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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

LOA - PIP

  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute workloads uniformly across servers or other compute resources to optimize network efficiency, reliability and capacity.
  • localization - Localization (sometimes shortened to "L10n") is the process of adapting a product or service to a particular language, culture and desired local "look-and-feel.
  • logical AND symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logical block addressing (LBA) - Logical block addressing is a technique that allows a computer to address a hard disk larger than 528 megabytes.
  • logical equivalence - Logical equivalence is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences in propositional logic or Boolean algebra.
  • logical implication - Logical implication is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences.
  • logical OR symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logon (or login) - In general computer usage, logon is the procedure used to get access to an operating system or application, usually in a remote computer.
  • longitudinal time code (LTC) - Longitidinal time code (LTC) is a timing signal that is part of an audio tape recording.
  • lossless and lossy compression - Lossless and lossy file compression describe whether all original data can be recovered when the file is uncompressed.
  • lowerCamelCase - A part of CamelCase, lowerCamelCase is a naming convention in which a name contains multiple words that are joined together as a single word.
  • Luddite - A Luddite is a person who dislikes technology, especially technological devices that threaten existing jobs or interfere with personal privacy.
  • LZW compression - LZW compression is the compression of a file into a smaller file using a table-based lookup algorithm invented by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch.
  • m-commerce (mobile commerce) - M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • Macintosh - The Macintosh (often called "the Mac") was the first widely-sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) and a mouse.
  • magnetic stripe reader (magstripe reader) - A magnetic stripe reader, also called a magstripe reader, is a hardware device that reads the information encoded in the magnetic stripe located on the back of a plastic badge.
  • marcom (or marcomm) - Marcom (sometimes spelled "marcomm") is an abbreviation for "marketing communications.
  • Master Boot Record (MBR) - The Master Boot Record (MBR) is the information in the first sector of a hard disk or a removable drive.
  • Mathematical symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent and how they are used.
  • matter - Matter is a substance made up of various types of particles that occupies physical space and has inertia.
  • mebibyte (MiB) - A mebibyte (MiB) is a unit of measurement used in computer data storage.
  • megabits per second (Mbps) - Megabits per second (Mbps) are units of measurement for network bandwidth and throughput.
  • megabyte (MB) - As a measure of computer processor storage and real and virtual memory, a megabyte (abbreviated MB) is 2 to the 20th power bytes, or 1,048,576 bytes in decimal notation.
  • megabytes per second (MBps) - Megabytes per second (MBps) is a unit of measurement for data transfer speed to and from a computer storage device.
  • memory - Memory is the electronic holding place for the instructions and data a computer needs to reach quickly.
  • memory management - Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating a computer's main memory.
  • memory map - A memory map is a massive table, in effect a database, that comprises complete information about how the memory is structured in a computer system.
  • memory read error - A memory read error is a malfunction that occurs when data is being accessed from memory for use by a program, or when a value read from RAM fails to match an expected value.
  • meter - The meter (abbreviation, m; the British spelling is metre) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of displacement or length.
  • meter per second squared - The meter per second squared (symbolized m/s 2 or m/sec 2) is the Standard International (SI) unit of acceleration vector magnitude.
  • metered services (pay-per-use) - Metered services (also called pay-per-use) are any type of payment structure in which a customer has access to potentially unlimited resources but only pays for what they actually use.
  • microsecond - A microsecond (us or Greek letter mu plus s) is one millionth (10 -6) of a second.
  • Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) - Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) is a feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012 that allows users to access RemoteApp and Desktop Connection through the Start menu or a Web browser.
  • Microsoft Windows Control Panel - The Microsoft Windows Control Panel is a management tool for the Windows operating system (OS) that allows end users to change settings and manage tasks within the OS.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and other tools or databases.
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a protocol designed for recording and playing back music on digital synthesizers that is supported by many makes of personal computer sound cards.
  • millimeter (mm, millimetre) - A millimeter (abbreviated as mm and sometimes spelled as millimetre) is a small unit of length/distance in the metric system, one-thousandth of a meter (which is similar in length to a yard in the Imperial system of measurement).
