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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.
  • 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
  • 99.999 (Five nines or Five 9s) - In computers, 99.
  • A-weighted decibel (dBA or dB(A)) - A-weighted decibel (dBA or dB(A)) is an expression of the relative loudness of sounds as perceived by the human ear.
  • absolute truth - In general, absolute truth is whatever is always valid, regardless of parameters or context.
  • accumulator - An accumulator is a type of register for short-term, intermediate storage of arithmetic and logic data in a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
  • acronym - An acronym (pronounced AK-ruh-nihm, from Greek acro- in the sense of extreme or tip and onyma or name) is an abbreviation of several words in such a way that the abbreviation itself forms a word.
  • address bar - The address bar is the familiar text field at the top of a web browser’s graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the name or the URL (uniform resource locator) of the current web page.
  • address space - Address space is the amount of memory allocated for all possible addresses for a computational entity -- for example, a device, a file, a server or a networked computer.
  • agnostic - Agnostic, in an information technology (IT) context, refers to something that is generalized so that it is interoperable among various systems.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • angstrom (angstrom unit) - The angstrom, also known as the angstrom unit, is a measure of displacement equal to 0.
  • anode - An anode is the electrode in a polarized electrical device through which current flows in from an outside circuit.
  • Apple - Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer Inc.
  • application programming interface (API) - An application programming interface (API) is code that enables two software programs to communicate.
  • assistive technology (adaptive technology) - Assistive technology is a set of devices intended to help people who have disabilities.
  • asymmetric communications - Asymmetric communications is a term pertaining to any system in which the data speed or quantity, when averaged over time, is different in one direction from the other.
  • Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
  • AV (audio/video) - AV, an abbreviation for audio/video, is frequently used as a generic term for the audio and video components and capabilities in home entertainment systems and related product descriptions and reviews.
  • backslash - The backslash ( \ ) is a typographic and/or keyboard mark that is widely used in programming languages and other computing contexts.
  • backup storage device - A backup storage device is a hardware component for storing copies of data.
  • balanced scorecard - The balance scorecard (BSC) is a management system aimed at translating an organization's strategic goals into a set of organizational performance objectives that, in turn, are measured, monitored, and changed if necessary to ensure that an organizations strategic goals are met.
  • barcode (or bar code) - A barcode (sometimes seen as two words, bar code) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person or location.
  • bare-metal restore - A bare-metal restore (also referred to as bare-metal recovery or bare-metal backup) is a data recovery and restoration process where a computer is restored to a new machine, typically after a catastrophic failure.
  • benchmark - A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.
  • binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit -- 0 or 1 -- and is the basis for all binary code used in computing systems.
  • binary-coded decimal - Binary-coded decimal is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base 10) number.
  • biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biology to develop new products, methods and organisms intended to improve human health and society.
  • bit (binary digit) - A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of data that a computer can process and store.
  • bitwise - Bitwise operations manipulate data at the bit level rather than with bytes or larger units of data, as is more common.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • blue screen of death (BSOD) - Officially called the stop screen, or stop error, the blue screen of death (BSOD) is a most unwanted error, second only to malware or ransomware in indicating that a user is in for a very bad day.
  • boot - To boot (to boot up, to start up or booting) a computer is to load an operating system (OS) into the computer's main memory or random-access memory (RAM).
  • Bootstrap - Bootstrap is a free, open source front-end development framework for the creation of websites and web apps.
  • bottleneck - A bottleneck, in a communications context, is a point in the enterprise where the flow of data is impaired or stopped entirely.
  • brain-computer interface (BCI) - Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a collaboration between a brain and a device that enables signals from the brain to direct some external activity, such as control of a cursor or a prosthetic limb.
  • brand - A brand is a product, service or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed.
  • broadband - Broadband refers to telecommunications in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information.
  • burn - Burn is a colloquial term meaning to write content to a CD, DVD, or other recordable disc.
  • business impact analysis (BIA) - A business impact analysis (BIA) is a systematic process to determine and evaluate the potential effects of an interruption to critical business operations as a result of a disaster, accident or emergency.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • business process outsourcing (BPO) - Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a business practice in which an organization contracts with an external service provider to perform an essential business function or task.
  • business process reengineering (BPR) - Business process reengineering (BPR) is a management practice in which business processes used are radically redesigned to improve efficiency, effectiveness and performance.
  • byte - In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that an interpreter converts into binary machine code so it can be read by a computer's hardware processor.
  • cache - A cache -- pronounced CASH -- is hardware or software that is used to store something, usually data, temporarily in a computing environment.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • caching - Caching -- pronounced "cashing" -- is the process of storing data in a cache, which is a temporary storage area that facilitates faster access to data with the goal of improving application and system performance.
  • calculator - A calculator is a device that performs arithmetic operations on numbers.
  • canonical - In programming, canonical means "according to the rules.
  • cathode - A cathode is the metallic electrode through which current flows out in a polarized electrical device.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid of specified shape, such that each cell changes state as a function of time, according to a defined set of rules driven by the states of neighboring cells.
  • change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes and technologies.
  • checksum - A checksum is a value that represents the number of bits in a transmission message and is used by IT professionals to detect high-level errors within data transmissions.
  • CIO (Chief Information Officer) - A chief information officer (CIO) is the corporate executive in charge of information technology (IT) strategy and implementation.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text transformed from plaintext using an encryption algorithm.
  • classical computing - Classical computing is the processing of binary data in traditional types of bit-based computer systems.
  • clean electricity - Clean electricity, or carbon-free electricity, is electricity without high voltage spikes and drops, meaning it is low on emitting electrical pollution.
  • clean install - A clean install is a software installation in which any previous version is eradicated.
  • client - A client is a hardware or software device that requests access to a service that is typically made available by a server.
  • clipboard - A clipboard is a temporary storage area for data that the user wants to copy from one place to another.
  • clock speed - Clock speed is the number of times a second that a circuit operates and is most associated with the central processing unit (CPU).
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie or computer presentation.
  • cloud architect - A cloud architect is an IT professional who is responsible for overseeing a company's cloud computing strategy.
  • cold backup (offline backup) - A cold backup is a backup of an offline database.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • collaborative robot (cobot) - A collaborative robot, also known as a cobot, is an industrial robot that can safely operate alongside humans in a shared workspace.
  • complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) - A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) is the semiconductor technology used in most of today's integrated circuits, also known as chips or microchips.
  • compound - In chemistry, a compound is a substance made up of two or more different chemical elements that are combined in a fixed ratio.
  • computer - A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program, software, or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed.
  • computer forensics (cyber forensics) - Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law.
  • computer hardware - Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer.
  • computer instruction - A computer instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a computer program.
  • computer room air conditioning (CRAC) unit - A computer room air conditioning (CRAC) unit is a device that monitors and maintains the temperature, air distribution and humidity in a data center, network or server room.
  • computer system - A computer system consists of hardware components that have been carefully chosen so that they work well together and software components or programs that run in the computer.
  • computer-based training (CBT) - Computer-based training (CBT) is any course of instruction whose primary means of delivery is a computer.
  • configuration - Generally, a configuration is the arrangement - or the process of making the arrangement - of the parts that make up a whole.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • container (disambiguation) - This page explains how the term container is used in software development, storage, data center management and mobile device management.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual, organization or tool that gathers web content and applications from different online sources for reuse.
  • content filtering - Content filtering is a process involving the use of software or hardware to screen and/or restrict access to objectionable email, webpages, executables and other suspicious items.
  • content-addressed storage (CAS) - Content-addressed storage (CAS) -- also called content-addressable storage -- is a method for storing fixed content as objects and providing fast access to that content.
  • continuous data protection (CDP) - Continuous data protection (CDP), also known as continuous backup, is a backup and recovery storage system in which all the data in an enterprise is backed up whenever any change is made.
  • controller (computing) - A controller, in a computing context, is a hardware device or a software program that manages or directs the flow of data between two entities.
  • corollary - A corollary is a statement that follows naturally from some other statement that has either been proven or is generally accepted as true.
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS and NOTS are abbreviations that describe prepackaged software or -- less commonly -- hardware purchase alternatives.
  • cryptographic nonce - A nonce is a random or semi-random number that is generated for a specific use.
  • cryptography - Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications using codes, so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.
  • cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) - In information technology, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to any of several physical problems that can result from improper or excessive use of a computer display or terminal.
  • cursor - A cursor is the position indicator on a computer display screen where a user can enter text.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • customer lifecycle - In customer relationship management (CRM), customer lifecycle is a term used to describe the progression of steps a customer goes through when considering, purchasing, using and maintaining loyalty to a product or service.
  • cyberpicketing - Cyberpicketing is the use of the Internet to protest a corporation or other institution's wages, work conditions, products, environmental policy, or other issues.
  • cyberstalking - Cyberstalking is a crime in which someone harasses or stalks a victim using electronic or digital means, such as social media, email, instant messaging (IM) or messages posted to a discussion group or forum.
  • data - In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for movement or processing.
  • data center - A data center is a facility composed of networked computers, storage systems and computing infrastructure that organizations use to assemble, process, store and disseminate large amounts of data.
  • data classification - Data classification is the process of organizing data into categories that make it easy to retrieve, sort and store for future use.
  • data compression - Data compression is a reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data.
Networking
  • SD-WAN security

