# Algorithms

Terms related to procedures or formulas for solving a problem by conducting a sequence of specified actions. In computing, algorithms in the form of mathematical instructions play an important part in search, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning.- 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
- 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
- absolute truth - In general, absolute truth is whatever is always valid, regardless of parameters or context.
- absolute value - Absolute value is a term used in mathematics to indicate the distance of a point or number from the origin (zero point) of a number line or coordinate system.
- AI ethics (AI code of ethics) - AI ethics is a system of moral principles and techniques intended to inform the development and responsible use of artificial intelligence technology.
- AI hallucination - An AI hallucination is when a large language model (LLM) generates false information.
- algorithmic transparency - Algorithmic transparency is openness about the purpose, structure and underlying actions of the algorithms used to search for, process and deliver information.
- anomaly detection - Anomaly detection is the process of identifying data points, entities or events that fall outside the normal range.
- arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a central processing unit (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.
- artificial neuron - An artificial neuron is a connection point in an artificial neural network.
- atomic mass unit (AMU or amu) - The atomic mass unit (AMU or amu) of an element is a measure of its atomic mass.
- autocorrect - Autocorrect is a word processing feature that identifies misspelled words, and uses algorithms to identify the words most likely to have been intended, and edits the text accordingly.
- backpropagation algorithm - Backpropagation, or backward propagation of errors, is an algorithm that is designed to test for errors working back from output nodes to input nodes.
- binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit -- 0 or 1 -- and is the basis for all binary code used in computing systems.
- binary-coded decimal - Binary-coded decimal is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base 10) number.
- block cipher - A block cipher is a method of encrypting data in blocks to produce ciphertext using a cryptographic key and algorithm.
- Boolean - In computing, the term Boolean means a result that can only have one of two possible values: true or false.
- box plot - A box plot is a graphical rendition of statistical data based on the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum.
- cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid of specified shape, such that each cell changes state as a function of time, according to a defined set of rules driven by the states of neighboring cells.
- cinema pulldown 3:2 (telecine) - Cinema pulldown 3:2 is an algorithm for matching the slower frame rate of film to the faster refresh rate of a 60 Hz television.
- cipher - In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
- cloaking - Cloaking is a technique where a different version of web content is returned to users than to the search engine crawlers.
- combination and permutation - In mathematics, combination and permutation are two different ways of grouping elements of a set into subsets.
- Consensus Algorithm - A consensus algorithm is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single data value among distributed processes or systems.
- conversational AI (conversational artificial intelligence) - Conversational AI (conversational artificial intelligence) is a type of AI that enables computers to understand, process and generate human language.
- convolutional neural network (CNN) - A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a category of machine learning model, namely a type of deep learning algorithm well suited to analyzing visual data.
- correlation - Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate in relation to each other.
- correlation coefficient - A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the degree to which changes to the value of one variable predict change to the value of another.
- cryptographic checksum - Generated by a cryptographic algorithm, a cryptographic checksum is a mathematical value assigned to a file sent through a network for verifying that the data contained in that file is unchanged.
- cryptology - Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.
- cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
- data analytics (DA) - Data analytics (DA) is the process of examining data sets to find trends and draw conclusions about the information they contain.
- data literacy - Data literacy is the ability to derive meaningful information from data, just as literacy in general is the ability to derive information from the written word.
- data point - A data point is a discrete unit of information.
- de-anonymization (deanonymization) - De-anonymization is a method used to detect the original data that was subjected to processes to make it impossible -- or at least harder -- to identify the personally identifiable information (PII).
- decimal - Decimal is a numbering system that uses a base-10 representation for numeric values.
- deconvolutional networks (deconvolutional neural networks) - Deconvolutional networks are convolutional neural networks (CNN) that work in a reversed process.
- deductive argument - A deductive argument is a logic construct with two or more premises and a conclusion where if the premises are true then the conclusion must also be true.
- deductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning is a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the accordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true.
- degree per second - The degree per second is a unit of angular (rotational) speed.
- dependent variable - A dependent variable is a variable whose value depends upon independent variable s.
- digital process automation - Digital process automation (DPA) uses low-code development tools to automate processes that can span multiple applications.
- Digital Signature Standard (DSS) - The Digital Signature Standard (DSS) is a digital signature algorithm (DSA) developed by the U.
- discrete event simulation (DES) - Discrete event simulation (DES) is the process of codifying the behavior of a complex system as an ordered sequence of well-defined events.
- domain generation algorithm (DGA) - A domain generation algorithm (DGA) is a program that generates a large list of domain names.
- dot product (scalar product) - The dot product, also called scalar product, is a measure of how closely two vectors align with each other, in terms of the directions they point.
- edge analytics - Edge analytics is an approach to data collection and analysis in which an automated analytical computation is performed on data at a sensor, network switch or other device instead of waiting for the data to be sent back to a centralized data store.
- element - An element is a fundamental item that can't be easily broken into smaller pieces.
- element-of symbol - The element-of symbol is used in mathematical set theory to indicate that a point, object or number belongs to a certain set.
- encryption key - In cryptography, an encryption key is a variable value that is applied using an algorithm to a string or block of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text or to decrypt encrypted text.
- ensemble modeling - Ensemble modeling is the process of running two or more related but different analytical models and then synthesizing the results into a single score or spread.
- Ethereum - Ethereum is an open source, distributed software platform based on blockchain technology.
- evolutionary algorithm - An evolutionary algorithm (EA) is an algorithm that uses mechanisms inspired by nature and solves problems through processes that emulate the behaviors of living organisms.
- explainable AI - Explainable AI (XAI) is artificial intelligence (AI) that's programmed to describe its purpose, rationale and decision-making process in a way that the average person can understand.
