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Network hardware

Terms related to network hardware, including definitions about cables or file servers and words and phrases about routers and switches.

100 - HIG

  • 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) - 1000BASE-T is Gigabit Ethernet -- 1 gigabit is 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps) on copper cables, using four pairs of Category 5 (Cat5) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) to achieve the gigabit data rate.
  • access layer - The access layer is where host computers and end users connect to the network.
  • adaptive routing (dynamic routing) - Adaptive routing, also called dynamic routing, is a process for determining the optimal path a data packet should follow through a network to arrive at a specific destination.
  • analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adaptor (ATA) is a device used to connect a standard telephone to a computer or network so that the user can make calls over the Internet.
  • application delivery controller (ADC) - An application delivery controller (ADC) is a network component that manages and optimizes how client machines connect to web and enterprise application servers.
  • ARCNET - ARCNET is a widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology that uses a token-bus scheme for managing line sharing among the workstations and other devices connected on the LAN.
  • ARM server - An advanced RISC machine (ARM) server is an enterprise-class computer server that employs a large array of ARM processors rather than a complement of x86-class processors.
  • AS/400 (IBM iSeries, AS/400e, eServer iSeries/400) - The AS/400 - formally renamed the 'eServer iSeries/400,' but still commonly known as AS/400 - is a middle-size server designed for small businesses and departments in large enterprises and now redesigned so that it will work well in distributed networks.
  • Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
  • autonomous system (AS) - An autonomous system (AS) in networking is a collection of one or more associated Internet Protocol (IP) prefixes with a clearly defined routing policy that governs how the AS exchanges routing information with other autonomous systems.
  • backbone - A backbone is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller lines that interconnect with it.
  • baseband - Describes a telecommunication system in which information is carried in digital form on a single unmultiplexed signal channel on the transmission medium.
  • BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
  • blade PC (or PC blade) - A blade PC, also called a PC blade, is a computer that is entirely contained in a thin, modular circuit card placed in a centralized, secure location such as a server rack.
  • BNC (Bayonet Neil-Concelman or British Naval Connector) - A BNC (Bayonet Neil-Concelman, or sometimes British Naval Connector) connector is used to connect a computer to a coaxial cable in a 10BASE-2 Ethernet network.
  • bogon - A bogon is an illegitimate IP address that falls into a set of IP addresses that have not been officially assigned to an entity by an internet registration institute, such as the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA).
  • bridge - A bridge is a class of network device that’s designed to connect networks at OSI Level 2, which is the data link layer of a local-area network (LAN).
  • broadband voice gateway - A broadband voice gateway is a device that allows you to make telephone calls over a high-speed Internet connection rather than through a regular telephone outlet without having to go through your computer.
  • burn-in - Burn-in is a test in which a system or component is made to run for an extended period of time to detect problems.
  • bus network - A bus network is a local area network (LAN) topology in which each node -- a workstation or other device -- is connected to a main cable or link called a bus.
  • cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
  • cache server - A cache server is a dedicated network server or service acting as a server that saves Web pages or other Internet content locally.
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • Carrier Sensitive Routing (CSR) - Carrier Sensitive Routing (CSR) is a network solution that allows Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) subscribers to determine and manipulate the routing of individual calls.
  • catastrophic failure - Catastrophic failure is a complete, sudden, often unexpected breakdown in a machine, electronic system, computer or network.
  • Categories of twisted-pair cabling systems - A twisted-pair cabling system is a cable consisting of one or several pairs of copper wires.
  • CE router (customer edge router) - A CE router (customer edge router) is a router located on the customer premises that provides an Ethernet interface between the customer's LAN and the provider's core network.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) - CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) -- also known as supernetting -- is a method of assigning Internet Protocol (IP) addresses that improves the efficiency of address distribution and replaces the previous system based on class A, class B and class C networks.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a complete circular path that electricity flows through.
  • circuit switching - Circuit switching is a type of network configuration in which a physical path is obtained and dedicated to a single connection between two endpoints in the network for the duration of a dedicated connection.
