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Microprocessors

Terms related to microprocessors, including definitions about silicon chips and words and phrases about computer processors.

64- - REA

  • 64-bit processor (64-bit computing) - A 64-bit processor refers to a microprocessor that can process data and instructions in chunks of 64 bits.
  • accumulator - An accumulator is a type of register for short-term, intermediate storage of arithmetic and logic data in a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
  • AI accelerator - An AI accelerator is a microchip designed specifically to enable faster processing of artificial intelligence (AI) tasks.
  • AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) - Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) is a semiconductor company, known for designing and developing computer processors and graphics technologies.
  • AMD-V (AMD virtualization) - AMD-V (AMD virtualization) is a set of hardware extensions for the X86 processor architecture.
  • arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a central processing unit (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.
  • Arm processor - An Arm processor is one of a family of CPUs based on the RISC architecture for computer processors.
  • ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) - An ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) is a microchip designed for a special application, such as a particular kind of transmission protocol or a hand-held computer.
  • biochip - A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed.
  • BIOS (basic input/output system) - BIOS (basic input/output system) is the program a computer's microprocessor uses to start the computer system after it is powered on.
  • bipolar transistor - A bipolar transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used for amplification.
  • bit slicing - Bit slicing is a method of combining processor modules to multiply the word length.
  • bitwise - Bitwise operations manipulate data at the bit level rather than with bytes or larger units of data, as is more common.
  • blade server - A blade server, sometimes referred to as a high-density server, is a compact device containing a computer used to manage and distribute data in a collection of computers and systems, called a network.
  • brick server - A brick server is a compact computer server module without a chassis that can come in various processor, RAM, I/O, and storage configurations and is designed to fit into rack locations similar to those for blade servers.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that an interpreter converts into binary machine code so it can be read by a computer's hardware processor.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • Celeron - Celeron is the low-end (and low cost) member of the family of microprocessors from Intel that is based on its P6 architecture.
  • chip - "Chip" is short for microchip, the incredibly complex yet tiny modules that store computer memory or provide logic circuitry for microprocessors.
  • chipset - A chipset is a group of integrated circuits (microchips) that can be used together to serve a single function and are therefore manufactured and sold as a unit.
  • CISC (complex instruction set computer or computing) - The term "CISC" (complex instruction set computer or computing) refers to computers designed with a full set of computer instructions that were intended to provide needed capabilities in the most efficient way.
  • clock cycle - In a computer, the clock cycle is the time between two adjacent pulses of the oscillator that sets the tempo of the computer processor.
  • clock gating - Clock gating is the power-saving feature in semiconductor microelectronics that enables switching off circuits.
  • clock speed - In a computer, clock speed refers to the number of pulses per second generated by an oscillator that sets the tempo for the processor.
  • combinatorial logic - Combinatorial logic is a concept in which two or more input states define one or more output states, where the resulting state or states are related by defined rules that are independent of previous states.
  • complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) - A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) is the semiconductor technology used in most of today's integrated circuits, also known as chips or microchips.
  • computer instruction - A computer instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a computer program.
  • conductor - A conductor, or electrical conductor, is a substance or material that allows electricity to flow through it.
  • context switch - A context switch is a procedure that a computer's CPU (central processing unit) follows to change from one task (or process) to another while ensuring that the tasks do not conflict.
  • coprocessor - A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task.
  • embedded device - An embedded device is an object that contains a special-purpose computing system.
  • end effector - In robotics, an end effector is a device or tool that's connected to the end of a robot arm where the hand would be.
  • entangled light-emitting diode (ELED) - An entangled LED is a light-emitting diode containing a quantum dot that enables the production of entangled photons (light particles) on demand.
  • EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) - (EPIC also stand for Electronic Privacy Information Center.
  • exponential assembly - In nanotechnology, exponential assembly is a form of self-replication in which tiny devices called nanorobots repeatedly construct copies of themselves.
