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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

10 - DEE

  • 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) - 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) is a telecommunication technology that offers data speeds up to 10 billion bits per second.
  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) - 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) is an Ethernet standard that supports data speeds of up to 100 billion bits (gigabits) per second (Gbps).
  • 10BASE-T - 10BASE-T is an Ethernet standard for local area networks and one of several physical media specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) - The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaborative project between a group of telecommunications associations with the initial goal of developing globally applicable specifications for third-generation (3G) mobile systems.
  • 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) - 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) is a standard that enables the transfer of Ethernet frames at speeds of up to 40 gigabits per second (Gbps).
  • 5G New Radio (NR) - 5G New Radio (NR) is a set of standards that replace the LTE network 4G wireless communications standard.
  • access - Access is simply being able to get to what you need.
  • access layer - The access layer is where host computers and end users connect to the network.
  • access network - An access network is a user network that connects subscribers to a particular service provider and, through the carrier network, to other networks such as the Internet.
  • Access Network Query Protocol (ANQP) - The Access Network Query Protocol (ANQP) is a query and response protocol that defines services offered by an access point (AP), typically at a Wi-Fi hot spot.
  • ACK - In some digital communication protocols, ACK is the name of a signal that data has been received successfully (for example, with an acceptable number of errors).
  • addressability - Addressability is the capacity for an entity to be targeted and found.
  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology that facilitates fast data transmission at a high bandwidth on existing copper wire telephone lines to homes and businesses.
  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) - Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open source published standard for asynchronous messaging by wire.
  • airplane mode - Airplane mode is a setting on cell phones, smartphones and other mobile communication devices that prevents the device from sending or receiving calls and text messages.
  • alien crosstalk (AXT) - Alien crosstalk (AXT) is electromagnetic noise that can occur in a cable that runs alongside one or more other signal-carrying cables.
  • alternate data stream (ADS) - An alternate data stream (ADS) is a feature of Windows New Technology File System (NTFS) that contains metadata for locating a specific file by author or title.
  • analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adaptor (ATA) is a device used to connect a standard telephone to a computer or network so that the user can make calls over the Internet.
  • apogee - When a satellite follows a non-circular orbit around the earth, the satellite's path is an ellipse with the center of the earth at one focus.
  • application layer - The application layer sits at Layer 7, the top of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model.
  • application streaming - Application streaming is an on-demand software delivery model that takes advantage of the fact that most applications require only a small fraction of their total program code to run.
  • application-aware networking (app-ware networking) - Application-aware networking is the capacity of an intelligent network to maintain current information about applications that connect to it and, as a result, optimize their functioning as well as that of other applications or systems that they control.
  • ARM server - An advanced RISC machine (ARM) server is an enterprise-class computer server that employs a large array of ARM processors rather than a complement of x86-class processors.
  • auto attendant (automated attendant) - An automated attendant (AA) is a telephony system that transfers incoming calls to various extensions as specified by callers, without the intervention of a human operator.
  • automated speech recognition (ASR) - Automated speech recognition (ASR) is a technology that allows users of information systems to speak entries rather than punching numbers on a keypad.
  • azimuth and elevation - Azimuth and elevation are angles used to define the apparent position of an object in the sky, relative to a specific observation point.
  • backhaul - Backhaul, a term probably derived from the trucking industry, has several usages in information technology.
  • bandwidth (network bandwidth) - Network bandwidth is a measurement indicating the maximum capacity of a wired or wireless communications link to transmit data over a network connection in a given amount of time.
  • base station - In telecommunications, a base station is a fixed transceiver that is the main communication point for one or more wireless mobile client devices.
  • baseband unit (BBU) - A baseband unit (BBU) is a device that interprets baseband frequencies in telecom systems including computer networks, the internet, phone networks and radio broadcasting systems.
  • beamforming - Beamforming is a type of radio frequency (RF) management in which a wireless signal is directed toward a specific receiving device.
  • bipolar signaling (bipolar transmission) - Bipolar signaling, also called bipolar transmission, is a baseband method of sending binary data over wire or cable.
  • bit stuffing - Bit stuffing refers to the insertion of one or more bits into a data transmission as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
  • bits per second (bps or bit/sec) - In data communications, bits per second (bps or bit/sec) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
  • Blue Cloud - Blue Cloud is an approach to shared infrastructure developed by IBM.
  • bogon - A bogon is an illegitimate IP address that falls into a set of IP addresses that have not been officially assigned to an entity by an internet registration institute, such as the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA).
  • BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) - BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) is a distributed computing infrastructure based on a centralized server and volunteer computer resources.
  • BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) - BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is an internet protocol that lets a network user automatically be configured to receive an IP address and have an operating system booted without user involvement.
  • bridge tap - A bridge tap is an extraneous length of dangling, unterminated cable on a communications line, usually left over from an earlier configuration, that can cause impedance mismatches and other undesired effects in transmissions.
  • Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) - The Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is an initiative within the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) created to promote the development and adoption of broadband throughout the United States, particularly in unserved and underserved areas.
  • bulk data transfer - Bulk data transfer is a software application feature that uses data compression, data blocking and buffering to optimize transfer rates when moving large data files.
  • bus network - A bus network is a local area network (LAN) topology in which each node -- a workstation or other device -- is connected to a main cable or link called a bus.
  • cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
  • cable modem termination system (CMTS) - A cable modem termination system (CMTS) is a component that exchanges digital signals with cable modems on a cable network.
  • call control - Call control is a process that is used in telecommunications networks to monitor and maintain connections once they have been established.
