# Algorithms

Terms related to procedures or formulas for solving a problem by conducting a sequence of specified actions. In computing, algorithms in the form of mathematical instructions play an important part in search, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning.## 10, - MD5

- 10,000-year clock - The 10,000-year clock is an accurate, long-term mechanical timepiece designed to tick once a year for 10,000 years.
- 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
- 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
- absolute value - Absolute value is a term used in mathematics to indicate the distance of a point or number from the origin (zero point) of a number line or coordinate system.
- AI ethics (AI code of ethics) - AI ethics is a system of moral principles and techniques intended to inform the development and responsible use of artificial intelligence technology.
- algorithm - An algorithm is a procedure used for solving a problem or performing a computation.
- algorithmic accountability - Algorithmic accountability is the concept that companies should be held responsible for the results of their programmed algorithms.
- algorithmic transparency - Algorithmic transparency is openness about the purpose, structure and underlying actions of the algorithms used to search for, process and deliver information.
- Antikythera mechanism (2000-year-old computer) - The Antikythera mechanism is an analog computer that was used by the Greeks more than 2000 years ago to locate and predict the positions of celestial objects.
- approximate equality - Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics.
- arithmetic mean - The arithmetic mean, also called the average or average value, is the quantity obtained by summing two or more numbers or variables and then dividing by the number of numbers or variables.
- arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a central processing unit (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.
- azimuth and elevation - Azimuth and elevation are angles used to define the apparent position of an object in the sky, relative to a specific observation point.
- backpropagation algorithm - Backpropagation (backward propagation) is an important mathematical tool for improving the accuracy of predictions in data mining and machine learning.
- bar graph - A bar graph is a pictorial rendition of statistical data in which the independent variable can attain only certain discrete values.
- binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit: 0 and 1.
- binary coded decimal - Binary coded decimal (BCD) is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base-10) numeral.
- binomial distribution - Binomial distribution is a type of formula in mathematics and statistics for predicting probabilities where there are two possible outcomes over a set of instances.
- block cipher - A block cipher is a method of encrypting data in blocks to produce ciphertext using a cryptographic key and algorithm.
- Boolean - The term "Boolean," often encountered when doing searches on the Web (and sometimes spelled "boolean"), refers to a system of logical thought developed by the English mathematician and computer pioneer, George Boole (1815-64).
- box plot - A box plot is a graphical rendition of statistical data based on the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum.
- cache algorithm - A cache algorithm is a detailed list of instructions that decides which items should be discarded in a computer's cache of information.
- cardinality - The term cardinality refers to the number of cardinal (basic) members in a set.
- causation - Causation, or causality, is the capacity of one variable to influence another.
- cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid of specified shape, such that each cell changes state as a function of time, according to a defined set of rules driven by the states of neighboring cells.
- centimeter (cm) - The centimeter (abbreviation, cm) is a unit of displacement or length in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of units.
- cinema pulldown 3:2 (telecine) - Cinema pulldown 3:2 is an algorithm for matching the slower frame rate of film to the faster refresh rate of a 60 Hz television.
- cipher - In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
- collaborative filtering - Collaborative filtering is the predictive process behind recommendation engines.
- combination and permutation - In mathematics, combination and permutation are two different ways of grouping elements of a set into subsets.
- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) - Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the use of applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how a gas or liquid flows -- as well as how the gas or liquid affects objects as it flows past.
- consensus algorithm - A consensus algorithm is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single data value among distributed processes or systems.
- conversational AI - Conversational AI is a type of artificial intelligence that enables consumers to interact with computer applications the way they would with other humans.
- convolutional neural network - A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a type of artificial neural network used in image recognition and processing that is specifically designed to process pixel data.
- correlation - Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate in relation to each other.
- correlation coefficient - A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the degree to which changes to the value of one variable predict change to the value of another.
- CRUSH (Controlled Replication Under Scalable Hashing) - CRUSH (Controlled Replication Under Scalable Hashing) is a hash-based algorithm for calculating how and where to store and retrieve data in a distributed object –based storage cluster.
- cryptographic checksum - Generated by a cryptographic algorithm, a cryptographic checksum is a mathematical value assigned to a file sent through a network for verifying that the data contained in that file is unchanged.
- cryptology - Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.
- cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
- data analytics (DA) - Data analytics (DA) is the process of examining data sets in order to find trends and draw conclusions about the information they contain.
- Data Encryption Standard (DES) - Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric key method of data encryption.
- data point - A data point is a discrete unit of information.
- data-driven decision management (DDDM) - Data-driven decision management (DDDM) is an approach to business governance that values actions that can be backed up with verifiable data.
- de-anonymization (deanonymization) - De-anonymization is a method used to detect the original data that was subjected to processes to make it impossible -- or at least harder -- to identify the personally identifiable information (PII).
- deconvolutional networks (deconvolutional neural networks) - Deconvolutional networks are convolutional neural networks (CNN) that work in a reversed process.
- deductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning is a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the accordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true.
- degree per second - The degree per second is a unit of angular (rotational) speed.
- demographic - A demographic is a subset of a population that shares a common factor such as age, income or education level.
- dependent variable - A dependent variable is a variable whose value depends upon independent variable s.
- Digital Signature Standard (DSS) - The Digital Signature Standard (DSS) is a digital signature algorithm (DSA) developed by the U.
- discrete event simulation (DES) - Discrete event simulation (DES) is the process of codifying the behavior of a complex system as an ordered sequence of well-defined events.
- domain generation algorithm (DGA) - A domain generation algorithm (DGA) is a program that generates a large list of domain names.
