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Technical support

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

FOO - INT

  • Foo Camp - Foo Camp was a gathering of about 200 computer and Internet thinkers and inventors who were invited by publisher O'Reilly and Associates to spend a week-end brainstorming, collaborating, and otherwise advancing progress in information technology.
  • footprint - In information technology, a footprint is the amount of space a particular unit of hardware or software occupies.
  • form factor - In computers, the form factor is the size, configuration, or physical arrangement of a computing device.
  • format - A format (noun, pronounced FOHR-mat ) is a preestablished layout for data.
  • Fourier analysis - Fourier analysis is a method of defining periodic waveforms in terms of trigonometric function s.
  • foxed - A fan club Web site can be said to have been "foxed" when it has received a letter of warning about copyright violations from the owners of images or other copyrighted material it is using.
  • FQA (frequently questioned answers) - FQA (frequently questioned answers) are conventions or mandates scrutinized by individuals or groups who doubt their validity.
  • fragmentation - In some operating system's file systems, a data file over a certain size is stored in several "chunks" or fragments rather than in a single contiguous sequence of bits in one place on the storage medium, a process that is called fragmentation.
  • framework - In general, a framework is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something useful.
  • framing effect - Framing effect is a form of cognitive bias which causes people to focus more on the positive or negative aspects of a decision, situation or information based on the way it is presented.
  • free software - Free software is software that can be freely used, modified, and redistributed with only one restriction: any redistributed version of the software must be distributed with the original terms of free use, modification, and distribution (known as copyleft).
  • freeware - Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is programming that is offered at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems.
  • full-stack developer - A full-stack developer is a type of programmer that has a functional knowledge of all techniques, languages and systems engineering concepts required in software development.
  • function - In information technology, the term function (pronounced FUHNK-shun) has a number of meanings.
  • functionality - In information technology, functionality (from Latin functio meaning "to perform") is the sum or any aspect of what a product, such as a software application or computing device, can do for a user.
  • fuzzy number - A fuzzy number is a quantity whose value is imprecise, rather than exact as is the case with "ordinary" (single-valued) numbers.
  • fuzzy search - A fuzzy search is a process that locates Web pages that are likely to be relevant to a search argument even when the argument does not exactly correspond to the desired information.
  • game theory - Game theory is the study of mathematical models of negotiation, conflict and cooperation between individuals, organizations and governments.
  • geek - In computers and the Internet, a geek is a person who is inordinately dedicated to and involved with technology.
  • geekosphere - The geekosphere is the physical ambiance around you and your workstation.
  • general-purpose computer - A general-purpose computer is one that, given the appropriate application and required time, should be able to perform most common computing tasks.
  • geospatial analysis - Geospatial analysis is the gathering, display, and manipulation of imagery, GPS, satellite photography and historical data, described explicitly in terms of geographic coordinates or implicitly, in terms of a street address, postal code, or forest stand identifier as they are applied to geographic models.
  • gibibyte (GiB) - A gibibyte (GiB) is a unit of measure of capacity used in computing.
  • gigabit - In data communications, a gigabit is one billion bits, or 1,000,000,000 (that is, 10^9) bits.
  • glitch - In several usages in information technology, a glitch (pronounced GLIHTCH) is a sudden break in function or continuity, sometimes of a transient nature, with a varying degree of seriousness.
  • globbing - Globbing is the process of expanding a non-specific file name containing a wildcard character into a set of specific file names that exist in storage on a computer, server, or network.
  • glocalization - Glocalization is the concept that in a global market, a product or service is more likely to succeed when it is customized for the locality or culture in which it is sold.
  • going forward - Going forward is a relatively new and apparently convenient way to indicate a progression in time from the present.
  • googol and googolplex - A googol is 10 to the 100th power (which is 1 followed by 100 zeros).
  • Gopher - From about 1992 through 1996, Gopher was an Internet application in which hierarchically-organized text files could be brought from servers all over the world to a viewer on your computer.
  • GPGPU (general purpose graphics processing unit) - A general-purpose GPU (GPGPU) is a graphics processing unit (GPU) that performs non-specialized calculations that would typically be conducted by the CPU (central processing unit).
