS) that offers voice communication services through a third-party host.
  • CNAME - A CNAME specifies an alias or nickname for a canonical name record in a domain name system (DNS) database.
  • codec - A codec is a hardware- or software-based process that compresses and decompresses large amounts of data.
  • common carrier - A common carrier, in telecommunications, is an entity that provides wired and wireless communication services to the general public for a fee.
  • Communications as a Service (CaaS) - Communications as a Service (CaaS) is an outsourced enterprise communications solution that can be leased from a single vendor.
  • communications platform as a service (CPaaS) - Communications platform as a service (CPaaS) is a cloud-based delivery model that allows organizations to add real-time communication capabilities, such as voice, video and messaging, to business applications by deploying application program interfaces (APIs).
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • control plane (CP) - The control plane is the part of a network that carries signaling traffic and is responsible for network routing.
  • converged network adapter (CNA) - A converged network adapter (CNA) is a single network interface device that provides the functionality of both a Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapter (HBA) and a TCP/IP Ethernet network interface card (NIC).
  • Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption protocol based on the U.
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) - CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking -- a method of checking for errors in transmitted data -- that is used on E1 trunk lines.
  • data center interconnect (DCI) - Data center interconnect (DCI) technology links two or more data centers together to share resources.
  • data compression - Data compression is a reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data.
  • data plan (mobile data plan) - Since the advent of the smartphone made mobile Internet possible, most carriers offer data plans at varying rates based on the amount of data transfer allowed before a data cap is imposed.
  • data plane (DP) - The data plane (sometimes known as the user plane, forwarding plane, carrier plane or bearer plane) is the part of a network that carries user traffic.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • dead zone (Wi-Fi dead zone) - A dead zone (Wi-Fi dead zone) is an area within a wireless LAN location where Wi-Fi does not function, typically due to radio interference or range issues.
  • decibels relative to carrier (dBc) - dBc (decibels relative to carrier) is a measure of the strength of an instantaneous signal at radio frequency.
  • dedicated line - A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company).
  • deep packet inspection (DPI) - Deep packet inspection (DPI) is an advanced method of examining and managing network traffic.
  • delay-tolerant network (DTN) - A delay-tolerant network (DTN) is a network that's designed to operate effectively in extreme conditions and over very large distances, such as with space communications.
  • dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical fiber multiplexing technology that is used to increase the bandwidth of existing fiber networks.
  • desktop virtualization - Desktop virtualization is the concept of isolating a logical operating system (OS) instance from the client that is used to access it.
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a network management protocol used to dynamically assign an IP address to any device, or node, on a network so it can communicate using IP.
  • direct inward dialing (DID) - Direct inward dialing (DID) is a method organizations use to route incoming calls to specific private branch exchange (PBX) systems without an operator.
  • DirectAccess - DirectAccess is a feature introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 that uses automated IPv6 and IPSec tunnels to allow remote users to access private network resources whenever they are connected to the Internet.
  • directional antenna - A directional antenna is a radio-frequency (RF) wireless antenna designed to function more effectively in some directions than in others.
  • discrete event simulation (DES) - Discrete event simulation (DES) is the process of codifying the behavior of a complex system as an ordered sequence of well-defined events.
  • disposable email - What is a disposable email?Disposable email is a service that allows a registered user to receive email at a temporary address that expires after a certain time period elapses.
  • DNS redirection - DNS redirection is the controversial practice of serving a Web page to a user that is different from either the one requested or one that might reasonably be expected, such as an error page.
  • domain - Specific to the internet, the term domain can refer to how the internet is structured, and domain also refers to how an organization's network resources are organized.
  • domain name system (DNS) - The domain name system (DNS) is a naming database in which internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
  • downloading - Downloading is the transmission of a file or data from one computer to another over a network, usually from a larger server to a user device.
  • dynamic multipoint VPN (DMVPN) - A dynamic multipoint virtual private network (DMVPN) is a secure network that exchanges data between sites/routers without passing traffic through an organization's virtual private network (VPN) server or router located at its headquarters.
  • dynamic port numbers - Dynamic port numbers, also known as private port numbers, are the port numbers that are available for use by any application to use in communicating with any other application, using the internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
  • east-west traffic - East-west traffic, in a networking context, is the transfer of data packets from server to server within a data center.
Networking
  • Network as a Service (NaaS)

    Network as a service, or NaaS, is a business model for delivering enterprise WAN services virtually on a subscription basis.

  • network configuration management (NCM)

    Network configuration management is the process of organizing and maintaining information about all of the components in a ...

  • presentation layer

    The presentation layer resides at Layer 6 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model and ensures that ...

Security
  • backdoor (computing)

    A backdoor attack is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security ...

  • Heartbleed

    Heartbleed was a vulnerability in some implementations of OpenSSL, an open source cryptographic library.

  • What is risk management and why is it important?

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

CIO
HRSoftware
  • team collaboration

    Team collaboration is a communication and project management approach that emphasizes teamwork, innovative thinking and equal ...

  • employee self-service (ESS)

    Employee self-service (ESS) is a widely used human resources technology that enables employees to perform many job-related ...

  • learning experience platform (LXP)

    A learning experience platform (LXP) is an AI-driven peer learning experience platform delivered using software as a service (...

Customer Experience
  • headless commerce (headless e-commerce)

    Headless commerce, also called headless e-commerce, is a platform architecture that decouples the front end of an e-commerce ...

  • chief customer officer (CCO)

    A chief customer officer, or customer experience officer, is responsible for customer research, communicating with company ...

  • relationship marketing

    Relationship marketing is a facet of customer relationship management (CRM) that focuses on customer loyalty and long-term ...

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