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Threat management

Terms related to security threats, including definitions about anti-virus programs or firewalls and words and phrases about malware, viruses, Trojans and other security attacks.
  • AAA server (authentication, authorization and accounting) - An AAA server is a server program that handles user requests for access to computer resources and, for an enterprise, provides authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services.
  • active attack - An active attack is a network exploit in which a hacker attempts to make changes to data on the target or data en route to the target.
  • active defense - An active defense is the use of offensive actions to outmaneuver an adversary and make an attack more difficult and to carry out.
  • ActiveX - ActiveX is a set of object-oriented programming technologies and tools that Microsoft developed for Internet Explorer to facilitate rich media playback.
  • ActiveX controls - ActiveX controls are component program objects that Microsoft developed to enable applications to perform specific functions, such as displaying a calendar or playing a video.
  • address space layout randomization (ASLR) - Address space layout randomization (ASLR) is a memory-protection process for operating systems (OSes) that guards against buffer-overflow attacks by randomizing the location where system executables are loaded into memory.
  • advanced persistent threat (APT) - An advanced persistent threat (APT) is a prolonged and targeted cyber attack in which an intruder gains access to a network and remains undetected for an extended period.
  • adware - Adware is any software application in which an advertising banner or other advertising material displays or downloads while a program is running.
  • AI red teaming - AI red teaming is the practice of simulating attack scenarios on an artificial intelligence application to pinpoint weaknesses and plan preventative measures.
  • air gap (air gapping) - An air gap is a security measure that involves isolating a computer or network and preventing it from establishing an external connection.
  • alternate data stream (ADS) - An alternate data stream (ADS) is a feature of Windows New Technology File System (NTFS) that contains metadata for locating a specific file by author or title.
  • anti-money laundering software (AML) - Anti-laundering software is a type of computer program used by financial institutions to analyze customer data and detect suspicious transactions.
  • anti-spyware software - Anti-spyware software is a type of program designed to prevent and detect unwanted spyware program installations and to remove those programs if installed.
  • antimalware (anti-malware) - Antimalware is a type of software program created to protect IT systems and individual computers from malicious software, or malware.
  • antispoofing - Antispoofing is a technique for identifying and dropping packets that have a false source address.
  • antivirus software (antivirus program) - Antivirus software (antivirus program) is a security program designed to prevent, detect, search and remove viruses and other types of malware from computers, networks and other devices.
  • application whitelisting - Application whitelisting is the practice of specifying an index of approved software applications or executable files that are permitted to be present and active on a computer system.
  • asymmetric cyber attack - An asymmetric cyber attack refers to cyberwarfare that inflicts a proportionally large amount of damage compared to the resources used by targeting the victim's most vulnerable security measure.
  • ATM jackpotting - ATM jackpotting is the exploitation of physical and software vulnerabilities in automated banking machines that result in the machines dispensing cash.
  • attack surface - An attack surface is the total number of all possible entry points for unauthorized access into any system.
  • attack vector - An attack vector is a path or means by which an attacker or hacker can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.
  • authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) - Authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) is a security framework for controlling and tracking user access within a computer network.
  • Automated Clearing House fraud (ACH fraud) - ACH fraud is the theft of funds through the U.
  • backdoor (computing) - A backdoor attack is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
  • backscatter spam - Backscatter spam, also called misdirected bounce spam or NDR spam, is a strategy for sending unsolicited email messages that takes advantage of the fact that certain types of mail transfer agent (MTA) programs return the entire message to the sender when a recipient's email address is invalid.
  • biometric payment - Biometric payment is a point-of-sale (POS) technology that uses biometric authentication physical characteristics to identify the user and authorize the deduction of funds from a bank account.
  • biometric verification - Biometric verification is any means by which a person can be uniquely identified by evaluating one or more distinguishing biological traits.
  • biometrics - Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people's unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
  • BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
  • BIOS rootkit attack - A BIOS-level rootkit attack, also known as a persistent BIOS attack, is an exploit in which the BIOS is flashed (updated) with malicious code.
  • BitLocker - BitLocker Drive Encryption, or BitLocker, is a Microsoft Windows security and encryption feature.
  • black hat hacker - A black hat hacker has been historically used to describe one who has malicious intent -- such as theft of information, fraud or disrupting systems -- but increasingly, more specific terms are being used to describe those people.
  • blended threat - A blended threat is an exploit that combines elements of multiple types of malware and usually employs various attack vectors to increase the severity of damage and the speed of contagion.
  • block cipher - A block cipher is a method of encrypting data in blocks to produce ciphertext using a cryptographic key and algorithm.
  • blockchain economy - The blockchain economy is a scenario and potential future environment in which the technology replaces current monetary systems, potentially on a global basis.
  • Blowfish - Blowfish is a variable-length, symmetric, 64-bit block cipher.
  • bluesnarfing - Bluesnarfing is a hacking technique in which a hacker accesses a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection.