  • GPU supercomputer - A GPU supercomputer is a networked group of computers with multiple graphics processing units working as general-purpose GPUs (GPGPUs) in tandem on a single task.
  • Grace Hopper nanosecond - A Grace Hopper nanosecond is a visual aid that represents how fast electricity can travel in one billionth of a second.
  • graphics processing unit (GPU) - A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a computer chip that renders graphics and images by performing rapid mathematical calculations.
  • gravesite - In the context of the World Wide Web, a gravesite is either: A Web site that has been abandoned or forgotten by its originators that is nevertheless still accessible on a server.
  • gravity (or gravitation) - Gravity, also called gravitation, is a force that exists among all material objects in the universe, attracting objects with non-zero mass toward each other.
  • gravity wave (or gravitational wave) - A gravity wave (or gravitational wave) is a ripple in the curvature of the space-time continuum (the enmeshed combination of our three perceived physical dimensions, plus time) created by the movement of matter.
  • gray goo (or grey goo) - Gray goo (in British spelling, "grey goo") is a term used to describe what life on our planet might become if self-replicating robots or nanomachines got out of control and began to use up life forms for their own energy needs in some unstoppable way.
  • grayscale - Grayscale is a range of shades of gray without apparent color.
  • greedy algorithm - A greedy algorithm is a mathematical process that looks for simple, easy-to-implement solutions to complex, multi-step problems by deciding which next step will provide the most obvious benefit.
  • Gregorian calendar - The Gregorian calendar is the calendar in current use in the Western world, both as the civil and Christian ecclesiastical calendar.
  • grid computing - Grid computing is a system for connecting a large number of computer nodes into a distributed architecture that delivers the compute resources necessary to solve complex problems.
  • GUI (graphical user interface) - A GUI (usually pronounced "GOO-ee") is a graphical (rather than purely textual) user interface to a computer.
  • gyroscope - A gyroscope is a device with a spinning disc or wheel mechanism that harnesses the principle of conservation of angular momentum: the tendency for the spin of a system to remain constant unless subjected to external torque.
  • hangup (or hang) - A hangup, also called a hang, is a condition that sometimes occurs when computer programs conflict or do not run properly.
  • haptics - Haptics (pronounced HAP-tiks) is the science of applying touch (tactile) sensation and control to interaction with computer applications.
  • hard copy (printout) - A hard copy (or "hardcopy") is a printed copy of information from a computer.
  • hard drive shredder - A hard drive shredder is a mechanical device that physically destroys old hard drives in such a way that the data they contain cannot be recovered.
  • hard error - A hard error is an issue in RAM that results from a permanent physical flaw in the module caused by a hardware failure or defect.
  • hard reset (factory reset; master reset) - A hard reset, also known as a factory reset or master reset, is the restoration of a device, such as a smartphone or tablet, to its state when it left the factory.
  • header - In information technology, a header is, in general, something that goes in front of something else and is usually repeated as a standard part of the units of something else.
  • heuristic - As an adjective, heuristic (pronounced hyu-RIS-tik and from the Greek "heuriskein" meaning "to discover") pertains to the process of gaining knowledge or some desired result by intelligent guesswork rather than by following some preestablished formula.
  • hexadecimal - Hexadecimal is a numbering system with base 16.
  • hibernation - Hibernation is a mode in which a computer is turned off but saves its state to resume when it is turned on again.
  • hiccup - In information technology, hiccup is an informal term for a non-recurring problem of indeterminate cause that usually does not cause a significant disruption of work or activity.
  • hierarchy - A hierarchy is an organizational structure in which items are ranked according to levels of importance.
  • high-performance computing - High-performance computing (HPC) is the practice of using parallel data processing to improve computing performance and perform complex calculations.
  • histogram - A histogram is a display of statistical information that uses rectangles to show the frequency of data items in successive numerical intervals of equal size.
  • holographic print - A holographic print is a rendition of a hologram on a flat surface, producing 3-D (three-dimensional) effects when viewed.
  • holographic storage (holostorage) - Holographic storage is computer storage that uses laser beams to store computer-generated data in three dimensions.
  • home server - A home server is a computer that functions as a server in a client-server home network.
  • host (in computing) - A host (also known as "network host") is a computer or other device that communicates with other hosts on a network.
  • hotfix - A hotfix is code (sometimes called a patch) that fixes a bug in a product.
  • htm - htm is sometimes used as a short form of the file name suffix for an HTML file.
  • human factors (ergonomics) - In industry, human factors (also known as ergonomics) is the study of how humans behave physically and psychologically in relation to particular environments, products, or services.