  • fan-in - Fan-in is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that a single logic gate can accept.
  • fan-out - In digital circuitry, fan-out is a measure of the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed without disrupting the circuitry's operations.
  • FC-PGA (flip chip-pin grid array) - FC-PGA (flip chip-pin grid array) is a microchip design developed by Intel for its faster microprocessors in which the hottest part of the chip is located on the side that is away from the motherboard.
  • FIFO (first-in, first-out) - In computer programming, FIFO (first-in, first-out) is an approach to handling program work requests from queues or stacks so that the oldest request is handled next.
  • FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) - In computers, FLOPS are floating-point operations per second.
  • fullerene - A fullerene is a pure carbon molecule composed of at least 60 atoms of carbon.
  • gallium arsenide field-effect transistor (GaAsFET) - A gallium arsenide field-effect transistor (GaAsFET) is a specialized type of field-effect transistor (FET) that is used in amplifier circuits at very-high, ultra-high, and microwave radio frequencies.
  • glue logic - Glue logic is a special form of digital circuitry that allows different types of logic chips or circuits to work together by acting as an interface between them.
  • graph theory - Graph theory is the study of points and lines.
  • graphene transistor - A graphene transistor is a nanoscale device based on graphene, a component of graphite with electronic properties far superior to those of silicon.
  • Haswell - Haswell is the code name for Intel's 4th generation Core i-based processors.
  • holographic processing unit (HPU) - Holographic processing unit (HPU) is what Microsoft has named the coprocessor in its HoloLens virtual reality (VR) headset.
  • Hyper-Threading - Hyper-Threading is a technology used by some Intel microprocessors that allows a single microprocessor to act like two separate processors to the operating system and the application programs that use it.
  • IBM Roadrunner - Roadrunner is the fastest supercomputer in the world, twice as fast as Blue Gene and six times as fast as any of the other current supercomputers.
  • instruction set - An instruction set is a group of commands for a central processing unit (CPU) in machine language.
  • integrated circuit (IC) - An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip, microchip or microelectronic circuit, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, diodes and transistors are fabricated.
  • Intel - Intel is the world's largest manufacturer of central processing units and semiconductors.
  • Intel 8086 - The Intel 8086 was Intel’s first x86 processor.
  • interrupt - An interrupt is a signal emitted by a device attached to a computer or from a program within the computer.
  • IP core (intellectual property core) - An IP (intellectual property) core is a block of logic or data that is used in making a field programmable gate array (FPGA) or application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for a product.
  • IRQ (interrupt request) - An IRQ (interrupt request) value is an assigned location where the computer can expect a particular device to interrupt it when the device sends the computer signals about its operation.
  • jam sync - In audio (sound) production, jam sync is a mode of device synchronization using SMPTE time code in which a slave device can furnish its own timing during the time that a master device is temporarily unstable.
  • Java chip - The Java chip is a microchip that, when included in or added to a computer, will accelerate the performance of Java programs (including the applets that are sometimes included with Web pages).
  • memory management unit (MMU) - A memory management unit (MMU) is a computer hardware component that handles all memory and caching operations associated with the processor.
  • metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) - The metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, pronounced MAWS-feht) is the most common type of field-effect transistor (FET).
  • mezzanine - Mezzanine is a term used to describe the stacking of computer component cards into a single card that then plugs into the computer bus or data path.
  • microchip - A microchip (sometimes just called a "chip") is a unit of packaged computer circuitry (usually called an integrated circuit) that is manufactured from a material such as silicon at a very small scale.
  • micron - The micron, officially obsolete as a term of measurement, is sometimes used by microchip and wiring manufacturers in place of micrometer, one-millionth of a meter.
  • microprocessor (logic chip) - A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip.
  • microrobot - A microrobot is a miniaturized, sophisticated machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision.
  • MMX - MMX is a Pentium microprocessor from Intel that is designed to run faster when playing multimedia applications.