  • bot - A bot -- short for robot and also called an internet bot -- is a computer program that operates as an agent for a user or other program or to simulate a human activity.
  • botnet - A botnet is a collection of internet-connected devices, which may include personal computers (PCs), servers, mobile devices and internet of things (IoT) devices, that are infected and controlled by a common type of malware, often unbeknownst to their owner.
  • browser hijacker (browser hijacking) - A browser hijacker is a malware program that modifies web browser settings without the user's permission and redirects the user to websites the user had not intended to visit.
  • brute-force attack - A brute-force attack is a trial-and-error method used by application programs to decode login information and encryption keys to use them to gain unauthorized access to systems.
  • buffer overflow - A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process attempts to write more data to a fixed-length block of memory, or buffer, than the buffer is allocated to hold.
  • buffer underflow - A buffer underflow, also known as a buffer underrun or a buffer underwrite, is when the buffer -- the temporary holding space during data transfer -- is fed data at a lower rate than it is being read from.
  • bug bounty program - A bug bounty program, also called a vulnerability rewards program (VRP), is a crowdsourcing initiative that rewards individuals for finding errors in software.
  • burner phone - A burner phone, or 'burner,' is an inexpensive mobile phone designed for temporary, sometimes anonymous, use, after which it may be discarded.
  • business email compromise (BEC, man-in-the-email attack) - A business email compromise (BEC) is an exploit in which the attacker gains access to a corporate email account and spoofs the owner’s identity in order to commit fraud .
  • cache poisoning - Cache poisoning is a type of cyber attack in which attackers insert fake information into a domain name system (DNS) cache or web cache for the purpose of harming users.
  • CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart) - A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response system designed to differentiate humans from robotic computer programs.
  • card verification value (CVV) - Card verification value (CVV) is a combination of features used in credit, debit and automated teller machine (ATM) cards for the purpose of establishing the owner's identity and minimizing the risk of fraud.
  • certificate authority (CA) - A certificate authority (CA) is a trusted entity that issues Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates.
  • certificate revocation list (CRL) - A certificate revocation list (CRL) is a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing Certificate Authority (CA) before their actual or assigned expiration date.
  • Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) - Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is an information security certification developed by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, also known as (ISC)².
  • chaos engineering - Chaos engineering is the process of testing a distributed computing system to ensure that it can withstand unexpected disruptions.
  • Chernobyl virus - The Chernobyl virus is a computer virus with a potentially devastating payload that destroys all computer data when an infected file is executed.
  • CIA triad (confidentiality, integrity and availability) - The CIA triad refers to confidentiality, integrity and availability, describing a model designed to guide policies for information security within an organization.
  • cipher - In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
  • cipher block chaining (CBC) - Cipher block chaining (CBC) is a mode of operation for a block cipher -- one in which a sequence of bits are encrypted as a single unit, or block, with a cipher key applied to the entire block.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text transformed from plaintext using an encryption algorithm.
  • ciphertext feedback (CFB) - In cryptography, ciphertext feedback (CFB), also known as cipher feedback, is a mode of operation for a block cipher.
  • Class C2 - Class C2 is a security rating established by the U.
  • cloud security - Cloud security, also known as cloud computing security, is the practice of protecting cloud-based data, applications and infrastructure from cyberthreats and cyber attacks.
  • COBIT - COBIT is an IT governance framework for businesses wanting to implement, monitor and improve IT management best practices.
  • COMINT (communications intelligence) - Communications intelligence (COMINT) is information gathered from the communications of individuals, including telephone conversations, text messages and various types of online interactions.
  • command-and-control server (C&C server) - A command-and-control server (C&C server) is a computer that issues directives to digital devices that have been infected with rootkits or other types of malware, such as ransomware.
  • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) is a publicly listed catalog of known security threats.
  • Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) - The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a public framework for rating the severity of security vulnerabilities in software.
  • Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) - Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) is a universal online dictionary of weaknesses that have been found in computer software.
  • computer cracker - A computer cracker is an outdated term used to describe someone who broke into computer systems, bypassed passwords or licenses in computer programs, or in other ways intentionally breached computer security.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
  • computer exploit - A computer exploit, or exploit, is an attack on a computer system, especially one that takes advantage of a particular vulnerability the system offers to intruders.
  • computer forensics (cyber forensics) - Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law.
  • computer security incident response team (CSIRT) - A computer security incident response team, or CSIRT, is a group of IT professionals that provides an organization with services and support surrounding the assessment, management and prevention of cybersecurity-related emergencies, as well as coordination of incident response efforts.
  • Conficker - Conficker is a fast-spreading worm that targets a vulnerability (MS08-067) in Windows operating systems.
