Browse Definitions :

Network security

Terms related to network security, including definitions about intrusion prevention and words and phrases about VPNs and firewalls.
  • AAA server (authentication, authorization and accounting) - An AAA server is a server program that handles user requests for access to computer resources and, for an enterprise, provides authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services.
  • access control list (ACL) - An access control list (ACL) is a list of rules that specifies which users or systems are granted or denied access to a particular object or system resource.
  • access log - An access log is a list of all requests for individual files -- such as Hypertext Markup Language files, their embedded graphic images and other associated files that get transmitted -- that people or bots have made from a website.
  • active attack - An active attack is a network exploit in which a hacker attempts to make changes to data on the target or data en route to the target.
  • Active Directory forest (AD forest) - An Active Directory forest is the highest level of organization within Active Directory.
  • Active Directory tree - An Active Directory (AD) tree is a collection of domains within a Microsoft Active Directory network.
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher chosen by the U.
  • air gap (air gapping) - An air gap is a security measure that involves isolating a computer or network and preventing it from establishing an external connection.
  • Amazon VPC traffic mirroring - Traffic mirroring is a feature for Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC).
  • anti-replay protocol - The anti-replay protocol provides Internet Protocol (IP) packet-level security by making it impossible for a hacker to intercept message packets and insert changed packets into the data stream between a source computer and a destination computer.
  • antispoofing - Antispoofing is a technique for identifying and dropping packets that have a false source address.
  • antivirus software (antivirus program) - Antivirus software (antivirus program) is a security program designed to prevent, detect, search and remove viruses and other types of malware from computers, networks and other devices.
  • application whitelisting - Application whitelisting is the practice of specifying an index of approved software applications or executable files that are permitted to be present and active on a computer system.
  • asymmetric cryptography - Asymmetric cryptography, also known as public key cryptography, is a process that uses a pair of related keys -- one public key and one private key -- to encrypt and decrypt a message and protect it from unauthorized access or use.
  • asymmetric cyber attack - An asymmetric cyber attack refers to cyberwarfare that inflicts a proportionally large amount of damage compared to the resources used by targeting the victim's most vulnerable security measure.
  • attack surface - An attack surface is the total number of all possible entry points for unauthorized access into any system.
  • attack vector - An attack vector is a path or means by which an attacker or hacker can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.
  • authentication server - An authentication server is an application that facilitates the authentication of an entity that attempts to access a network.
  • authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) - Authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) is a security framework for controlling and tracking user access within a computer network.
  • Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) - Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) is a broad set of technologies used to collect information from an object, image or sound without manual data entry.
  • backdoor (computing) - A backdoor attack is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
  • backscatter spam - Backscatter spam, also called misdirected bounce spam or NDR spam, is a strategy for sending unsolicited email messages that takes advantage of the fact that certain types of mail transfer agent (MTA) programs return the entire message to the sender when a recipient's email address is invalid.
  • biometric verification - Biometric verification is any means by which a person can be uniquely identified by evaluating one or more distinguishing biological traits.
  • biometrics - Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people's unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
  • BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
  • BIOS rootkit attack - A BIOS-level rootkit attack, also known as a persistent BIOS attack, is an exploit in which the BIOS is flashed (updated) with malicious code.
  • black hat hacker - A black hat hacker has been historically used to describe one who has malicious intent -- such as theft of information, fraud or disrupting systems -- but increasingly, more specific terms are being used to describe those people.
  • blended threat - A blended threat is an exploit that combines elements of multiple types of malware and usually employs various attack vectors to increase the severity of damage and the speed of contagion.
  • block cipher - A block cipher is a method of encrypting data in blocks to produce ciphertext using a cryptographic key and algorithm.
  • Blowfish - Blowfish is a variable-length, symmetric, 64-bit block cipher.
  • bluesnarfing - Bluesnarfing is a hacking technique in which a hacker accesses a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection.
  • botnet - A botnet is a collection of internet-connected devices, which may include personal computers (PCs), servers, mobile devices and internet of things (IoT) devices, that are infected and controlled by a common type of malware, often unbeknownst to their owner.