  • millisecond - (This definition follows U.
  • MIPS (million instructions per second) - The number of MIPS (million instructions per second) is a general measure of computing performance and, by implication, the amount of work a larger computer can do.
  • MIS (management information systems) - MIS, or management information systems, is the software and hardware to support critical business applications.
  • mobile device - A mobile device is essentially a handheld computer.
  • modeling and simulation (M&S) - Modeling and simulation (M&S) is the use of a physical or logical representation of a given system to generate data and help determine decisions or make predictions about the system.
  • mole per meter cubed (Avogadro constant) - The mole per meter cubed (mol / m 3) is the International Unit of amount-of-substance concentration.
  • molecule - A molecule is two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds, which form the smallest unit of a substance that retains the composition and properties of that substance.
  • monolithic - Monolithic, in information technology, means either very large or composed all in one piece, depending on the particular context.
  • most significant bit (MSB) - The most significant bit (MSB) is the bit in a multiple-bit binary number with the largest value.
  • motherboard - A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer.
  • MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) - MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) is a standard technology and format for a sound sequence into a very small file (about one-twelfth the size of the original file) while preserving the original level of sound quality when it is played.
  • mu - The lowercase Greek letter µ (pronounced mu) generally represents the prefix multiplier 0.
  • multicore processor - A multicore processor is an integrated circuit that has two or more processors attached for enhanced performance and reduced power consumption.
  • multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the coordinated processing of programs by more than one computer processor.
  • multitasking - Multitasking, in an operating system, is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time.
  • Murphy's Law - The original Murphy's Law was "If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, then someone will do it.
  • NACK (NAK, negative acknowledgment, not acknowledged) - NACK, or NAK, an abbreviation for negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged, is a signal used by computers or other devices to indicate that data transmitted over a network was received with errors or was otherwise unreadable.
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanometer - A nanometer is a unit of spatial measurement that is 10-9 meter, or one billionth of a meter.
  • nanosecond (ns or nsec) - (This definition follows U.
  • native app - A native application is a software program that is developed for use on a particular platform or device.
  • native code - Native code is computer programming (code) that is compiled to run with a particular processor and its set of instructions.
  • nearline storage - Nearline storage is the on-site storage of data on removable media.
  • nearshore outsourcing - Nearshore outsourcing is the practice of getting work done or services performed by people in neighboring countries rather than an organization's country.
  • network availability - Network availability is the amount of uptime in a network system over a specific time interval.
  • network protocol - A network protocol is a set of established rules that dictate how to format, transmit and receive data so that computer network devices -- from servers and routers to endpoints -- can communicate, regardless of the differences in their underlying infrastructures, designs or standards.
  • network socket - Sockets are created and used with a set of programming requests or "function calls" sometimes called the sockets application programming interface (API).
  • neuromarketing - Neuromarketing is the study of how people's brains respond to advertising and other brand-related messages by scientifically monitoring brainwave activity, eye tracking and skin response.
  • newton - The newton is the Standard International (SI) unit of force.
  • nibble - In computing and digital technology, a nibble is four consecutive binary digits or half of an 8-bit byte.
  • nil - In general use, nil (a contraction of Latin "nihil") means "nothing" or the absence of something.
  • null set - In mathematical sets, a null set is a set that does not contain any values or elements.
  • object code - Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a computer.
  • object ID (OID) - An object identifier (OID) is an unambiguous, long-term name for any type of object or entity.
  • Ockham's razor (Occam's razor) - Ockham's razor (also spelled Occam's razor, pronounced AHK-uhmz RAY-zuhr) is the idea that, in trying to understand something, getting unnecessary information out of the way is the fastest way to the truth or to the best explanation.
  • octet - In computers, an octet (from the Latin octo or "eight") is a sequence of eight bit s.
  • OEM (original equipment manufacturer) - OEM, or original equipment manufacturer, is a broad term that describes a web of relationships among IT hardware vendors, hardware component makers, software vendors and channel partners such as resellers and distributors.
  • offline - Offline is the condition of being capable of but currently not connected to a network of computers or other devices.