  • consumer privacy (customer privacy) - Consumer privacy, also known as customer privacy, involves the handling and protection of the sensitive personal information provided by customers in the course of everyday transactions.
  • content personalization - Content personalization is a branding and marketing strategy in which webpages, email and other forms of content are tailored to match the characteristics, preferences or behaviors of individual users.
  • contextual marketing - Contextual marketing is an online marketing strategy model in which people are served with targeted advertising based on their search terms or their recent browsing behavior.
  • cookie - A cookie is information that a website puts on a user's computer.
  • cookie poisoning - Cookie poisoning is a type of cyber attack in which a bad actor hijacks, forges, alters or manipulates a cookie to gain unauthorized access to a user's account, open a new account in the user's name or steal the user's information for purposes such as identity theft.
  • counterintelligence - Counterintelligence (CI) is the information gathered and actions taken to identify and protect against an adversary’s knowledge collection activities or attempts to cause harm through sabotage or other actions.
  • credential stuffing - Credential stuffing is the practice of using stolen login information from one account to gain access to accounts on a number of sites through automated login.
  • credential theft - Credential theft is a type of cybercrime that involves stealing a victim's proof of identity.
  • cross-site scripting (XSS) - Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of injection attack in which a threat actor inserts data, such as a malicious script, into content from otherwise trusted websites.
  • cryptographic checksum - Generated by a cryptographic algorithm, a cryptographic checksum is a mathematical value assigned to a file sent through a network for verifying that the data contained in that file is unchanged.
  • cryptographic nonce - A nonce is a random or semi-random number that is generated for a specific use.
  • cryptography - Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications using codes, so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.
  • cryptojacking - Cryptojacking is a cybercrime in which another party's computing resources are hijacked to mine cryptocurrency.
  • cryptology - Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.
  • cyber attack - A cyber attack is any malicious attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer, computing system or computer network with the intent to cause damage.
  • cyber attribution - Cyber attribution is the process of tracking, identifying and laying blame on the perpetrator of a cyberattack or other hacking exploit.
  • cyber espionage - Cyber espionage (cyberespionage) is a type of cyber attack that malicious hackers carry out against a business or government entity.
  • cyber hijacking - Cyber hijacking, or computer hijacking, is a type of network security attack in which the attacker takes control of computer systems, software programs and/or network communications.
  • cyber resilience - Cyber resilience is the ability of a computing system to identify, respond and recover quickly should it experience a security incident.
  • cyberbullying - Cyberbullying is a type of bullying in which one or more individuals use digital technologies to intentionally and repeatedly cause harm to another person.
  • cybercrime - Cybercrime is any criminal activity that involves a computer, network or networked device.
  • cybersecurity - Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting internet-connected systems such as hardware, software and data from cyberthreats.
  • cybersecurity asset management (CSAM) - Cybersecurity asset management (CSAM) is the process created to continuously discover, inventory, monitor, manage and track an organization's assets to determine what those assets do and identify and automatically remediate any gaps in its cybersecurity protections.
  • cyberterrorism - Cyberterrorism is usually defined as any premeditated, politically motivated attack against information systems, programs, and data that threatens violence or results in violence.
  • cyberwarfare - The generally accepted definition of cyberwarfare is a series of cyber attacks against a nation-state, causing it significant harm.
  • dark web monitoring - Dark web monitoring is the process of searching for and continuously tracking information on the dark web.
  • data availability - Data availability is a term used by computer storage manufacturers and storage service providers to describe how data should be available at a required level of performance in situations ranging from normal through disastrous.
Networking
  • local area network (LAN)

    A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and peripheral devices that are connected together within a distinct ...

  • TCP/IP

    TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect ...

  • firewall as a service (FWaaS)

    Firewall as a service (FWaaS), also known as a cloud firewall, is a service that provides cloud-based network traffic analysis ...

Security
  • identity management (ID management)

    Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to ...

  • fraud detection

    Fraud detection is a set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses.

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

CIO
  • project scope

    Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, ...

  • core competencies

    For any organization, its core competencies refer to the capabilities, knowledge, skills and resources that constitute its '...

  • change management

    Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes...

HRSoftware
  • recruitment management system (RMS)

    A recruitment management system (RMS) is a set of tools designed to manage the employee recruiting and hiring process. It might ...

  • core HR (core human resources)

    Core HR (core human resources) is an umbrella term that refers to the basic tasks and functions of an HR department as it manages...

  • HR service delivery

    HR service delivery is a term used to explain how an organization's human resources department offers services to and interacts ...

Customer Experience
  • martech (marketing technology)

    Martech (marketing technology) refers to the integration of software tools, platforms, and applications designed to streamline ...

  • transactional marketing

    Transactional marketing is a business strategy that focuses on single, point-of-sale transactions.

  • customer profiling

    Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by ...

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