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High-speed networks

Terms related to high-speed communication networks, including network and end-system architecture definitions and words and phrases about high-bandwidth and low-latency communication.

100 - E91

  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) - 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) is an Ethernet standard that supports data speeds of up to 100 billion bits (gigabits) per second (Gbps).
  • 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) - 1000BASE-T is Gigabit Ethernet -- 1 gigabit is 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps) on copper cables, using four pairs of Category 5 (Cat5) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) to achieve the gigabit data rate.
  • 1xRTT (Single-Carrier Radio Transmission Technology) - 1xRTT (Single-Carrier Radio Transmission Technology) is an operational mode for CDMA2000 wireless communications that specifies a single (1x) 1.
  • 2D barcode (two-dimensional barcode) - A 2D (two-dimensional) barcode is a graphical image that stores information horizontally as one-dimensional barcodes do, as well as vertically.
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) - The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaborative project between a group of telecommunications associations with the initial goal of developing globally applicable specifications for third-generation (3G) mobile systems.
  • 5G New Radio (NR) - 5G New Radio (NR) is a set of standards that replace the LTE network 4G wireless communications standard.
  • abandoned call - An abandoned call is a call or other type of contact initiated to a call center that is ended before any conversation occurs.
  • addressability - Addressability is the capacity for an entity to be targeted and found.
  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology that facilitates fast data transmission at a high bandwidth on existing copper wire telephone lines to homes and businesses.
  • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) - Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) is a standard system for analog signal cellular telephone service in the United States and is also used in other countries.
  • analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adaptor (ATA) is a device used to connect a standard telephone to a computer or network so that the user can make calls over the Internet.
  • analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) - Analog-to-digital conversion is an electronic process in which a continuously variable (analog) signal is changed, without altering its essential content, into a multi-level (digital) signal.
  • Android OS - Android OS is a Linux-based mobile operating system that primarily runs on smartphones and tablets.
  • ARPANET - The U.S.
  • asymmetric communications - Asymmetric communications is a term pertaining to any system in which the data speed or quantity, when averaged over time, is different in one direction from the other.
  • attenuation - Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal.
  • auto attendant (automated attendant) - An automated attendant (AA) is a telephony system that transfers incoming calls to various extensions as specified by callers, without the intervention of a human operator.
  • automated speech recognition (ASR) - Automated speech recognition (ASR) is a technology that allows users of information systems to speak entries rather than punching numbers on a keypad.
  • azimuth and elevation - Azimuth and elevation are angles used to define the apparent position of an object in the sky, relative to a specific observation point.
  • B-channel (bearer channel) - In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the B-channel is the channel that carries the main data.
  • backhaul - Backhaul, a term probably derived from the trucking industry, has several usages in information technology.
  • band - In telecommunication, a band - sometimes called a frequency band - is a specific range of frequencies in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, which is divided among ranges from very low frequencies (vlf) to extremely high frequencies (ehf).
  • bandpass filter - A bandpass filter is an electronic device or circuit that allows signals between two specific frequencies to pass, but that discriminates against signals at other frequencies.
  • base station - In telecommunications, a base station is a fixed transceiver that is the main communication point for one or more wireless mobile client devices.
  • baseband - Describes a telecommunication system in which information is carried in digital form on a single unmultiplexed signal channel on the transmission medium.
  • baseband unit (BBU) - A baseband unit (BBU) is a device that interprets baseband frequencies in telecom systems including computer networks, the internet, phone networks and radio broadcasting systems.
  • beamforming - Beamforming is a type of radio frequency (RF) management in which a wireless signal is directed toward a specific receiving device.
  • bit error rate (BER) - In telecommunication transmission, the bit error rate (BER) is the percentage of bits that have errors relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually expressed as ten to a negative power.
  • bit stuffing - Bit stuffing refers to the insertion of one or more bits into a data transmission as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
  • BitPim - BitPim is a cross-platform, open source application for managing data on cell phones that use the CDMA mobile telephony protocol.
