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High-speed networks

Terms related to high-speed communication networks, including network and end-system architecture definitions and words and phrases about high-bandwidth and low-latency communication.

100 - JIT

  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) - 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) is an Ethernet standard that supports data speeds of up to 100 billion bits (gigabits) per second (Gbps).
  • 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) - 1000BASE-T is Gigabit Ethernet -- 1 gigabit is 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps) on copper cables, using four pairs of Category 5 (Cat5) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) to achieve the gigabit data rate.
  • 1xRTT (Single-Carrier Radio Transmission Technology) - 1xRTT (Single-Carrier Radio Transmission Technology) is an operational mode for CDMA2000 wireless communications that specifies a single (1x) 1.
  • 2D barcode (two-dimensional barcode) - A 2D (two-dimensional) barcode is a graphical image that stores information horizontally as one-dimensional barcodes do, as well as vertically.
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) - The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaborative project between a group of telecommunications associations with the initial goal of developing globally applicable specifications for third-generation (3G) mobile systems.
  • 5G New Radio (NR) - 5G New Radio (NR) is a set of standards that replace the LTE network 4G wireless communications standard.
  • abandoned call - An abandoned call is a call or other type of contact initiated to a call center that is ended before any conversation occurs.
  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology that facilitates fast data transmission at a high bandwidth on existing copper wire telephone lines to homes and businesses.
  • analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adaptor (ATA) is a device used to connect a standard telephone to a computer or network so that the user can make calls over the Internet.
  • analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) - Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) is an electronic process in which a continuously variable, or analog, signal is changed into a multilevel digital signal without altering its essential content.
  • Android OS - Android OS is a Linux-based mobile operating system that primarily runs on smartphones and tablets.
  • ARPANET - The U.S.
  • asymmetric communications - Asymmetric communications is a term pertaining to any system in which the data speed or quantity, when averaged over time, is different in one direction from the other.
  • attenuation - Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal.
  • auto attendant (automated attendant) - An automated attendant (AA) is a telephony system that transfers incoming calls to various extensions as specified by callers, without the intervention of a human operator.
  • band - In telecommunication, a band - sometimes called a frequency band - is a specific range of frequencies in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, which is divided among ranges from very low frequencies (vlf) to extremely high frequencies (ehf).
  • base station - In telecommunications, a base station is a fixed transceiver that is the main communication point for one or more wireless mobile client devices.
  • baseband - Describes a telecommunication system in which information is carried in digital form on a single unmultiplexed signal channel on the transmission medium.
  • baseband unit (BBU) - A baseband unit (BBU) is a device that interprets baseband frequencies in telecom systems including computer networks, the internet, phone networks and radio broadcasting systems.
  • beamforming - Beamforming is a type of radio frequency (RF) management in which a wireless signal is directed toward a specific receiving device.
  • bit stuffing - Bit stuffing refers to the insertion of one or more bits into a data transmission as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
  • bits per second (bps or bit/sec) - In data communications, bits per second (bps or bit/sec) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • broadband - In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information.
  • call admission control (CAC) - Call admission control (CAC) is the practice or process of regulating traffic volume in voice communications, particularly in wireless mobile networks and in VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol, also known as Internet telephony).
  • call center - A call center is a centralized department that handles inbound and outbound calls from current and potential customers.
  • call control - Call control is a process that is used in telecommunications networks to monitor and maintain connections once they have been established.
  • call deflection - Call deflection is a feature of voice over IP (VoIP) that automatically redirects a call from the called endpoint to another endpoint (usually a voice mailbox) when the called endpoint is busy.
  • call detail record (CDR) - A call detail record (CDR) in voice over IP (VoIP) is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each call, the total usage time in the billing period, the total free time remaining in the billing period, and the running total charged during the billing period.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • carrier cloud - A carrier cloud is a cloud computing environment that is owned and operated by a traditional telecommunications service provider.
  • carrier network - A telecommunications carrier network is the collection of devices and underlying infrastructure used to transmit data from one location to another.