  • Cisco Borderless Networks - Cisco Borderless Networks is the brand name for a set of hardware and software technologies which allow "anyone, anywhere, anytime, and on any device" to connect to an organization's network.
  • Cisco IOS (Cisco Internetwork Operating System) - Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) is a proprietary operating system that runs on Cisco Systems routers and switches.
  • Cisco LISP (Location Identifier Separation Protocol) - LISP (Location Identifier Separation Protocol) is a routing and addressing architecture developed by Cisco Systems.
  • Cisco Performance Routing (PfR) - Cisco Performance Routing (PfR) is a way of sending network packets based on intelligent path control.
  • Cisco Systems, Inc. - Cisco Systems, Inc.
  • CNAME - A CNAME specifies an alias or nickname for a canonical name record in a domain name system (DNS) database.
  • coaxial antenna - A coaxial antenna is a variant of the dipole antenna, designed for use with an unbalanced feed line.
  • coaxial cable - Coaxial cable is a type of copper cable specially built with a metal shield and other components engineered to block signal interference.
  • committed information rate (CIR) - Committed information rate (CIR) is the guaranteed rate at which a Frame Relay network will transfer information under normal line conditions.
  • commodity - A commodity is a type of widely-available product that is not markedly dissimilar from one unit to another.
  • commodity hardware - Commodity hardware, in an IT context, is a device or device component that is relatively inexpensive, widely available and more or less interchangeable with other hardware of its type.
  • computer hardware - Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer.
  • configuration drift - Configuration drift occurs naturally in data center environments when changes to software and hardware are not recorded or tracked in a comprehensive and systematic fashion.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connection broker - In desktop virtualization, a connection broker is a software program that allows the end-user to connect to an available desktop.
  • control network - A control network is a network of nodes that collectively monitor, sense, and control or enable control of an environment for a particular purpose.
  • converged network adapter (CNA) - A converged network adapter (CNA) is a single network interface device that provides the functionality of both a Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapter (HBA) and a TCP/IP Ethernet network interface card (NIC).
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • cross-bar switch - In a network, a cross-bar switch is a device that is capable of channeling data between any two devices that are attached to it up to its maximum number of ports.
  • crosstalk - Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit.
  • CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) - CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) is a protocol for carrier transmission in 802.
  • CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) - A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device about the size of an external modem that converts a digital data frame from the communications technology used on a local area network (LAN) into a frame appropriate to a wide-area network (WAN) and vice versa.
  • customer premises equipment (CPE) - Customer premises equipment (CPE) is telecommunications and information technology equipment kept at the customer's physical location rather than on the service provider's premises.
  • Data Access Arrangement (DAA) - A Data Access Arrangement (DAA) is an electronic interface within a computer and its modem to a public telephone line.
  • data availability - Data availability is a term used by computer storage manufacturers and storage service providers to describe how data should be available at a required level of performance in situations ranging from normal through disastrous.
  • data center services - Data center services is a collective term for all the supporting components necessary to the proper operation of data center.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical fiber multiplexing technology that is used to increase the bandwidth of existing fiber networks.
  • digital audio broadcasting (DAB) - .
  • domain name system (DNS) - The domain name system (DNS) is a naming database in which internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
  • DSC pull server - A DSC pull server (desired state configuration pull server) is an automation server that allows configurations to be maintained on many servers, computer workstations and devices across a network.
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) - Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a self-maintaining routing protocol for wireless networks.
  • edge device - An edge device is any piece of hardware that controls data flow at the boundary between two networks.
  • edge node - An edge node is a computer that acts as an end user portal for communication with other nodes in cluster computing.
  • edge provider - An edge provider is a service that a given ISP’s customers connect to that is not inside that provider’s network and does not belong to them.
  • edge router - An edge router is a specialized router located at a network boundary that enables an internal network to connect to external networks.
  • egress - Egress (pronounced EE-grehs, from Latin egressus, or going out) is the act of going out of something.
  • Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) - Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) is a load-balancing service for Amazon Web Services (AWS) deployments.
  • endpoint device - An endpoint device is an Internet-capable computer hardware device on a TCP/IP network.