    SD-WAN security refers to the practices, protocols and technologies protecting data and resources transmitted across ...

  • net neutrality

    Net neutrality is the concept of an open, equal internet for everyone, regardless of content consumed or the device, application ...

  • network scanning

    Network scanning is a procedure for identifying active devices on a network by employing a feature or features in the network ...

Security
  • virtual firewall

    A virtual firewall is a firewall device or service that provides network traffic filtering and monitoring for virtual machines (...

  • cloud penetration testing

    Cloud penetration testing is a tactic an organization uses to assess its cloud security effectiveness by attempting to evade its ...

  • cloud workload protection platform (CWPP)

    A cloud workload protection platform (CWPP) is a security tool designed to protect workloads that run on premises, in the cloud ...

CIO
  • Regulation SCI (Regulation Systems Compliance and Integrity)

    Regulation SCI (Regulation Systems Compliance and Integrity) is a set of rules adopted by the U.S. Securities and Exchange ...

  • strategic management

    Strategic management is the ongoing planning, monitoring, analysis and assessment of all necessities an organization needs to ...

  • IT budget

    IT budget is the amount of money spent on an organization's information technology systems and services. It includes compensation...

HRSoftware
  • ADP Mobile Solutions

    ADP Mobile Solutions is a self-service mobile app that enables employees to access work records such as pay, schedules, timecards...

  • director of employee engagement

    Director of employee engagement is one of the job titles for a human resources (HR) manager who is responsible for an ...

  • digital HR

    Digital HR is the digital transformation of HR services and processes through the use of social, mobile, analytics and cloud (...

Customer Experience
  • chatbot

    A chatbot is a software or computer program that simulates human conversation or "chatter" through text or voice interactions.

  • martech (marketing technology)

    Martech (marketing technology) refers to the integration of software tools, platforms, and applications designed to streamline ...

  • transactional marketing

    Transactional marketing is a business strategy that focuses on single, point-of-sale transactions.

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