  • carrier-to-noise ratio - In communications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written as CNR or C/N, is a measure of the received carrier strength relative to the strength of the received noise.
  • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) - CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications.
  • centrex (central office exchange service) - Centrex (central office exchange service) is a service from local telephone companies in the United States in which up-to-date phone facilities at the phone company's central (local) office are offered to business users so that they don't need to purchase their own facilities.
  • CenturyLink - CenturyLink is an integrated telecommunications company that provides a wide variety of products and services to clients across the globe, including networking, cloud service and security solutions.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a complete circular path that electricity flows through.
  • Cisco Enterprise Agreement (EA) - Cisco Enterprise Agreement (EA) is a software buying program that digitizes and simplifies license management for Cisco suite customers.
  • Class of Service (CoS) - Class of Service (CoS) is a way of managing traffic in a network by grouping similar types of traffic -- such as email, streaming video, voice over IP and large document file transfer -- together and treating each type as a class with its own level of network service priority.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • cloud services - Cloud services is an umbrella term that may refer to a variety of resources provided over the internet, or to professional services that support the deployment of such cloud-based resources.
  • cloud telephony (cloud calling) - Cloud telephony, also known as cloud calling, is a type of unified communications as a service (UCaaS) that offers voice communication services through a third-party host.
  • coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (COFDM) - Coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (COFDM) is a telecommunications modulation scheme that divides a single digital signal across 1,000 or more signal carriers simultaneously.
  • colocation (colo) - A colocation facility, or colo, is a data center facility in which a business can rent space for servers and other computing hardware.
  • committed information rate (CIR) - Committed information rate (CIR) is the guaranteed rate at which a Frame Relay network will transfer information under normal line conditions.
  • common carrier - A common carrier, in telecommunications, is an entity that provides wired and wireless communication services to the general public for a fee.
  • common short code (CSC) - Common short codes (CSC) are short telephone numbers, usually consisting of five digits, that are used to address SMS and MMS messages from cellular telephones.
  • communication service provider (CSP) - Communication service provider (CSP) is the broad title for a variety of service providers in broadcast and two-way communications services.
  • configuration - Generally, a configuration is the arrangement - or the process of making the arrangement - of the parts that make up a whole.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • cord cutting - Cord cutting, in a telecommunications context, is the practice of stopping a cable or  satellite television service in favor of less expensive options, or getting rid of your landline phone and relying solely on cellular or VoIP (voice over IP) service.
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) - CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) is a specification for wireless communication networks in the interface between radio equipment and radio equipment control.
  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) - CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking -- a method of checking for errors in transmitted data -- that is used on E1 trunk lines.
  • crosstalk - Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit.
  • customer proprietary network information (CPNI) - Customer proprietary network information (CPNI) in the United States is information that telecommunications services -- such as local, long-distance and wireless telephone companies -- acquire about their subscribers.
  • data deduplication - Data deduplication is a process that eliminates redundant copies of data and reduces storage overhead.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • data transfer rate (DTR) - The data transfer rate (DTR) is the amount of digital data that's moved from one place to another in a given time.
  • decibels relative to carrier (dBc) - dBc (decibels relative to carrier) is a measure of the strength of an instantaneous signal at radio frequency.
  • decibels relative to isotropic radiator (dBi) - The expression dBi is used to define the gain of an antenna system relative to an isotropic radiator at radio frequencies.
  • decibels relative to one millivolt (dBmV) - dBmV (decibels relative to one millivolt) is a measure of the signal strength in wires and cables at RF and AF frequencies.
  • decibels relative to reference level (dBr) - The expression dBr is used to define signal strength at RF and AF frequencies.
  • dedicated line - A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company).
  • dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical fiber multiplexing technology that is used to increase the bandwidth of existing fiber networks.
  • digital - Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive.
  • digital signal processing (DSP) - Digital signal processing (DSP) refers to various techniques for improving the accuracy and reliability of digital communications.