  • browser hijacker (browser hijacking) - A browser hijacker is a malware program that modifies web browser settings without the user's permission and redirects the user to websites the user had not intended to visit.
  • brute-force attack - A brute-force attack is a trial-and-error method used by application programs to decode login information and encryption keys to use them to gain unauthorized access to systems.
  • buffer overflow - A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process attempts to write more data to a fixed-length block of memory, or buffer, than the buffer is allocated to hold.
  • business email compromise (BEC, man-in-the-email attack) - A business email compromise (BEC) is an exploit in which the attacker gains access to a corporate email account and spoofs the owner’s identity in order to commit fraud .
  • cache poisoning - Cache poisoning is a type of cyber attack in which attackers insert fake information into a domain name system (DNS) cache or web cache for the purpose of harming users.
  • CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart) - A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response system designed to differentiate humans from robotic computer programs.
  • CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) - CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization.
  • certificate authority (CA) - A certificate authority (CA) is a trusted entity that issues Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates.
  • certificate revocation list (CRL) - A certificate revocation list (CRL) is a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing Certificate Authority (CA) before their actual or assigned expiration date.
  • Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) - Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is an information security certification developed by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, also known as (ISC)².
  • Chernobyl virus - The Chernobyl virus is a computer virus with a potentially devastating payload that destroys all computer data when an infected file is executed.
  • chief risk officer (CRO) - The chief risk officer (CRO) is the corporate executive tasked with assessing and mitigating significant competitive, regulatory and technological threats to an enterprise's capital and earnings.
  • CIA triad (confidentiality, integrity and availability) - The CIA triad refers to confidentiality, integrity and availability, describing a model designed to guide policies for information security within an organization.
  • cipher - In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
  • cipher block chaining (CBC) - Cipher block chaining (CBC) is a mode of operation for a block cipher -- one in which a sequence of bits are encrypted as a single unit, or block, with a cipher key applied to the entire block.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text transformed from plaintext using an encryption algorithm.
  • ciphertext feedback (CFB) - In cryptography, ciphertext feedback (CFB), also known as cipher feedback, is a mode of operation for a block cipher.
  • Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) - Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) is a security policy management platform that provides secure network access to users and devices.
  • Class C2 - Class C2 is a security rating established by the U.
  • client-side extension (CSE) - A client-side extension (CSE) is an integral component of enterprise group policy administration that applies Group Policy to users or endpoint systems.
  • cloud access security broker (CASB) - A cloud access security broker (CASB) is a software tool or service that sits between an organization's on-premises infrastructure and a cloud provider's infrastructure.
  • cloud audit - A cloud audit is an assessment of a cloud computing environment and its services, based on a specific set of controls and best practices.
  • cloud encryption - Cloud encryption is a service cloud storage providers offer whereby a customer's data is transformed using encryption algorithms from plaintext into ciphertext and stored in the cloud.
  • cloud security - Cloud security, also known as 'cloud computing security,' is a set of policies, practices and controls deployed to protect cloud-based data, applications and infrastructure from cyberattacks and cyberthreats.
  • cloud workload protection - Cloud workload protection is the safeguarding of workloads spread out across multiple cloud environments.
  • command-and-control server (C&C server) - A command-and-control server (C&C server) is a computer that issues directives to digital devices that have been infected with rootkits or other types of malware, such as ransomware.
  • Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) - The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a public framework for rating the severity and characteristics of security vulnerabilities in information systems.
  • computer cracker - A computer cracker is an outdated term used to describe someone who broke into computer systems, bypassed passwords or licenses in computer programs, or in other ways intentionally breached computer security.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
  • computer exploit - A computer exploit, or exploit, is an attack on a computer system, especially one that takes advantage of a particular vulnerability the system offers to intruders.
  • Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) - The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) of 1986 is United States legislation that imposes criminal penalties on individuals who intentionally access a protected computer without proper authorization or whose access exceeds their authorization.
  • computer security incident response team (CSIRT) - A computer security incident response team, or CSIRT, is a group of IT professionals that provides an organization with services and support surrounding the assessment, management and prevention of cybersecurity-related emergencies, as well as coordination of incident response efforts.
