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Network hardware

Terms related to network hardware, including definitions about cables or file servers and words and phrases about routers and switches.
  • 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) - 1000BASE-T is Gigabit Ethernet -- 1 gigabit is 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps) on copper cables, using four pairs of Category 5 (Cat5) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) to achieve the gigabit data rate.
  • analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adapter (ATA) is a device used to connect an analog telephone, fax machine or similar equipment to a computer or network to enable communications over the internet.
  • application delivery controller (ADC) - An application delivery controller (ADC) is a network component that manages and optimizes how client machines connect to web and enterprise application servers.
  • AS/400 (IBM iSeries, AS/400e, eServer iSeries/400, Power Systems) - The IBM Application System/400 -- or AS/400 -- is a family of midrange computers that was released in 1988, succeeding both System/36 and System/38 platforms.
  • Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
  • autonomous system (AS) - An autonomous system (AS) in networking is a collection of one or more associated Internet Protocol (IP) prefixes with a clearly defined routing policy that governs how the AS exchanges routing information with other autonomous systems.
  • BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
  • bridge - A bridge is a class of network device designed to connect networks at OSI Level 2, which is the data link layer of a local area network.
  • burn-in - Burn-in is a test in which a system or component is made to run for an extended period of time to detect problems.
  • bus network - A bus network is a local area network (LAN) topology in which each node -- a workstation or other device -- is connected to a main cable or link called a bus.
  • cache server - A cache server is a dedicated network server or service acting as a server that saves webpages or other internet content locally.
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • Categories of twisted-pair cabling systems - A twisted-pair cabling system is a cable consisting of one or several pairs of copper wires.
  • CE router (customer edge router) - A CE router (customer edge router) is a router located on the customer premises that provides an Ethernet interface between the customer's LAN and the provider's core network.
  • CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) - CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) is a method of assigning IP addresses that improves the efficiency of address distribution and replaces the previous system based on Class A, Class B and Class C networks.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a complete circular path that electricity flows through.
  • circuit switching - Circuit switching is a type of network configuration in which a physical path is obtained and dedicated to a single connection between two endpoints in the network for the duration of a dedicated connection.
  • Cisco IOS (Cisco Internetwork Operating System) - Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) is a collection of proprietary operating systems (OSes) that runs on Cisco hardware devices, including Cisco Systems network devices, routers and network switches.
  • Cisco Performance Routing (PfR) - Cisco Performance Routing (PfR) is a way of sending network packets based on intelligent path control.
  • Cisco Systems, Inc. - Cisco Systems, Inc.
  • CNAME - A CNAME specifies an alias or nickname for a canonical name record in a domain name system (DNS) database.
  • coaxial cable - Coaxial cable is a type of copper cable specially built with a metal shield and other components engineered to block signal interference.
  • committed information rate (CIR) - Committed information rate (CIR) is the guaranteed rate at which a Frame Relay network will transfer information under normal line conditions.
  • commodity hardware - Commodity hardware in computing is computers or components that are readily available, inexpensive and easily interchangeable with other commodity hardware.
  • computer hardware - Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer.
  • computer network - A computer network is a group of interconnected nodes or computing devices that exchange data and resources with each other.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • converged network adapter (CNA) - A converged network adapter (CNA) is a single network interface device that provides the functionality of both a Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapter (HBA) and a TCP/IP Ethernet network interface card (NIC).
  • crosstalk - Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit.
  • CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) - CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) is a protocol for carrier transmission in 802.
  • CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) - A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device about the size of a modem.
  • customer premises equipment (CPE) - Customer premises equipment (CPE) is telecommunications and information technology equipment kept at the customer's physical location rather than on the service provider's premises.
  • Data Access Arrangement (DAA) - A Data Access Arrangement (DAA) is an electronic interface within a computer and its modem to a public telephone line.
  • data availability - Data availability is a term used by computer storage manufacturers and storage service providers to describe how data should be available at a required level of performance in situations ranging from normal through disastrous.
  • data center services - Data center services provide the supporting components necessary to the proper operation of a data center.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data from one or more sources at a steady, high speed for processing into specific outputs.
  • dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical fiber multiplexing technology that is used to increase the bandwidth of existing fiber networks.
  • domain name system (DNS) - The domain name system (DNS) is a naming database in which internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
  • edge device - An edge device is any piece of hardware that controls data flow at the boundary between two networks.
  • edge node - An edge node is a computer that acts as an end user portal for communication with other nodes in cluster computing.
  • edge router - An edge router is a specialized router located at a network boundary that enables an internal network to connect to external networks.
  • endpoint device - An endpoint device is an internet-capable computer hardware device on a TCP/IP network.
  • Energy Star - Energy Star is a government-backed labeling program that helps people and organizations save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by identifying factories, office equipment, home appliances and electronics that have superior energy efficiency.
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a network protocol that enables routers to exchange information more efficiently than earlier network protocols, such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
  • Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) - Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) is a network communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at speeds of 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and at up to 1500 bytes per packet.
  • event handler - In programming, an event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously once an event takes place.
  • Fibre Channel (FC) port types - A Fibre Channel port is a hardware pathway into and out of a node that performs data communications over an FC link.
  • Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) - Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FcoE) is a storage protocol that enables Fibre Channel (FC) communications to run directly over Ethernet.
  • field of view (FOV) - Field of view (FOV) is the open, observable area a person can see through their eyes or via an optical device, such as a camera.
  • file server - A file server is a computer responsible for the storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.
  • fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) - A fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) refers to a type of enterprise or provider networking where a block of IP addresses is divided into multiple subnets of equal length (i.
  • flow routing - Flow routing is a network routing technology that takes variations in the flow of data into account to increase routing efficiency.
