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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.
  • 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) - 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) is a telecommunication technology that offers data speeds up to 10 billion bits per second.
  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) - 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) is an Ethernet standard that supports data speeds of up to 100 billion bits (gigabits) per second (Gbps).
  • 10BASE-T - 10BASE-T is an Ethernet standard for local area networks and one of several physical media specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) - The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaborative project between a group of telecommunications associations with the initial goal of developing globally applicable specifications for third-generation (3G) mobile systems.
  • 5G New Radio (NR) - 5G New Radio, or 5G NR, is a set of standards that replace the fourth-generation wireless (4G) LTE network communications standard.
  • 5G standalone (5G SA) - 5G standalone (5G SA) is a cellular infrastructure built specifically for 5G services by implementing 5G standards and protocols in the radio network and controller core.
  • access network - Access networks are the communication networks that connect end-user devices, such as computers, smartphones and tablets, to a wide area network (WAN), such as the internet.
  • ACK (acknowledgement) - In some digital communication protocols, ACK -- short for 'acknowledgement' -- refers to a signal that a device sends to indicate that data has been received successfully.
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol that maps dynamic IP addresses to permanent physical machine addresses in a local area network (LAN).
  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology that facilitates fast data transmission at a high bandwidth on existing copper wire telephone lines to homes and businesses.
  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) - Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open source published standard for asynchronous messaging by wire.
  • airplane mode - Airplane mode is a setting on cell phones, smartphones and other mobile communication devices that prevents the device from sending or receiving calls and text messages.
  • alternate data stream (ADS) - An alternate data stream (ADS) is a feature of Windows New Technology File System (NTFS) that contains metadata for locating a specific file by author or title.
  • analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adapter (ATA) is a device used to connect an analog telephone, fax machine or similar equipment to a computer or network to enable communications over the internet.
  • apogee - When a satellite follows a non-circular orbit around the earth, the satellite's path is an ellipse with the center of the earth at one focus.
  • application delivery controller (ADC) - An application delivery controller (ADC) is a network component that manages and optimizes how client machines connect to web and enterprise application servers.
  • application layer - The application layer sits at Layer 7, the top of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model.
  • application streaming - Application streaming is an on-demand software delivery model that takes advantage of the fact that most applications require only a small fraction of their total program code to run.
  • auto attendant (automated attendant) - An automated attendant (AA) is a telephony system that transfers incoming calls to various extensions as specified by callers, without the intervention of a human operator.
  • AWS Network Load Balancer (NLB) - AWS Network Load Balancer (NLB) is an Amazon Web Services tool that distributes high-performance traffic across multiple cloud instances and provides automatic scaling of resources to ensure low latency and high throughput for applications.
  • bandwidth (network bandwidth) - Network bandwidth is a measurement indicating the maximum capacity of a wired or wireless communications link to transmit data over a network connection in a given amount of time.
  • base station - In telecommunications, a base station is a fixed transceiver that is the main communication point for one or more wireless mobile client devices.
  • baseband - Baseband in the transmission of communications signals means only one path is available to send and receive digital signals between devices.
  • baseband unit (BBU) - A baseband unit (BBU) is a device that interprets baseband frequencies in telecom systems including computer networks, the internet, phone networks and radio broadcasting systems.
  • beamforming - Beamforming is a type of radio frequency (RF) management in which a wireless signal is directed toward a specific receiving device.
  • bit stuffing - Bit stuffing refers to the insertion of one or more bits into a data transmission as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
  • bits per second (bps or bit/sec) - In data communications, bits per second (bps or bit/sec) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
  • bogon - A bogon is an illegitimate Internet Protocol address that falls into a set of IP addresses that have not been officially assigned to an entity by an internet registration institute, such as the IANA.
  • BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) - BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is an internet protocol that lets a network user automatically be configured to receive an IP address and have an operating system booted without user involvement.
  • bring your own carrier (BYOC) - Bring your own carrier (BYOC) is a method of letting businesses choose their own carrier to connect their unified communications provider to the public switched telephone network.
  • broadband - Broadband refers to telecommunications in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information.
  • bulk data transfer - Bulk data transfer is a software application feature that uses data compression, data blocking and buffering to optimize transfer rates when moving large data files.
  • bus network - A bus network is a local area network (LAN) topology in which each node -- a workstation or other device -- is connected to a main cable or link called a bus.
  • call control - Call control is a process that is used in telecommunications networks to monitor and maintain connections once they have been established.
  • call deflection - Call deflection is a feature of voice over IP (VoIP) that automatically redirects a call from the called endpoint to another endpoint (usually a voice mailbox) when the called endpoint is busy.
  • call detail record (CDR) - A call detail record (CDR) in voice over IP (VoIP) is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each call, the total usage time in the billing period, the total free time remaining in the billing period, and the running total charged during the billing period.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • campus network - A campus network is a proprietary local area network (LAN) or set of interconnected LANs serving a corporation, government agency, university or similar organization.
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • carrier cloud - A carrier cloud is a cloud computing environment that is owned and operated by a traditional telecommunications service provider.
  • carrier network - A telecommunications carrier network is the collection of devices and underlying infrastructure used to transmit data from one location to another.
  • carrier-to-noise ratio - In communications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written as CNR or C/N, is a measure of the received carrier strength relative to the strength of the received noise.
  • CCNA certification - Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) is a technical certification that Cisco offers for early-career networking professionals.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a challenge and response authentication method that Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) servers use to verify the identity of a remote user.
  • chat room - A chat room is an online platform that enables users to communicate with each other in real time.
  • chatting - While the term chatting or chitchat refers in general to communication between two or more parties that can occur in person, in today's modern age, it can also occur over the internet via Short Message Service (SMS) text message and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) or, for example, through tools like Slack and Microsoft Teams and social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol requiring a client or server to wait for an acknowledgment before transmitting data again.