  • humanware - Humanware is hardware and software that emphasizes user capability and empowerment and the design of the user interface.
  • hybrid application (hybrid app) - A hybrid application (hybrid app) is one that combines elements of both native and Web applications.
  • hyperspace - Hyperspace is a term that describes the total number of individual locations and all of their interconnections in a hypertext environment.
  • hypervisor - A hypervisor is a function that abstracts -- isolates -- operating systems (OSes) and applications from the underlying computer hardware.
  • hypothesis - A hypothesis (plural: hypotheses) is a statement that may be tested and proven to be either true or false.
  • hysteresis - Hysteresis is the tendency for a system to change or react based on a trend of how it has already transformed leading up to a specific point in time.
  • ICT (information and communications technology, or technologies) - ICT, or information and communications technology (or technologies), is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing.
  • ICT4D (Information and Communications Technologies for Development) - ICT4D (Information and Communications Technologies for Development) is an initiative aimed at bridging the digital divide (the disparity between technological "have" and "have not" geographic locations or demographic groups) and aiding economic development by ensuring equitable access to up-to-date communications technologies.
  • identity management (ID management) - Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring that individuals have the appropriate access to technology resources.
  • image compression - Image compression is minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file without degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level.
  • image of the early universe - An image of the early universe, showing irregularities in its brightness 380,000 years after its birth, has been produced by a device called the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP).
  • implementation - Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for doing something.
  • increment - An increment is a small, unspecified, nonzero change in the value of a quantity.
  • incubator - In the business world, an incubator is an enterprise that is set up to provide office space, equipment, and sometimes mentoring assistance and capital to new businesses that are just getting started.
  • indemnification - In service level agreements (SLAs) and other legal contracts such as end-user license agreements (EULAs), indemnification is the part of an agreement that provides for one party to bear the monetary costs, either directly or by reimbursement, for losses incurred by a second party.
  • inertia - Inertia is a property of matter that causes it to resist changes in velocity (speed and/or direction).
  • infinite sequence - An infinite sequence is a list or string of discrete objects, usually numbers, that can be paired off one-to-one with the set of positive integers {1, 2, 3,.
  • infonesia - Infonesia is an inability to remember where you saw or heard an item of information.
  • information - Information is stimuli that has meaning in some context for its receiver.
  • information architecture - In technical writing, information architecture is the set of ideas about how all information in a given context should be treated philosophically and, in a general way, how it should be organized.
  • information design - Information design is the detailed planning of specific information that is to be provided to a particular audience to meet specific objectives.
  • information technology (IT) - Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data.
  • information theory - Information theory is a branch of mathematics that overlaps into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.
  • inline frame (iframe) - An inline frame (iframe) is a HTML element that loads another HTML page within the document.
  • input/output (I/O) - I/O (input/output), pronounced "eye-oh," describes any operation, program, or device that transfers data to or from a computer.
  • instruction set - An instruction set is a group of commands for a central processing unit (CPU) in machine language.
SearchNetworking
  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

  • overlay network

    An overlay network is a virtual or logical network that is created on top of an existing physical network.

SearchSecurity
  • encryption

    Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information's true meaning.

  • X.509 certificate

    An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public key infrastructure (PKI) ...

  • directory traversal

    Directory traversal is a type of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a web server to access data in a directory ...

SearchCIO
  • resource allocation

    Resource allocation is the process of assigning and managing assets in a manner that supports an organization's strategic ...

  • chief digital officer (CDO)

    A chief digital officer (CDO) is charged with helping an enterprise use digital information and advanced technologies to create ...

  • security audit

    A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

  • customer intelligence (CI)

    Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources ...

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