  • full-duplex - Full-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier at the same time.
  • gatekeeper - A gatekeeper is a management tool for H.
  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) - Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a protocol that encapsulates packets in order to route various protocols over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
  • GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching or Multiprotocol Lambda Switching) - GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching) is a networking technology that enables fast and reliable network switching of data flows on any type of network infrastructure.
  • green networking - Green networking is the practice of selecting energy-efficient networking technologies and products and minimizing resource use whenever possible.
  • greenfield deployment - A greenfield deployment is the design, installation and configuration of computer infrastructure where none existed before, for example, in a new office.
  • GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol or Generic VLAN Registration Protocol) - GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol or Generic VLAN Registration Protocol) is a standards-based protocol that facilitates control of virtual local area networks (VLANs) within a larger network.
  • hardware security - Hardware security is vulnerability protection that comes in the form of a physical device rather than software that's installed on the hardware of a computer system.
  • hardware-as-a-service (in managed services) - Hardware-as-a-service (HaaS) is a procurement model that is similar to leasing or licensing in which hardware that belongs to a managed service provider (MSP) is installed at a customer's site and a service level agreement (SLA) defines the responsibilities of both parties.
  • HELLO packet - A HELLO packet is a special data packet (message) that is sent out periodically from a router to establish and confirm network adjacency relationships to other routers in the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol.
  • high availability (HA) - High availability (HA) is the ability of a system to operate continuously for a designated period of time even if components within the system fail.
  • host bus adapter (HBA) - A host bus adapter (HBA) is a circuit board or integrated circuit adapter that connects a host system, such as a server, to a storage or network device.
  • InfiniBand - InfiniBand is an industry standard communications specification the InfiniBand Trade Association (IBTA) developed.
  • infrastructure (IT infrastructure) - Infrastructure is the foundation or framework that supports a system or organization.
  • intermediate distribution frame (IDF) - An intermediate distribution frame (IDF) is a free-standing or wall-mounted rack for managing and interconnecting a telecommunications cable between end-user devices and the main distribution frame (MDF).
  • IP address (Internet Protocol address) - Internet Protocol (IP) address is a unique numerical identifier for every device or network that connects to the internet.
  • IP PBX (private branch exchange) - An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise) that switches calls between VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol or IP) users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines.
  • IPv4 address class - An IPv4 address class is a categorical division of internet protocol addresses in IPv4-based routing.
  • iterative DNS query - An iterative DNS query is a request for a website name or URL.
  • jumbo frames - A jumbo frame is an Ethernet frame, or data packet, with a payload greater than the standard size of 1,500 bytes.
  • keylogger (keystroke logger or system monitor) - A keylogger, sometimes called a keystroke logger, is a type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke on a specific device, such as a computer or smartphone.
  • keystone jack - A keystone jack is a female connector used in audio, video and data communications.
  • Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) - Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used by an internet service provider (ISP) to enable the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the internet.
  • local area network (LAN) - A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and peripheral devices that are connected together within a distinct geographic area, such as an office building or campus.
  • MAC address (media access control address) - A MAC address (media access control address) is a 12-digit hexadecimal number assigned to each device connected to the network.
  • male connector (or plug) - A male connector is a connector attached to a wire, cable, or piece of hardware, having one or more exposed, unshielded electrical terminal s, and constructed in such a way that it can be inserted snugly into a receptacle (female connector) to ensure a reliable physical and electrical connection.
  • Martian address (Martian packet) - A Martian address is a source or destination IP address that apparently does not exist on Planet Earth and is, thus, invalid and/or non-routable.
  • MDI/MDIX (medium-dependent interface/MDI crossover) - MDI/MDIX is a type of Ethernet port connection that uses twisted-pair cabling to link two networked devices.
  • mesh network topology (mesh network) - A mesh network is a network in which devices -- or nodes -- are linked together, branching off other devices or nodes.
  • metropolitan area network (MAN) - A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that is larger than a single building local area network (LAN) but is located in a single geographic area that is smaller than a wide area network (WAN).
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) - MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver).
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a switching mechanism used in wide area networks (WANs).
  • NBASE-T Ethernet - NBASE-T Ethernet is an IEEE standard and Ethernet-signaling technology that enables existing twisted-pair copper cabling to exceed the cable's specified limit of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) for distances of up to 100 meters.
  • near-end crosstalk (NEXT) - Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) is an error condition that can occur when connectors are attached to twisted pair cabling.
  • near-field communication (NFC) - Near-field communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity technology that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between devices when they're touched together or brought within a few centimeters of each other.
  • NetFlow - NetFlow is a network protocol developed by Cisco for the collection and monitoring of network traffic flow data that is generated by most Cisco routers and switches.
  • network automation - Network automation is a methodology in which software automatically configures, provisions, manages and tests network devices.
  • network drive - A network drive is a shared storage device on a local area network (LAN) within a business or home.
  • network hub - A network hub is a node that broadcasts data to every computer or Ethernet-based device connected to it.
  • network interface card (NIC) - A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware component, typically a circuit board or chip, installed on a computer so it can connect to a network.
  • network segmentation - Network segmentation is a networking architectural design that divides a network into multiple segments (subnets) with each functioning as a smaller, individual network.
  • network switch - A network switch connects devices in a network to each other, enabling them to talk by exchanging data packets.
  • network topology - A network topology is the physical and logical arrangement of nodes and connections in a network.
  • networking (computer) - Networking, also known as computer networking, is the practice of transporting and exchanging data between nodes over a shared medium in an information system.
  • northbound interface/southbound interface - A northbound interface is an application programming interface (API) or protocol that allows a lower-level network component to communicate with a higher-level or more central component, while -- conversely -- a southbound interface allows a higher-level component to send commands to lower-level network components.
  • ODM (original design manufacturer) - An ODM (original design manufacturer) is a company that takes the original specifications of another company or individual and builds the design to the product specifications.
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) - Open Shortest Path First, often shortened to OSPF, is an IP routing protocol used to find the best path to distribute packets as they pass through IP networks.
Networking
Security
  • zero-day vulnerability