  • checksum - A checksum is a value that represents the number of bits in a transmission message and is used by IT professionals to detect high-level errors within data transmissions.
  • churn rate - Churn rate is a measure of the number of customers or employees who leave a company during a given period.
  • CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) - CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) is a method of assigning IP addresses that improves the efficiency of address distribution and replaces the previous system based on Class A, Class B and Class C networks.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a complete circular path that electricity flows through.
  • Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) - Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) is a series of technical certifications for senior networking professionals who design, build, implement, maintain and troubleshoot complex enterprise networking infrastructures.
  • Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) - Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) is an intermediate-level certification in the Cisco certified professional program.
  • Cisco Webex - Cisco Webex is a video conferencing and collaboration product suite.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • client-server - Client-server is a relationship in which one program, the client, requests a service or resource from another program, the server.
  • client-server network - A client-server network is a distributed communications architecture in which a centralized server receives and responds to requests for services and data from multiple clients.
  • Clos network - A Clos network is a type of nonblocking, multistage switching network used today in large-scale data center switching fabrics.
  • cloud PBX (private branch exchange) - A cloud PBX (private branch exchange) is a business phone system for connecting employees to a telephone network using a managed service running in the cloud.
  • cloud radio access network (C-RAN) - Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is a centralized, cloud computing-based architecture for radio access networks.
  • cloud storage API - A cloud storage API is an application programming interface that connects a locally based application to a cloud-based storage system so that a user can send data to it and access and work with data stored in it.
  • cloud telephony (cloud calling) - Cloud telephony (cloud calling) is a type of unified communications as a service (UCaaS) that offers voice communication services through a third-party host.
  • CNAME - A CNAME specifies an alias or nickname for a canonical name record in a domain name system (DNS) database.
  • codec - A codec is a hardware- or software-based process that compresses and decompresses large amounts of data.
  • collision in networking - In a half-duplex Ethernet network, a collision is the result of two devices on the same Ethernet network attempting to transmit data at the same time.
  • Communications as a Service (CaaS) - Communications as a Service (CaaS) is an outsourced enterprise communications solution that can be leased from a single vendor.
  • communications platform as a service (CPaaS) - Communications platform as a service (CPaaS) is a cloud-based delivery model that allows organizations to add real-time communication capabilities, such as voice, video and messaging, to business applications by deploying application program interfaces (APIs).
  • computer network - A computer network is a group of interconnected nodes or computing devices that exchange data and resources with each other.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • control plane (CP) - The control plane is the part of a network that carries signaling traffic and is responsible for network routing.
  • converged network adapter (CNA) - A converged network adapter (CNA) is a single network interface device that provides the functionality of both a Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapter (HBA) and a TCP/IP Ethernet network interface card (NIC).
  • Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption protocol based on the U.
  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) - CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking -- a method of checking for errors in transmitted data -- that is used on E1 trunk lines.
  • data center interconnect (DCI) - Data center interconnect (DCI) technology links two or more data centers together to share resources.
  • data compression - Data compression is a reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data.
  • data plan (mobile data plan) - A data plan is an agreement between a mobile carrier and a customer that specifies how much mobile data the user can access, usually per month, for a specific fee on a carrier network.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data from one or more sources at a steady, high speed for processing into specific outputs.
  • decibels relative to carrier (dBc) - dBc (decibels relative to carrier) is a measure of the strength of an instantaneous signal at radio frequency.
  • dedicated line - A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company).
  • deep packet inspection (DPI) - Deep packet inspection (DPI) is an advanced method of examining and managing network traffic.
  • delay-tolerant network (DTN) - A delay-tolerant network (DTN) is a network that's designed to operate effectively in extreme conditions and over very large distances, such as with space communications.
  • dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical fiber multiplexing technology that is used to increase the bandwidth of existing fiber networks.
  • desktop virtualization - Desktop virtualization is the concept of isolating a logical operating system (OS) instance from the client used to access it.
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a network management protocol used to dynamically assign an IP address to any device, or node, on a network so it can communicate using IP.
  • differentiated services (DiffServ or DS) - Differentiated services, often shortened to DiffServ or DS, is a class of service (CoS) model to specify and control IP network traffic by class.
  • direct inward dialing (DID) - Direct inward dialing (DID) is a method organizations use to route incoming calls to specific private branch exchange (PBX) systems without an operator.
  • discrete event simulation (DES) - Discrete event simulation (DES) is the process of codifying the behavior of a complex system as an ordered sequence of well-defined events.
  • disposable email - What is a disposable email?Disposable email is a service that allows a registered user to receive email at a temporary address that expires after a certain time period elapses.
  • DNS redirection - DNS redirection is the controversial practice of serving a Web page to a user that is different from either the one requested or one that might reasonably be expected, such as an error page.
  • domain - Specific to the internet, the term domain can refer to how the internet is structured, and domain also refers to how an organization's network resources are organized.
  • domain name system (DNS) - The domain name system (DNS) is a naming database in which internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
  • downloading - Downloading is the transmission of a file or data from one computer to another over a network, usually from a larger server to a user device.
  • dynamic multipoint VPN (DMVPN) - A dynamic multipoint virtual private network (DMVPN) is a secure network that exchanges data between sites/routers without passing traffic through an organization's virtual private network (VPN) server or router located at its headquarters.
  • dynamic port numbers - Dynamic port numbers, also known as private port numbers, are the port numbers that are available for use by any application to use in communicating with any other application, using the internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
  • east-west traffic - East-west traffic, in a networking context, is the transfer of data packets from server to server within a data center.
  • edge device - An edge device is any piece of hardware that controls data flow at the boundary between two networks.
  • electric grid - An electric grid is a network of synchronized power providers and consumers that are connected by transmission and distribution lines and operated by one or more control centers.
  • electromagnetic interference (EMI) - Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is unwanted noise or interference in an electrical path or circuit caused by an outside source.
Networking
  • subnet (subnetwork)

