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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

11T - CHA

  • 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
  • 99.999 (Five nines or Five 9s) - In computers, 99.
  • A-weighted decibels (dBA, or dBa, or dB(a)) - A-weighted decibels, abbreviated dBA, or dBa, or dB(a), are an expression of the relative loudness of sounds in air as perceived by the human ear.
  • abandonware - Abandonware is computer software (such as an operating system, word processor, interactive game, or audio file) that is no longer marketed or distributed by the company that created it, but is obtainable from some other source.
  • absolute truth - In general, absolute truth is whatever is always valid, regardless of parameters or context.
  • access method - In computing, an access method is a program or a hardware mechanism that moves data between the computer and an outlying device such as a hard disk (or other form of storage) or a display terminal.
  • accumulator - An accumulator is a type of register for short-term, intermediate storage of arithmetic and logic data in a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
  • acronym - An acronym (pronounced AK-ruh-nihm, from Greek acro- in the sense of extreme or tip and onyma or name) is an abbreviation of several words in such a way that the abbreviation itself forms a word.
  • Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada King) - Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, was an English mathematician who is credited with being the first computer programmer.
  • adaptive enterprise (or adaptive organization) - An adaptive enterprise (or adaptive organization) is a corporation, institution, or agency in which the business demand and the IT (information technology) supply are matched and synchronized at all times.
  • address bar - The address bar is the familiar text field at the top of a web browser’s graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the name or the URL (uniform resource locator) of the current web page.
  • address space - Address space is the amount of memory allocated for all possible addresses for a computational entity -- for example, a device, a file, a server or a networked computer.
  • addressability - Addressability is the capacity for an entity to be targeted and found.
  • agentless - Agentless, in computing, refers to operations where no service, daemon or process (AKA an agent) needs to run in the background on the machine the action is being performed on.
  • agnostic - Agnostic, in an information technology (IT) context, refers to something that is generalized so that it is interoperable among various systems.
  • AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt) - AIBO (pronounced eye-bow) is an entertainment robot designed by Sony.
  • algorithm - An algorithm is a procedure used for solving a problem or performing a computation.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • AltaVista - AltaVista is an Internet search engine.
  • anacronym - An anacronym is an acronym or an abbreviation so old or familiar that no one remembers what its letters stand for, such as BASIC or COBOL.
  • Analytical Engine - The Analytical Engine was, or would have been, the world's first general-purpose computer.
  • angstrom (angstrom unit) - The angstrom, also known as the angstrom unit, is a measure of displacement equal to 0.
  • anisotropic filtering (AF) - Anisotropic filtering (AF) is a feature of some video cards that sharpens the details of the fading-away part of a 3D object that recedes into the distance.
  • anode - An anode is the electrode in a polarized electrical device through which current flows in from an outside circuit.
  • app - App is an abbreviated form of the word "application.
  • Apple - Apple is a prominent hardware and software company best known for its series of personal computers, the iPod and its innovative marketing strategies for its products.
  • application program interface (API) - An application program interface (API) is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.
  • approximate equality - Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics.
  • Archie - Archie is a program that allows you to search the files of all the Internet FTP servers that offer anonymous FTP.
  • archival storage - In computers, archival storage is storage for data that may not be actively needed but is kept for possible future use or for record-keeping purposes.
  • arithmetic mean - The arithmetic mean, also called the average or average value, is the quantity obtained by summing two or more numbers or variables and then dividing by the number of numbers or variables.
  • artificial superintelligence (ASI) - Artificial superintelligence (ASI) is software-based intellectual powers that surpass human ability across almost all conceivable categories and fields of endeavor.
  • aspect ratio - Aspect ratio is an image projection attribute that describes the proportional relationship between the width of an image and its height.
  • assembly line - An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are assembled as they are passed in a direct line from workstation to workstation until a final product is produced.
  • assistive technology (adaptive technology) - Assistive technology is a set of devices intended to help people who have disabilities.
  • asymmetric communications - Asymmetric communications is a term pertaining to any system in which the data speed or quantity, when averaged over time, is different in one direction from the other.
  • Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
  • audit trail - In accounting, an audit trail is the sequence of paperwork that validates or invalidates accounting entries.
  • augmented intelligence - Augmented intelligence is an alternative conceptualization of artificial intelligence that focuses on AI's assistive role, emphasizing the fact that it is designed to supplement human intelligence rather than replace it.
  • autonomic computing - Autonomic computing is a self-managing computing model named after, and patterned on, the human body's autonomic nervous system.
  • AVI file (Audio Video Interleaved file) - An AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) file is a sound and motion picture file that conforms to the Microsoft Windows Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) specification.
  • azimuth and elevation - Azimuth and elevation are angles used to define the apparent position of an object in the sky, relative to a specific observation point.
  • backslash - The backslash ( \ ) is a typographic and/or keyboard mark that is widely used in programming languages and other computing contexts.
  • backup storage device - A backup storage device is used to make copies of data that is actively in use.
  • balanced scorecard - The balance scorecard (BSC) is a management system aimed at translating an organization's strategic goals into a set of organizational performance objectives that, in turn, are measured, monitored, and changed if necessary to ensure that an organizations strategic goals are met.
  • bar code (or barcode) - A bar code (often seen as a single word, barcode) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location.
  • bare-metal restore - A bare-metal restore (also referred to as bare-metal recovery or bare-metal backup) is a data recovery and restoration process where a computer is restored to a new machine, typically after a catastrophic failure.
  • baseband - Describes a telecommunication system in which information is carried in digital form on a single unmultiplexed signal channel on the transmission medium.
  • Bayesian logic - Named for Thomas Bayes, an English clergyman and mathematician, Bayesian logic is a branch of logic applied to decision making and inferential statistics that deals with probability inference: using the knowledge of prior events to predict future events.
  • benchmark - A benchmark is a point of reference by which something can be measured.
  • bespoke - Bespoke (pronounced bee-SPOHK) is a term used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere for an individually- or custom-made product or service.
  • binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit -- 0 or 1 -- and is the basis for all binary code used in computing systems.
  • binary-coded decimal - Binary-coded decimal is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base 10) number.
  • biochip - A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed.
  • bioinformatics - Bioinformatics is the science of developing computer databases and algorithms for the purpose of speeding up and enhancing biological research.
  • biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.
  • bit (binary digit) - A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of data that a computer can process and store.
  • bit map - A bit map (often spelled "bitmap") defines a display space and the color for each pixelor "bit" in the display space.
  • bit padding - Bit padding is the addition of one or more extra bits to a transmission or storage unit to make it conform to a standard size.
  • bitwise - Bitwise operations manipulate data at the bit level rather than with bytes or larger units of data, as is more common.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • blue screen of death (BSOD) - Officially called the stop screen, or stop error, the blue screen of death (BSOD) is a most unwanted error, second only to malware or ransomware in indicating that a user is in for a very bad day.
  • boot - To boot (as a verb; also "to boot up") a computer is to load an operating system into the computer's main memory or random access memory (RAM).
  • boot sector - A boot sector is a specially assigned section of a storage drive containing the files required to start the operating system (OS) and other bootable programs such as antivirus programs, drive partitioning software, backup tools and diagnostic disks.
  • Bootstrap - Bootstrap is a free, open source front-end development framework for the creation of websites and web apps.
  • bottleneck - A bottleneck, in a communications context, is a point in the enterprise where the flow of data is impaired or stopped entirely.
  • brain dump - A brain dump (sometimes spelled braindump, or brain-dump) is a complete transfer of accessible knowledge about a particular subject from your brain to some other storage medium, such as paper or your computer's hard drive.
  • brain-computer interface (BCI) - Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a collaboration between a brain and a device that enables signals from the brain to direct some external activity, such as control of a cursor or a prosthetic limb.
  • brand - A brand is a product, service or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed.
  • broadband - In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information.
  • broadcast - In general, to broadcast (verb) is to cast or throw forth something in all directions at the same time.
  • broker - A broker is someone or something that acts as an intermediary third party, managing transactions between two other entities.
  • buffer - A buffer is a data area shared by hardware devices or program processes that operate at different speeds or with different sets of priorities.
  • burn - Burn is a colloquial term meaning to write content to a CD, DVD, or other recordable disc.
  • burst - Burst is a term used in a number of information technology contexts to mean a specific amount of data sent or received in one intermittent operation.
  • business impact analysis (BIA) - A business impact analysis (BIA) is a systematic process to determine and evaluate the potential effects of an interruption to critical business operations as a result of a disaster, accident or emergency.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • business process outsourcing (BPO) - Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a business practice in which an organization contracts with an external service provider to perform an essential business function or task.
  • business process reengineering (BPR) - Business process reengineering (BPR) is a management practice in which the related tasks required to obtain a specific business outcome are radically redesigned.
  • business service provider (BSP) - A business service provider (BSP) is a company that rents third-party software application packages to their customers.
  • butterfly effect - The butterfly effect is the notion that a small initial factor may have a part in determining greater and unpredictable changes in large, complex systems.
  • BYOT (bring your own technology) - Bring your own technology (BYOT) is a policy that allows employees or students to use their own personal electronic devices at work or scho.
  • byte - In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that an interpreter converts into binary machine code so it can be read by a computer's hardware processor.
  • cache - A cache -- pronounced CASH -- is hardware or software that is used to store something, usually data, temporarily in a computing environment.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • caching - Caching (pronounced “cashing”) is the process of storing data in a cache.
  • calculator - A calculator is a device that performs arithmetic operations on numbers.
  • calibration - In information technology and other fields, calibration is the setting or correcting of a measuring device or base level, usually by adjusting it to match or conform to a dependably known and unvarying measure.
  • canonical - In programming, canonical means "according to the rules.
  • capacity planning - In information technology, capacity planning is the science and art of estimating the space, computer hardware, software and connection infrastructure resources that will be needed over some future period of time.
  • cardinality - The term cardinality refers to the number of cardinal (basic) members in a set.
  • Cartesian coordinates (rectangular coordinates) - Cartesian coordinates, also called rectangular coordinates, provide a method of rendering graphs and indicating the positions of points on a two-dimensional (2D) surface or in three-dimensional (3D) space.
  • cathode - A cathode is the metallic electrode through which current flows out in a polarized electrical device.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid of specified shape, such that each cell changes state as a function of time, according to a defined set of rules driven by the states of neighboring cells.
  • CEO and other C-suite executive titles - The CEO, or chief executive officer, is part of the C-suite.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
SearchNetworking
  • network packet

    A network packet is a basic unit of data that's grouped together and transferred over a computer network, typically a ...

  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

SearchSecurity
  • Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC)

    The Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC) protocol is one leg of the tripod of internet ...

  • data breach

    A data breach is a cyber attack in which sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected data has been accessed or disclosed in an...

  • insider threat

    An insider threat is a category of risk posed by those who have access to an organization's physical or digital assets.

SearchCIO
  • data privacy (information privacy)

    Data privacy, also called information privacy, is an aspect of data protection that addresses the proper storage, access, ...

  • leadership skills

    Leadership skills are the strengths and abilities individuals demonstrate that help to oversee processes, guide initiatives and ...

  • data governance policy

    A data governance policy is a documented set of guidelines for ensuring that an organization's data and information assets are ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • recommerce

    Recommerce is the selling of previously owned items through online marketplaces to buyers who reuse, recycle or resell them.

  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

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