  • call deflection - Call deflection is a feature of voice over IP (VoIP) that automatically redirects a call from the called endpoint to another endpoint (usually a voice mailbox) when the called endpoint is busy.
  • call detail record (CDR) - A call detail record (CDR) in voice over IP (VoIP) is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each call, the total usage time in the billing period, the total free time remaining in the billing period, and the running total charged during the billing period.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • campus network - A campus network is a proprietary local area network (LAN) or set of interconnected LANs serving a corporation, government agency, university, or similar organization.
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • carrier network - A telecommunications carrier network is the collection of devices and underlying infrastructure used to transmit data from one location to another.
  • carrier-to-noise ratio - In communications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written as CNR or C/N, is a measure of the received carrier strength relative to the strength of the received noise.
  • CCNA certification - Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) is a technical certification that Cisco offers for early-career networking professionals.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a challenge and response authentication method that Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) servers use to verify the identity of a remote user.
  • chatting - While the term chatting or chitchat refers in general to communication between two or more parties that can occur in person, in today's modern age, it can also occur over the internet via Short Message Service (SMS) text message and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) or, for example, through tools like Slack and Microsoft Teams and social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol requiring a client or server to wait for an acknowledgment before transmitting data again.
  • checkpoint - A checkpoint, in a virtualization context, is a snapshot of the state of a virtual machine.
  • Chrome Remote Desktop - Chrome Remote Desktop is an extension of the Google Chrome browser that allows a user to remotely see and control another user's desktop through the browser window.
  • churn rate - Churn rate is a measure of the number of customers or employees who leave a company during a given period.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a complete circular path that electricity flows through.
  • Cisco Borderless Networks - Cisco Borderless Networks is the brand name for a set of hardware and software technologies which allow "anyone, anywhere, anytime, and on any device" to connect to an organization's network.
  • Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) - Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) is a series of technical certifications for senior networking professionals who design, build, implement, maintain and troubleshoot complex enterprise networking infrastructures.
  • Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) - Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) is an intermediate-level certification in the Cisco certified professional program.
  • Cisco Webex - Cisco Webex is a video conferencing and collaboration product suite.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • click-to-talk (CTC) - Click-to-call (CTC), also called click-for-talk, is a technology that converts Web traffic into voice telephone connections using VoIP (Voice over IP).
  • client-server network - A client-server network is a communications model in which multiple client programs share the services of a common server program.
  • Clos network - A Clos network is a type of non-blocking, multistage switching architecture that reduces the number of ports required in an interconnected fabric.
  • cloud computing - Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet.
  • cloud radio access network (C-RAN) - C-RAN, or cloud radio access network, is a centralized, cloud computing-based architecture for radio access networks (RAN) that enables large-scale deployment, collaborative radio technology support and real time virtualization capabilities.
  • cloud storage API - A cloud storage API is an application programming interface that connects a locally based application to a cloud-based storage system so that a user can send data to it and access and work with data stored in it.
  • cloud storage gateway - A cloud storage gateway is a hardware- or software-based appliance that serves as a bridge between local applications and remote cloud-based storage.
  • cloud telephony (cloud calling) - Cloud telephony, also known as cloud calling, is a type of unified communications as a service (UCaaS) that offers voice communication services through a third-party host.
  • CNAME - A CNAME specifies an alias or nickname for a canonical name record in a domain name system (DNS) database.
  • coaxial antenna - A coaxial antenna is a variant of the dipole antenna, designed for use with an unbalanced feed line.
  • codec - A codec is a hardware- or software-based process that compresses and decompresses large amounts of data.
  • common carrier - A common carrier, in telecommunications, is an entity that provides wired and wireless communication services to the general public for a fee.
  • communication portal - A communication portal is a service that allows individuals, businesses, schools and government agencies to share information from diverse sources using unified communications (UC) media.
  • Communications as a Service (CaaS) - Communications as a Service (CaaS) is an outsourced enterprise communications solution that can be leased from a single vendor.
  • communications platform as a service (CPaaS) - Communications platform as a service (CPaaS) is a cloud-based delivery model that allows organizations to add real-time communication capabilities, such as voice, video and messaging, to business applications by deploying application program interfaces (APIs).
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • continuous media - Continuous media is data where there is a timing relationship between source and destination.
  • control plane (CP) - The control plane is the part of a network that carries signaling traffic and is responsible for routing.
  • converged network adapter (CNA) - A converged network adapter (CNA) is a single network interface device that provides the functionality of both a Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapter (HBA) and a TCP/IP Ethernet network interface card (NIC).
  • Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption protocol based on the U.
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) - CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking -- a method of checking for errors in transmitted data -- that is used on E1 trunk lines.
  • CubeSat - A CubeSat is a small, low-cost, cube-shaped research satellite.
  • data compression - Data compression is a reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data.
  • data plan (mobile data plan) - Since the advent of the smartphone made mobile Internet possible, most carriers offer data plans at varying rates based on the amount of data transfer allowed before a data cap is imposed.
  • data plane (DP) - The data plane (sometimes known as the user plane, forwarding plane, carrier plane or bearer plane) is the part of a network that carries user traffic.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • dead zone (Wi-Fi dead zone) - A dead zone (Wi-Fi dead zone) is an area within a wireless LAN location where Wi-Fi does not function, typically due to radio interference or range issues.
  • decibels relative to carrier (dBc) - dBc (decibels relative to carrier) is a measure of the strength of an instantaneous signal at radio frequency.
  • dedicated line - A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company).
  • deep packet inspection (DPI) - Deep packet inspection (DPI) is an advanced method of examining and managing network traffic.
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