  • bits per second (bps or bit/sec) - In data communications, bits per second (bps or bit/sec) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • bring your own bandwidth (BYOB) - Bring your own bandwidth (BYOB) is a voice communications service in which a business purchases the voice services only and uses their own internet connection from their existing internet service provider (ISP) to host the voice service.
  • broadband - In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information.
  • Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) - The Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is an initiative within the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) created to promote the development and adoption of broadband throughout the United States, particularly in unserved and underserved areas.
  • broadband voice gateway - A broadband voice gateway is a device that allows you to make telephone calls over a high-speed Internet connection rather than through a regular telephone outlet without having to go through your computer.
  • cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
  • call admission control (CAC) - Call admission control (CAC) is the practice or process of regulating traffic volume in voice communications, particularly in wireless mobile networks and in VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol, also known as Internet telephony).
  • call center - A call center is a centralized department that handles inbound and outbound calls from current and potential customers.
  • call control - Call control is a process that is used in telecommunications networks to monitor and maintain connections once they have been established.
  • call deflection - Call deflection is a feature of voice over IP (VoIP) that automatically redirects a call from the called endpoint to another endpoint (usually a voice mailbox) when the called endpoint is busy.
  • call detail record (CDR) - A call detail record (CDR) in voice over IP (VoIP) is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each call, the total usage time in the billing period, the total free time remaining in the billing period, and the running total charged during the billing period.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • callback (international callback) - Callback, also known as international callback, is a system for avoiding regular phone company long-distance charges by having a call initiated from within the United States with the originating caller joining in a conference call.
  • carrier cloud - A carrier cloud is a cloud computing environment that is owned and operated by a traditional telecommunications service provider.
  • carrier network - A telecommunications carrier network is the collection of devices and underlying infrastructure used to transmit data from one location to another.
  • Carrier Sensitive Routing (CSR) - Carrier Sensitive Routing (CSR) is a network solution that allows Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) subscribers to determine and manipulate the routing of individual calls.
  • carrier-to-noise ratio - In communications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written as CNR or C/N, is a measure of the received carrier strength relative to the strength of the received noise.
  • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) - CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications.
  • centrex (central office exchange service) - Centrex (central office exchange service) is a service from local telephone companies in the United States in which up-to-date phone facilities at the phone company's central (local) office are offered to business users so that they don't need to purchase their own facilities.
  • CenturyLink - CenturyLink is an integrated telecommunications company that provides a wide variety of products and services to clients across the globe, including networking, cloud service and security solutions.
  • channel - In telecommunications in general, a channel is a separate path through which signals can flow.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a complete circular path that electricity flows through.
  • Cisco Enterprise Agreement (EA) - Cisco Enterprise Agreement (EA) is a software buying program that digitizes and simplifies license management for Cisco suite customers.
  • Class of Service (CoS) - Class of Service (CoS) is a way of managing traffic in a network by grouping similar types of traffic -- such as email, streaming video, voice over IP and large document file transfer -- together and treating each type as a class with its own level of network service priority.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • click-to-talk (CTC) - Click-to-call (CTC), also called click-for-talk, is a technology that converts Web traffic into voice telephone connections using VoIP (Voice over IP).
  • cloud services - Cloud services is an umbrella term that may refer to a variety of resources provided over the internet, or to professional services that support the deployment of such cloud-based resources.
  • cloud telephony (cloud calling) - Cloud telephony, also known as cloud calling, is a type of unified communications as a service (UCaaS) that offers voice communication services through a third-party host.
  • coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (COFDM) - Coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (COFDM) is a telecommunications modulation scheme that divides a single digital signal across 1,000 or more signal carriers simultaneously.
  • CoIP (communications over Internet Protocol) - CoIP (communications over Internet Protocol) is a set of standards defining the transmission of multimedia over the Internet.
  • colocation (colo) - A colocation facility, or colo, is a data center facility in which a business can rent space for servers and other computing hardware.
  • committed information rate (CIR) - Committed information rate (CIR) is the guaranteed rate at which a Frame Relay network will transfer information under normal line conditions.