    A subnet, or subnetwork, is a segmented piece of a larger network. More specifically, subnets are a logical partition of an IP ...

  • secure access service edge (SASE)

    Secure access service edge (SASE), pronounced sassy, is a cloud architecture model that bundles together network and cloud-native...

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a standard protocol on the internet that ensures the reliable transmission of data between...

Security
CIO
  • What is data privacy?

    Data privacy, also called information privacy, is an aspect of data protection that addresses the proper storage, access, ...

  • product development (new product development)

    Product development -- also called new product management -- is a series of steps that includes the conceptualization, design, ...

  • innovation culture

    Innovation culture is the work environment that leaders cultivate to nurture unorthodox thinking and its application.

HRSoftware
  • organizational network analysis (ONA)

    Organizational network analysis (ONA) is a quantitative method for modeling and analyzing how communications, information, ...

  • HireVue

    HireVue is an enterprise video interviewing technology provider of a platform that lets recruiters and hiring managers screen ...

  • Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI)

    Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) is a U.S.-based credentialing organization offering certifications to HR ...

Customer Experience
  • What is an outbound call?

    An outbound call is one initiated by a contact center agent to prospective customers and focuses on sales, lead generation, ...

  • What is lead-to-revenue management (L2RM)?

    Lead-to-revenue management (L2RM) is a set of sales and marketing methods focusing on generating revenue throughout the customer ...

  • What is relationship marketing?

    Relationship marketing is a facet of customer relationship management (CRM) that focuses on customer loyalty and long-term ...

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