- Earth's mean orbital speed - Earth's mean orbital speed is the average speed at which the Earth revolves around the sun.
- Earth's mean radius - The Earth's mean radius is determined as the average distance from the physical center to the surface, based on a large number of samples.
- econometrics - Econometrics is the analysis and testing of economic theories to verify hypotheses and improve prediction of financial trends.
- element - In chemistry and physics, an element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler components by any non-nuclear chemical reaction.
- encryption key - In cryptography, an encryption key is a variable value that is applied using an algorithm to a string or block of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text or to decrypt encrypted text.
- Ethereum - Ethereum is an open source, distributed software platform based on blockchain technology.
- Euler diagram - An Euler diagram (pronounced OY-ler diagram) is a graphic depiction commonly used to illustrate the relationships between sets or groups; the diagrams are usually drawn with circles or ovals, although they can also use other shapes.
- evolutionary algorithm - An evolutionary algorithm (EA) is an algorithm that uses mechanisms inspired by nature and solves problems through processes that emulate the behaviors of living organisms.
- extrapolation and interpolation - Extrapolation is an estimation of a value based on extending a known sequence of values or facts beyond the area that is certainly known.
- Faraday constant - Faraday's constant, symbolized by the italic uppercase letter F, is the physical constant representing the electric charge in a mole.
- fast retransmit and recovery (FRR) - In TCP/IP, fast retransmit and recovery (FRR) is a congestion control algorithm that makes it possible to quickly recover lost data packets.
- Fibonacci poem (or Fib) - A Fibonacci poem (or Fib) is a multiple-line verse based on the Fibonacci sequence so that the number of syllables in each line equals the total number of syllables in the preceding two lines.
- Fibonacci sequence - The Fibonacci sequence is a set of integers (the Fibonacci numbers) that starts with a zero, followed by a one, then by another one, and then by a series of steadily increasing numbers.
- foot squared (square foot) - The foot squared, also called the square foot, is the standard unit of area in the English foot-pound-second (fps) system.
- fractal - Fractals are non-regular geometric shapes that have the same degree of non-regularity on all scales.
- fuzzy logic - Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on "degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.
- fuzzy number - A fuzzy number is a quantity whose value is imprecise, rather than exact as is the case with "ordinary" (single-valued) numbers.
- game theory - Game theory is the study of mathematical models of negotiation, conflict and cooperation between individuals, organizations and governments.
- garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) - GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) is a concise expression of a concept common to computer science and mathematics: the quality of output is determined by the quality of the input.
- gas constant (universal molar gas constant) - The gas constant, also known as the universal molar gas constant, is a physical constant that appears in an equation defining the behavior of a gas under theoretically ideal conditions.
- googol and googolplex - A googol is 10 to the 100th power (which is 1 followed by 100 zeros).
- greedy algorithm - A greedy algorithm is a mathematical process that looks for simple, easy-to-implement solutions to complex, multi-step problems by deciding which next step will provide the most obvious benefit.
- hexadecimal - Hexadecimal describes a base-16 number system.
- hysteresis - Hysteresis is the tendency for a system to change or react based on a trend of how it has already transformed leading up to a specific point in time.
- independent variable - An independent variable is a variable that is manipulated to determine the value of a dependent variable.
- inductive reasoning - Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion.
- information theory - Information theory is a branch of mathematics that overlaps into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.
- integer - An integer (pronounced IN-tuh-jer) is a whole number (not a fractional number) that can be positive, negative, or zero.
- International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) - The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a symmetric key block cipher encryption algorithm designed to encrypt text to an unreadable format for transmission via the internet.
- intersection symbol - The intersection symbol denotes the intersection of two sets.
- irrational number - An irrational number is a real number that cannot be reduced to any ratio between an integer p and a natural number q.
- Khan Academy - The Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization that provides free video tutorials and interactive exercises.
- kinematics - Kinematics is the study of the motion of mechanical points, bodies and systems without consideration of their associated physical properties and the forces acting on them.
- knowledge engineering - Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.
- law of averages - The law of averages is an erroneous generalization of the law of large numbers, which states that the frequencies of events with the same likelihood of occurrence even out, given enough trials or instances.
- law of large numbers - The law of large numbers is a principle of probability according to which the frequencies of events with the same likelihood of occurrence even out, given enough trials or instances.
- leaky bucket algorithm - The leaky bucket algorithm is used to implement traffic policing and traffic shaping in Ethernet and cellular data networks.
- learning curve - Learning curves are a visualization of the difficulty estimated in learning a subject over a period of time as well as relative progress throughout the process of learning.
- lemniscate - A lemniscate is a plane curve with a characteristic shape, consisting of two loops that meet at a central point as shown below.
- limit - In mathematics, a limit is a value toward which an expression converges as one or more variables approach certain values.
- logistic regression - Logistic regression is a statistical analysis method to predict a binary outcome, such as yes or no, based on prior observations of a data set.
- Luhn algorithm (modulus 10) - The Luhn algorithm, also called modulus 10 or modulus 10 algorithm, is a simple mathematical formula used to validate a user's identification numbers.
- machine learning algorithm - A machine learning algorithm is the method by which the AI system conducts its task, generally predicting output values from given input data.
- machine learning bias (AI bias) - Machine learning bias is a phenomenon that occurs when an algorithm produces results that are systemically prejudiced due to erroneous assumptions in the machine learning process.
- Markov model - A Markov model is a stochastic method for randomly changing systems where it is assumed that future states do not depend on past states.
- Mathematical symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent and how they are used.
- MD5 - The MD5 (message-digest algorithm) hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and returns as output a fixed-length digest value to be used for authenticating the original message.