- exponential function - An exponential function is a mathematical function used to calculate the exponential growth or decay of a given set of data.
- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) - Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit encoding scheme that standardizes how alphanumeric characters, punctuation and other symbols are interpreted by a computer's operating system (OS) and applications.
- extrapolation and interpolation - Extrapolation refers to estimating an unknown value based on extending a known sequence of values or facts.
- facial recognition - Facial recognition is a category of biometric software that maps an individual's facial features to confirm their identity.
- fan-out - In digital circuitry, fan-out is a measure of the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed without disrupting the circuitry's operations.
- Faraday constant - Faraday's constant, symbolized by the italic uppercase letter F, is the physical constant representing the electric charge in a mole.
- Fibonacci poem (or Fib) - A Fibonacci poem (or Fib) is a multiple-line verse based on the Fibonacci sequence so that the number of syllables in each line equals the total number of syllables in the preceding two lines.
- Fibonacci sequence - The Fibonacci sequence is a set of integers (the Fibonacci numbers) that starts with a zero, followed by a one, then by another one, and then by a series of steadily increasing numbers.
- fuzzy logic - Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on "degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.
- fuzzy search - A fuzzy search is a technique that uses search algorithms to find strings that match patterns approximately.
- garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) - Garbage in, garbage out, or GIGO, refers to the idea that in any system, the quality of output is determined by the quality of the input.
- Google Duplex - Google Duplex is an artificial intelligence (AI) technology that mimics a human voice and makes phone calls on a person's behalf.
- googol and googolplex - A googol is 10 to the 100th power, which is 1 followed by 100 zeros.
- gradient descent - Gradient descent is an optimization algorithm that refines a machine learning (ML) model's parameters to create a more accurate model.
- Hamming code - Hamming code is an error correction system that can detect and correct errors when data is stored or transmitted.
- Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC) - Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC) is a message encryption method that uses a cryptographic key in conjunction with a hash function.
- hexadecimal - Hexadecimal is a numbering system with base 16.
- image compression - Image compression is a process applied to a graphics file to minimize its size in bytes without degrading image quality below an acceptable threshold.
- inductive reasoning - Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion.
- initialization vector - An initialization vector (IV) is an arbitrary number that can be used with a secret key for data encryption to foil cyber attacks.
- integer - An integer (pronounced IN-tuh-jer) is a whole number (not a fractional number) that can be positive, negative, or zero.
- International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) - The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a symmetric key block cipher encryption algorithm designed to encrypt text to an unreadable format for transmission via the internet.
- JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) - JPEG (pronounced JAY-peg) is a graphic image file compressed with lossy compression using the standard developed by the ISO/IEC Joint Photographic Experts Group.
- Karnaugh map (K-map) - A Karnaugh map (K-map) is a visual method used to simplify the algebraic expressions in Boolean functions without having to resort to complex theorems or equation manipulations.
- kinematics - Kinematics is the study of the motion of mechanical points, bodies and systems without consideration of their associated physical properties and the forces acting on them.
- knowledge engineering - Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.
- law of large numbers - The law of large numbers is a principle of probability according to which the frequencies of events with the same likelihood of occurrence even out, given enough trials or instances.
- leaky bucket algorithm - The leaky bucket algorithm is a "traffic shaping" algorithm to reduce the load the transport layer places on the network layer and reduce congestion in the network.
- linear regression - Linear regression identifies the relationship between the mean value of one variable and the corresponding values of one or more other variables.
- logical negation symbol - The logical negation symbol is used in Boolean algebra to indicate that the truth value of the statement that follows is reversed.
- logistic regression - Logistic regression, also known as a logit model, is a statistical analysis method to predict a binary outcome, such as yes or no, based on prior observations of a data set.
- Luhn algorithm (modulus 10) - The Luhn algorithm, also called modulus 10 or modulus 10 algorithm, is a simple mathematical formula used to validate a user's identification numbers.
- machine learning algorithm - A machine learning algorithm is the method by which the AI system conducts its task, generally predicting output values from given input data.
- machine learning bias (AI bias) - Machine learning bias, also sometimes called algorithm bias or AI bias, is a phenomenon that occurs when an algorithm produces results that are systemically prejudiced due to erroneous assumptions in the machine learning process.
- Markov model - A Markov model is a stochastic method for randomly changing systems that possess the Markov property.
- Mathematical symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent and how they are used.
- MD5 - The MD5 (message-digest algorithm) hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and returns as output a fixed-length digest value to be used for authenticating the original message.
- millimeter (mm, millimetre) - A millimeter (abbreviated as mm and sometimes spelled as millimetre) is a small unit of length/distance in the metric system, one-thousandth of a meter (which is similar in length to a yard in the Imperial system of measurement).
- most significant bit (MSB) - The most significant bit (MSB) is the bit in a multiple-bit binary number with the largest value.
- narrow AI (weak AI) - Narrow AI is an application of artificial intelligence technologies to enable a high-functioning system that replicates -- and perhaps surpasses -- human intelligence for a dedicated purpose.
- natural number - A natural number is a number that occurs commonly and obviously in nature.
- nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) - NURBS (nonuniform rational B-splines) are mathematical representations of 2- or 3-dimensional objects, which can be standard shapes (such as a cone) or free-form shapes (such as a car).
- normal distribution - A normal distribution is a type of continuous probability distribution in which most data points cluster toward the middle of the range, while the rest taper off symmetrically toward either extreme.
- operation (computing) - An operation, in computing, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
- operator - In mathematics and computer programming, an operator is a character that represents a specific mathematical or logical action or process.
- order of magnitude - An order of magnitude is an exponential change of plus or minus 1 in the value of a quantity or unit.