  • digital video broadcasting (DVB) - Digital video broadcasting (DVB) is a set of standards that define digital broadcasting using DVB satellite, cable and terrestrial broadcasting infrastructures.
  • DTMF (dual tone multi-frequency) - Dual tone multi-frequency (DTMF) is the sounds or tones generated by a telephone when the numbers are pressed.
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
  • eavesdropping - Eavesdropping is the unauthorized real-time interception of a private communication, such as a phone call, instant message, videoconference or fax transmission.
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a network protocol that enables routers to exchange information more efficiently than earlier network protocols, such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
  • Erlang C - Erlang C is a traffic modeling formula, primarily used in call center scheduling to calculate delays and to predict waiting times for callers.
  • Ethernet - Ethernet is the traditional technology for connecting devices in a wired local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN).
  • fabric - In information technology, fabric is a synonym for the words framework or platform.
  • fax - A fax (short for facsimile and sometimes called telecopying) is the telephonic transmission of scanned-in printed material (text or images), usually to a telephone number associated with a printer or other output device.
  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a network standard that uses fiber optic connections in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers (124 miles).
  • fiber optics (optical fiber) - Fiber optics, or optical fiber, refers to the technology that transmits information as light pulses along a glass or plastic fiber.
  • fiber to the home (FTTH) - Fiber to the home (FTTH), also called fiber to the premises (FTTP), is the installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses to provide high-speed internet access.
  • fiber to the x (FTTx) - Fiber to the x (FTTx) is a collective term for various optical fiber delivery topologies that are categorized according to where the fiber terminates.
  • flow routing - Flow routing is a network routing technology that takes variations in the flow of data into account to increase routing efficiency.
  • free-space optics (FSO) - Free-space optics (FSO), also called free-space photonics (FSP), refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere to obtain broadband communications.
  • frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) - In frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), multiple signals are combined for transmission on a single communications line or channel, with each signal assigned to a different frequency (subchannel) within the main channel.
  • frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) - Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) transmission is the repeated switching of the carrier frequency during radio transmission to reduce interference and avoid interception.
  • frequency-shift keying (FSK) - Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a method of transmitting digital signals using discrete signals.
  • Gbps (billions of bits per second) - Gbps stands for billions of bits per second and is a measure of bandwidth on a digital data transmission medium such as optical fiber.
  • geostationary satellite - A geostationary satellite is an earth-orbiting satellite, placed at an altitude of approximately 35,800 kilometers (22,300 miles) directly over the equator, that revolves in the same direction the earth rotates (west to east).
  • Global Positioning System (GPS) - The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a 'constellation' of approximately 30 well-spaced satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location.
  • GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) - GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile network that is widely used by mobile phone users in Europe and other parts of the world.
  • hop off - Hop off is a term used in telecommunications that refers to a point at which a signal or call leaves a network and moves to another network.
  • ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier) - An ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier) is a telephone company in the U.
  • Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU) - In telecommunications, the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU) is a contractual agreement (temporary ownership) of a portion of the capacity of an international cable.
  • interactive voice response (IVR) - Interactive voice response (IVR) is an automated telephony system that interacts with callers, gathers information and routes calls to the appropriate recipients.
  • international private leased circuit (IPLC) - An international private leased circuit (IPLC) is a point-to-point private line used by an organization to communicate between offices that are dispersed throughout the world.
  • internet metering - Internet metering is a service model in which an internet service provider (ISP) keeps track of bandwidth use and charges users accordingly.
  • IP PBX (private branch exchange) - An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise) that switches calls between VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol or IP) users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines.
  • IP telephony (Internet Protocol telephony) - IP telephony (Internet Protocol telephony) is a general term for technologies, products and services that use the Internet Protocol's packet-switched connections to support voice calling, voicemail, video calling, video conferencing, faxing and instant messaging.
  • IPTV (Internet Protocol television) - IPTV (Internet Protocol television) is a service that provides television programming and other video content using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite, as opposed to broadcast TV, cable TV or satellite signals.
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CIO
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