  • offshore outsourcing - Offshore outsourcing, a type of business process outsourcing (BPO), is the exporting of IT-related work from the United States and other developed countries to areas of the world where there is both political stability and lower labor costs or tax savings.
  • ohnosecond - An ohnosecond is that very short moment in time during which you realize that you have pressed the wrong key and deleted hours, days, or weeks of work.
  • on the fly - In relation to computer technology, "on the fly" describes activities that develop or occur dynamically rather than as the result of something that is statically predefined.
  • on-demand computing - On-demand computing (ODC) is an enterprise computing delivery model in which computing resources are made available to the user as needed.
  • onshore outsourcing (domestic outsourcing) - Onshore outsourcing, also known as domestic outsourcing, is the obtaining of services from someone outside a company but within the same country.
  • open system - In a computing context, an open system is an open source operating system, typically composed of coordinated modular components from a number of sources and not reliant upon any proprietary elements.
  • operand - In computing and mathematics, an operand is an object that is operated on by some type of operator.
  • operation (computing) - An operation, in computing, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
  • operations research (OR) - Operations research (OR) is an analytical method of problem-solving and decision-making that is useful in the management of organizations.
  • outsourcing - Outsourcing is a business practice in which a company hires a third-party to perform tasks, handle operations or provide services for the company.
  • pagefile - In storage, a pagefile is a reserved portion of a hard disk that is used as an extension of random access memory (RAM) for data in RAM that hasn't been used recently.
  • parallel processing - Parallel processing is a method in computing of running two or more processors (CPUs) to handle separate parts of an overall task.
  • parity - Parity is a method of detecting errors in data transmissions between computers, while parity bit and parity checking are used in RAID technology to guard against data loss.
  • pascal - The pascal (Pa) is the unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI).
  • PC Card - A PC Card (previously known as a PCMCIA card) is a credit card-size memory or I/O device that fits into a personal computer, usually a notebook or laptop computer.
  • Pepys' weblog - The famous diary that Samuel Pepys (pronounced PEEPS), once the head of England's Navy, kept during the years 1660-1669 is being made available online in the form of a weblog.
  • personality profile - A personality profile is a knowledge management tool used to provide an evaluation of an employee's personal attributes, values and life skills in an effort to maximize his or her job performance and contribution to the company.
  • pervasive computing (ubiquitous computing) - Pervasive computing, also called ubiquitous computing, is the growing trend of embedding computational capability (generally in the form of microprocessors) into everyday objects to make them effectively communicate and perform useful tasks in a way that minimizes the end user's need to interact with computers as computers.
  • petaflop - A petaflop is a measure of a computer's processing speed and can be expressed as a quadrillion (thousand trillion) floating point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent websites without their knowledge or consent.
  • phenomenon - A phenomenon, in a scientific context, is something that is observed to occur or to exist.
  • physical security - Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware, software, networks and data from physical actions and events that could cause serious loss or damage to an enterprise, agency or institution.
  • pin or PIN - A pin is a pronged contact as part of a signal interface in a computer or other communications device.
  • pipelining - In computers, a pipeline is the continuous and somewhat overlapped movement of instruction to the processor or in the arithmetic steps taken by the processor to perform an instruction.
SearchNetworking
  • throughput

    Throughput is a measure of how many units of information a system can process in a given amount of time.

  • traffic shaping

    Traffic shaping, also known as packet shaping, is a congestion management method that regulates network data transfer by delaying...

  • open networking

    Open networking describes a network that uses open standards and commodity hardware.

SearchSecurity
  • buffer underflow

    A buffer underflow, also known as a buffer underrun or a buffer underwrite, is when the buffer -- the temporary holding space ...

  • pen testing (penetration testing)

    A penetration test, also called a pen test or ethical hacking, is a cybersecurity technique that organizations use to identify, ...

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

SearchCIO
  • benchmark

    A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.

  • spatial computing

    Spatial computing broadly characterizes the processes and tools used to capture, process and interact with 3D data.

  • organizational goals

    Organizational goals are strategic objectives that a company's management establishes to outline expected outcomes and guide ...

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  • talent acquisition

    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

  • hybrid work model

    A hybrid work model is a workforce structure that includes employees who work remotely and those who work on site, in a company's...

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