  • monostable circuit - A monostable circuit is an electronic device called a multivibrator that has two distinct states, one of them stable (having a steady voltage) and the other one unstable (having an unsteady or variable voltage).
  • multicore processor - A multicore processor is an integrated circuit that has two or more processors attached for enhanced performance and reduced power consumption.
  • multiprogramming - Multiprogramming is a rudimentary form of parallel processing in which several programs run at the same time on a uniprocessor system.
  • multithreading - Multithreading is the ability of a program or an operating system to enable more than one user at a time without requiring multiple copies of the program running in the computer.
  • nanochip - A nanochip is an integrated circuit (IC) that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles.
  • nanocomputer - A nanocomputer is a computer whose physical dimensions are microscopic.
  • nanofabrication - Nanofabrication is the design and manufacture of devices with dimensions measured in nanometers.
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanomedicine - Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body.
  • nanotransistor - A nanotransistor is a transistor - the component that acts as an electronic signal switch or amplifier - that is near the scale of a billionth of a meter (or nanometer) in size.
  • nanotube (carbon nanotube) - A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a miniature cylindrical carbon structure that has hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • neural net processor - A neural net processor is a CPU that takes the modeled workings of how a human brain operates onto a single chip.
  • neuromorphic chip - A neuromorphic chip is an analog data processor inspired by the biological brain.
  • neurosynaptic chip (cognitive chip) - A neurosynaptic chip, also known as a cognitive chip, is a computer processor that functions more like a biological brain than a typical CPU does.
  • Northbridge - Northbridge is an Intel chipset that communicates with the computer processor and controls interaction with memory, the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, Level 2 cache, and all Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) activities.
  • octal latch - An octal latch is an integrated circuit (IC) that contains eight binary digital circuits called latches.
  • operation (computing) - An operation, in computing, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
  • overclocking - Overclocking is resetting some computer component so that it runs faster than the manufacturer-specified speed.
  • PDP-11 (Programmed Data Processor-11) - PDP-11 (Programmed Data Processor-1 is one of the most famous computers in computing history, one of a series manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the early 1960s through the mid-1990s.
  • Pentium - Also see the Pentium MMX and the Pentium 3.
  • petaflop - A petaflop is a measure of a computer's processing speed and can be expressed as a quadrillion (thousand trillion) floating point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • photolithography - Photolithography is the standard method of printed circuit board (PCB) and microprocessor fabrication.
  • PIC microcontrollers - PIC microcontrollers are a family of specialized microcontroller chips produced by Microchip Technology in Chandler, Arizona.
  • positional assembly - Positional assembly is a technique that has been suggested as a means to build objects, devices, and systems on a molecular scale using automated processes in which the components that carry out the construction process would follow programmed paths.
  • power-on reset (PoR) - A power-on reset (PoR) is a circuit that provides a predictable, regulated voltage to a microprocessor or microcontroller with the initial application of power.
  • PowerPC - PowerPC is a microprocessor architecture that was developed jointly by Apple, IBM, and Motorola.
  • printed circuit board (PCB) - A printed circuit board (PCB) is the board base for physically supporting and wiring surface-mounted and socketed components in most electronics.
  • processing in memory (PIM) - Processing in memory, or PIM (sometimes called processor in memory), refers to the integration of a processor with Random Access Memory (RAM) on a single chip.
  • processor (CPU) - A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.
  • proximity sensing - Proximity sensing is the ability of a robot to tell when it is near an object, or when something is near it.
  • quad gate - A quad gate is an IC (integrated circuit or chip) containing four logic gates.
  • quad-core processor - A quad-core processor is a chip with four independent units called cores that read and execute central processing unit (CPU) instructions such as add, move data and branch.
  • RAMDAC (random access memory digital-to-analog converter) - RAMDAC (random access memory digital-to-analog converter) is a microchip that converts digital image data into the analog data needed by a computer display.
  • real-time clock (RTC) - A real-time clock (RTC) is a battery-powered clock that is included in a microchip in a computer motherboard.
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