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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

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  • cardinality - The term cardinality refers to the number of cardinal (basic) members in a set.
  • Cartesian coordinates (rectangular coordinates) - Cartesian coordinates, also called rectangular coordinates, provide a method of rendering graphs and indicating the positions of points on a two-dimensional (2D) surface or in three-dimensional (3D) space.
  • cathode - A cathode is the metallic electrode through which current flows out in a polarized electrical device.
  • cellspace - According to writer David S.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid of specified shape, such that each cell changes state as a function of time, according to a defined set of rules driven by the states of neighboring cells.
  • CEO and other C-suite executive titles - The CEO, or chief executive officer, is part of the C-suite.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes or technologies.
  • chaos theory - Chaos theory is the study of nonlinear dynamics, in which seemingly random events are actually predictable from simple deterministic equations.
  • character - In information technology, a character is a printable symbol having phonetic or pictographic meaning and usually forming part of a word of text, depicting a numeral, or expressing grammatical punctuation.
  • check digit (checksum character) - A check digit, also known as a checksum character, is the number located on the far right side of a bar code.
  • checksum - A checksum is a value that represents the number of bits in a transmission message and is used by IT professionals to detect high-level errors within data transmissions.
  • CIO (Chief Information Officer) - A chief information officer (CIO) is the corporate executive in charge of information technology (IT) strategy and implementation.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text transformed from plaintext using an encryption algorithm.
  • citation style guides - A number of generally recognized authorities and organizations offer guidance about how to cite sources when writing an academic or journalistic paper.
  • classical computing - Classical computing is the processing of binary data in traditional types of bit-based computer systems.
  • clean electricity - Clean electricity is electrical power that is free from voltage spikes and drops.
  • clean install - A clean install is a software installation in which any previous version is eradicated.
  • clean room - A clean room (or cleanroom) is an enclosed space in which airborne particulates, contaminants, and pollutants are kept within strict limits.
  • client - A client is a hardware or software device that requests access to a service that is typically made available by a server.
  • client-server model (client-server architecture) - Client-server is a relationship in which one program (the client) requests a service or resource from another program (the server).
  • clipboard - A clipboard is a temporary storage area for data that the user wants to copy from one place to another.
  • clock cycle - In a computer, the clock cycle is the time between two adjacent pulses of the oscillator that sets the tempo of the computer processor.
  • clock speed - In a computer, clock speed refers to the number of pulses per second generated by an oscillator that sets the tempo for the processor.
  • Clonezilla - Clonezilla is a free open source disk cloning application based on Debian.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie, or computer presentation.
  • cloud architect - A cloud architect is an IT professional who is responsible for overseeing a company's cloud computing strategy.
  • cluster computing - In computers, clustering is the use of multiple computers, typically PCs or UNIX workstations, multiple storage devices, and redundant interconnections, to form what appears to users as a single highly available system.
  • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) - CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips.
  • CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key) - CMYK is a scheme for combining primary pigments.
  • code review - Code review is a phase in the computer program development process in which the authors of code, peer reviewers, and perhaps quality assurance reviewers get together to review code, line by line.
  • codebase (code base) - A codebase (sometimes spelled as two words, code base) is the complete body of source code for a given software program or application.
  • coefficient - In a mathematical equation, a coefficient is a constant by which a variable is multiplied.
  • cold backup (offline backup) - A cold backup, also called an offline backup, is a database backup during which the database is offline and not accessible to update.
  • cold buffer - In data processing, a cold buffer is a buffer (segment of computer memory reserved for temporary data storage) that hasn't been used or accessed recently.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • collaborative robot (cobot) - A collaborative robot, also known as a cobot, is a robot that is capable of learning multiple tasks so it can assist human beings.
  • community technology center (CTC) - A community technology center (CTC) is a facility that provides free or low-cost computer access, and sometimes training, to people lacking the resources to have a computer in their home.
  • compaction - In a data center, compaction is the reduction or consolidation of hardware to make better use of physical floor space.
  • complex system - A complex system is an arrangement of a great number of related but various elements with intricate interconnections.
  • compound - In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements, in such a way that the atoms of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break.
  • compute-intensive - Compute-intensive is a term that applies to any computer application that demands a lot of computation, such as meteorology programs and other scientific applications.
  • computer - A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program, software, or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed.
  • computer forensics (cyber forensics) - Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law.
  • computer hardware - Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer.
  • Computer History Museum - The Computer History Museum is an institution dedicated to the preservation of artifacts and information related to the development of computers.
  • computer instruction - A computer instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a computer program.
  • computer operator - A computer operator is the person responsible for monitoring and controlling computer systems especially mainframe computer systems in a company or organization.
  • computer room air conditioning unit (CRAC) - A computer room air conditioning (CRAC) unit is a device that monitors and maintains the temperature, air distribution and humidity in a network room or data center.
  • computer-based training (CBT) - Computer-based training (CBT) is any course of instruction whose primary means of delivery is a computer.
  • computer-intensive - Computer-intensive is a term that applies to any computing application that requires the resources of a lot of computers, such as grid computing.
  • concatenation (concatenate, concatenating) - Concatenation (from Latin concatenare, to link together) is taking two or more separately located things and placing them side-by-side next to each other so that they can now be treated as one thing.
  • concurrent processing - Concurrent processing is a computing model in which multiple processors execute instructions simultaneously for better performance.
  • configuration - Generally, a configuration is the arrangement - or the process of making the arrangement - of the parts that make up a whole.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • container (disambiguation) - This page explains how the term container is used in software development, storage, data center management and mobile device management.