    A zero-day vulnerability is a security loophole in software, hardware or firmware that threat actors exploit before the vendors ...

  • DNS attack

    A DNS attack is an exploit in which an attacker takes advantage of vulnerabilities in the domain name system.

  • malware

    Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that's intentionally harmful to a computer, network or server.

CIO
  • data collection

    Data collection is the process of gathering data for use in business decision-making, strategic planning, research and other ...

  • chief trust officer

    A chief trust officer (CTrO) in the IT industry is an executive job title given to the person responsible for building confidence...

  • green IT (green information technology)

    Green IT (green information technology) is the practice of creating and using environmentally sustainable computing resources.

HRSoftware
  • diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI)

    Diversity, equity and inclusion is a term used to describe policies and programs that promote the representation and ...

  • ADP Mobile Solutions

    ADP Mobile Solutions is a self-service mobile app that enables employees to access work records such as pay, schedules, timecards...

  • director of employee engagement

    Director of employee engagement is one of the job titles for a human resources (HR) manager who is responsible for an ...

Customer Experience
  • digital marketing

    Digital marketing is the promotion and marketing of goods and services to consumers through digital channels and electronic ...

  • contact center schedule adherence

    Contact center schedule adherence is a standard metric used in business contact centers to determine whether contact center ...

  • customer retention

    Customer retention is a metric that measures customer loyalty, or an organization's ability to retain customers over time.

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