  • Energy Star - Energy Star is a government-backed labeling program that helps people and organizations save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by identifying factories, office equipment, home appliances and electronics that have superior energy efficiency.
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a network protocol that enables routers to exchange information more efficiently than earlier network protocols, such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
  • enterprise DNS - Enterprise DNS is an enterprise-class implementation of the domain name system (DNS) that resolves external and internal queries for large organizations in a centrally managed, scalable, automatable and secure way.
  • Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) - Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) is a network communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at speeds of 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and at up to 1500 bytes per packet.
  • event handler - In programming, an event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously once an event takes place.
  • event handling - Event handling is the receipt of an event at some event handler from an event producer and subsequent processes.
  • FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) - FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) is a storage protocol that enable Fibre Channel (FC) communications to run directly over Ethernet.
  • female connector - A female connector is a connector attached to a wire, cable, or piece of hardware, having one or more recessed holes with electrical terminals inside, and constructed in such a way that a plug with exposed conductors (male connector) can be inserted snugly into it to ensure a reliable physical and electrical connection.
  • fiber jumper - A fiber jumper, sometimes called a fiber patch cord is a length of fiber cabling fitted with LC, SC, MTRJ or ST connectors at each end.
  • Fibre Channel (FC) port types - A Fibre Channel port is a hardware pathway into and out of a node that performs data communications over an FC link.
  • field of view (FOV) - Field of view (FOV) is the open, observable area a person can see through their eyes or via an optical device, such as a camera.
  • file server - A file server is a computer responsible for the storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.
  • fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) - A fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) refers to a type of enterprise or provider networking where a block of IP addresses is divided into multiple subnets of equal length (i.
  • flow routing - Flow routing is a network routing technology that takes variations in the flow of data into account to increase routing efficiency.
  • forward error correction (FEC) - Forward error correction (FEC) is a method of obtaining error control in data transmission in which the source (transmitter) sends redundant data and the destination (receiver) recognizes only the portion of the data that contains no apparent errors.
  • full-disk encryption (FDE) - What is full-disk encryption (FDE)?Full-disk encryption (FDE) is encryption at the hardware level.
  • full-duplex - Full-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier at the same time.
  • gatekeeper - A gatekeeper is a management tool for H.
  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) - Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a simple protocol that encapsulates packets in order to route other protocols over IP networks, as defined by RFC 2784.
  • geo-fencing (geofencing) - Geo-fencing is a feature in a software program that uses the global positioning system (GPS) or radio frequency identification (RFID) to define geographical boundaries.
  • GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching or Multiprotocol Lambda Switching) - GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching) is a networking technology that enables fast and reliable network switching of data flows on any type of network infrastructure.
  • graceful degradation - Graceful degradation is the ability of a computer, machine, electronic system or network to maintain limited functionality even when a large portion of it has been destroyed or rendered inoperative.
  • green networking - Green networking is the practice of selecting energy-efficient networking technologies and products, and minimizing resource use whenever possible.
  • greenfield deployment - A greenfield deployment is the design, installation and configuration of computer infrastructure where none existed before, for example, in a new office.
  • GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol or Generic VLAN Registration Protocol) - GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol or Generic VLAN Registration Protocol) is a standards-based protocol that facilitates control of virtual local area networks (VLANs) within a larger network.
  • hard reset (factory reset; master reset) - A hard reset, also known as a factory reset or master reset, is the restoration of a device, such as a smartphone or tablet, to its state when it left the factory.
  • hardware security - Hardware security is vulnerability protection that comes in the form of a physical device rather than software that's installed on the hardware of a computer system.
  • hardware-as-a-service (in managed services) - Hardware-as-a-service (HaaS) is a procurement model that is similar to leasing or licensing in which hardware that belongs to a managed service provider (MSP) is installed at a customer's site and a service level agreement (SLA) defines the responsibilities of both parties.
  • HELLO packet - A HELLO packet is a special data packet (message) that is sent out periodically from a router to establish and confirm network adjacency relationships to other routers in the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol.
  • high availability (HA) - High availability (HA) is the ability of a system to operate continuously without failing for a designated period of time.
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