  • common carrier - A common carrier, in telecommunications, is an entity that provides wired and wireless communication services to the general public for a fee.
  • common short code (CSC) - Common short codes (CSC) are short telephone numbers, usually consisting of five digits, that are used to address SMS and MMS messages from cellular telephones.
  • communication portal - A communication portal is a service that allows individuals, businesses, schools and government agencies to share information from diverse sources using unified communications (UC) media.
  • communication service provider (CSP) - Communication service provider (CSP) is the broad title for a variety of service providers in broadcast and two-way communications services.
  • configuration - Generally, a configuration is the arrangement - or the process of making the arrangement - of the parts that make up a whole.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • cord cutting - Cord cutting, in a telecommunications context, is the practice of stopping a cable or  satellite television service in favor of less expensive options, or getting rid of your landline phone and relying solely on cellular or VoIP (voice over IP) service.
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) - CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) is a specification for wireless communication networks in the interface between radio equipment and radio equipment control.
  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) - CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking -- a method of checking for errors in transmitted data -- that is used on E1 trunk lines.
  • crosstalk - Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit.
  • customer proprietary network information (CPNI) - Customer proprietary network information (CPNI) in the United States is information that telecommunications services -- such as local, long-distance and wireless telephone companies -- acquire about their subscribers.
  • D-channel - In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the D-channel is the channel that carries control and signalling information.
  • data deduplication - Data deduplication -- often called intelligent compression or single-instance storage -- is a process that eliminates redundant copies of data and reduces storage overhead.
  • data discrimination (data censorship) - Data discrimination, also called discrimination by algorithm, is bias that occurs when predefined data types or data sources are intentionally or unintentionally treated differently than others.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • decibels relative to carrier (dBc) - dBc (decibels relative to carrier) is a measure of the strength of an instantaneous signal at radio frequency.
  • decibels relative to isotropic radiator (dBi) - The expression dBi is used to define the gain of an antenna system relative to an isotropic radiator at radio frequencies.
  • decibels relative to one millivolt (dBmV) - dBmV (decibels relative to one millivolt) is a measure of the signal strength in wires and cables at RF and AF frequencies.
  • decibels relative to reference level (dBr) - The expression dBr is used to define signal strength at RF and AF frequencies.
  • dedicated line - A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company).
  • demarc (demarcation point) - A demarc (an abbreviation for demarcation point) marks the point where communications facilities owned by one organization interface with that of another organization.
  • dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical fiber multiplexing technology that is used to increase the bandwidth of existing fiber networks.
  • dial peer (addressable call endpoint) - A dial peer, also known as an addressable call endpoint, is a device that can originate or receive a call in a telephone network.
  • digital - Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive.
  • digital audio broadcasting (DAB) - .
  • digital signal processing (DSP) - Digital signal processing (DSP) refers to various techniques for improving the accuracy and reliability of digital communications.
  • digital video broadcasting (DVB) - Digital video broadcasting (DVB) is a set of standards that define digital broadcasting using DVB satellite, cable and terrestrial broadcasting infrastructures.
  • digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) - Digital-to-analog conversion is a process in which signals having a few (usually two) defined levels or states (digital) are converted into signals having a theoretically infinite number of states (analog).
  • Direct Inward Dialing (DID) - Direct Inward Dialing (DID) is a service of a local phone company (or local exchange carrier) that provides a block of telephone numbers for calling into a company's private branch exchange (PBX) system.
  • DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications) - Now known as CableLabs Certified Cable Modems, DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications) is a standard interface for cable modems, the devices that handle incoming and outgoing data signals between a cable TV operator and a personal or business computer or television set.
  • DTMF (dual tone multi-frequency) - Dual tone multi-frequency (DTMF) is the sounds or tones generated by a telephone when the numbers are pressed.
  • duplex - In telecommunication, duplex communication means that both ends of the communication can send and receive signals at the same time.
  • E-carrier system - To see the relationship between the E-carrier system, the T-carrier system, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • E.164 - E.164 is an international numbering plan for public telephone systems in which each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
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