  • content - Many people agree that on the World Wide Web, "content is King.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual, organization or tool that gathers web content and applications from different online sources for reuse.
  • content filtering - Content filtering is a process involving the use of software or hardware to screen and/or restrict access to objectionable email, webpages, executables and other suspicious items.
  • content-addressed storage (CAS) - Content-addressed storage (CAS) -- also called content-addressable storage -- is a method for storing fixed content as objects and providing fast access to that content.
  • continuation symbol - The continuation symbol is used to indicate extension of a sequence or set, or to imply the existence of intermediate elements in a sequence or set.
  • continuous data protection - Continuous data protection (CDP), also known as continuous backup, is a backup and recovery storage system in which all the data in an enterprise is backed up whenever any change is made.
  • controller - A controller, in a computing context, is a hardware device or a software program that manages or directs the flow of data between two entities.
  • cool - On the World Wide Web, cool has a number of meanings, including:EngagingLaid-back, understatedIn tune with the latest thinking, even a little ahead of itTechnically or graphically impressiveThe term "cool" seems to have originated among jazz musicians in the 1940s.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, GMT, CUT) - Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world.
  • coordinates - Coordinates are distances or angles, represented by numbers, that uniquely identify points on surfaces of two dimensions (2D) or in space of three dimensions (3D).
  • coprocessor - A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task.
  • copyleft - Copyleft is the idea and the specific stipulation when distributing software that the user will be able to copy it freely, examine and modify the source code, and redistribute the software to others (free or priced) as long as the redistributed software is also passed along with the copyleft stipulation.
  • corollary - A corollary is a statement that follows naturally from some other statement that has either been proven or is generally accepted as true.
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.
  • coupling - Coupling is the act of joining two things together.
  • courseware - Courseware is educational material intended as kits for teachers or trainers or as tutorials for students, usually packaged for use with a computer.
  • cryptographic nonce - A nonce is a random or semi-random number that is generated for a specific use.
  • cryptography - Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes, so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.
  • cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) - In information technology, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to any of several physical problems that can result from improper or excessive use of a computer display or terminal.
  • cursor - A cursor is the position indicator on a computer display screen where a user can enter text.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • customer lifecycle - In customer relationship management (CRM), customer lifecycle is a term used to describe the progression of steps a customer goes through when considering, purchasing, using and maintaining loyalty to a product or service.
  • customer-facing - Customer-facing is an adjective used to describe a hardware or software product, technology, or anything that the customer of a business deals with directly.
  • cyber - Cyber is a prefix used to describe a person, thing, or idea as part of the computer and information age.
  • cyberburger joint - A cyberburger joint is a fast-food restaurant that provides Internet access at a computer to its customers.
  • cyberextortion - Cyberextortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of an attack coupled with a demand for money or some other response in return for stopping or remediating the attack.
  • cyberpicketing - Cyberpicketing is the use of the Internet to protest a corporation or other institution's wages, work conditions, products, environmental policy, or other issues.
  • cyberpunk - Cyberpunk is a sensibility or belief that a few outsiders, armed with their own individuality and technological capability, can fend off the tendencies of traditional institutions to use technology to control society.
  • cyberstalking - Cyberstalking is a crime in which someone harasses or stalks a victim using electronic or digital means, such as social media, email, instant messaging (IM) or messages posted to a discussion group or forum.
  • D - D is one of two programming languages, Digital Mars D, an object-oriented metaprogramming language, or Microsoft D, a key component of the upcoming Oslo development environment.
  • data - In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for movement or processing.
  • data center - A data center -- also known as a datacenter or data centre -- is a facility composed of networked computers, storage systems and computing infrastructure that organizations use to organize, process, store and disseminate large amounts of data.
  • data classification - Data classification is the process of organizing data into categories that make it is easy to retrieve, sort and store for future use.
  • data compression - Data compression is a reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data.
  • data glove - A data glove is an interactive device, resembling a glove worn on the hand, which facilitates tactile sensing and fine-motion control in robotics and virtual reality.
  • data in motion - Data in motion, also referred to as data in transit or data in flight, is a process in which digital information is transported between locations either within or between computer systems.
  • data point - A data point is a discrete unit of information.
  • data restore - Data restore is the process of copying backup data from secondary storage and restoring it to its original location or a new location.
  • data set - A data set is a collection of data that contains individual data units organized (formatted) in a specific way and accessed by one or more specific access methods based on the data set organization and data structure.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • data structures - A data structure is a specialized format for organizing, processing, retrieving and storing data.
  • data transfer rate (DTR) - Data transfer rate (DTR) is the amount of digital data that is moved from one place to another in a given time.
SearchNetworking
  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

  • overlay network

    An overlay network is a virtual or logical network that is created on top of an existing physical network.

SearchSecurity
  • encryption

    Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information's true meaning.

  • X.509 certificate

    An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public key infrastructure (PKI) ...

  • directory traversal

    Directory traversal is a type of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a web server to access data in a directory ...

SearchCIO
  • resource allocation

    Resource allocation is the process of assigning and managing assets in a manner that supports an organization's strategic ...

  • chief digital officer (CDO)

    A chief digital officer (CDO) is charged with helping an enterprise use digital information and advanced technologies to create ...

  • security audit

    A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

  • customer intelligence (CI)

    Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources ...

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