  • computer worm - A computer worm is a type of malware whose primary function is to self-replicate and infect other computers while remaining active on infected systems.
  • Conficker - Conficker is a fast-spreading worm that targets a vulnerability (MS08-067) in Windows operating systems.
  • content filtering - Content filtering is a process involving the use of software or hardware to screen and/or restrict access to objectionable email, webpages, executables and other suspicious items.
  • cookie poisoning - Cookie poisoning is a type of cyber attack in which a bad actor hijacks, forges, alters or manipulates a cookie to gain unauthorized access to a user's account, open a new account in the user's name or steal the user's information for purposes such as identity theft.
  • Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption protocol based on the U.
  • cryptographic checksum - Generated by a cryptographic algorithm, a cryptographic checksum is a mathematical value assigned to a file sent through a network for verifying that the data contained in that file is unchanged.
  • cryptographic nonce - A nonce is a random or semi-random number that is generated for a specific use.
  • cryptography - Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications using codes, so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.
  • cryptology - Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.
  • cyber extortion - Cyber extortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of an attack coupled with a demand for money or some other response in return for stopping or remediating the attack.
  • cyber hijacking - Cyber hijacking, or computer hijacking, is a type of network security attack in which the attacker takes control of computer systems, software programs and/or network communications.
  • cyber resilience - Cyber resilience is the ability of a computing system to identify, respond and recover quickly should it experience a security incident.
  • cybercrime - Cybercrime is any criminal activity that involves a computer, network or networked device.
  • cybersecurity - Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting internet-connected systems such as hardware, software and data from cyberthreats.
  • Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) - Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) is the division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that is tasked with defending the infrastructure of the internet and improving its resilience and security.
  • cyberwarfare - The generally accepted definition of cyberwarfare is a series of cyber attacks against a nation-state, causing it significant harm.
  • data availability - Data availability is a term used by computer storage manufacturers and storage service providers to describe how data should be available at a required level of performance in situations ranging from normal through disastrous.
  • data integrity - Data integrity is the assurance that digital information is uncorrupted and can only be accessed or modified by those authorized to do so.
  • data protection management (DPM) - Data protection management (DPM) is the administration, monitoring and management of backup processes to ensure backup tasks run on schedule and data is securely backed up and recoverable.
  • data recovery agent (DRA) - A data recovery agent (DRA) is a Microsoft Windows user account with the ability to decrypt data that was encrypted by other users.
  • data splitting - Data splitting is when data is divided into two or more subsets.
  • deception technology - Deception technology is a class of security tools and techniques designed to prevent an attacker who has already entered the network from doing damage.
  • deep packet inspection (DPI) - Deep packet inspection (DPI) is an advanced method of examining and managing network traffic.
  • default password - A default password is a standard preconfigured password for a device or software.
  • denial-of-service attack - A denial-of-service (DoS) attack is a security event that occurs when an attacker makes it impossible for legitimate users to access computer systems, devices, services or other IT resources.
  • dictionary attack - A dictionary attack is a method of breaking into a password-protected computer, network or other IT resource by systematically entering every word in a dictionary, or word list, as a password.
  • Diffie-Hellman key exchange (exponential key exchange) - Diffie-Hellman key exchange is a method of digital encryption that securely exchanges cryptographic keys between two parties over a public channel without their conversation being transmitted over the internet.
  • digital certificate - A digital certificate, also known as a public key certificate, is used to cryptographically link ownership of a public key with the entity that owns it.
  • digital identity - A digital identity is the body of information about an individual, organization or electronic device that exists online.
  • digital signature - A digital signature is a mathematical technique used to validate the authenticity and integrity of a message, software or digital document.
  • Digital Signature Standard (DSS) - The Digital Signature Standard (DSS) is a digital signature algorithm (DSA) developed by the U.
  • directory traversal - Directory traversal is a type of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a web server to access data in a directory other than the server's root directory.
  • disaster recovery plan (DRP) - A disaster recovery plan (DRP) is a documented, structured approach that describes how an organization can quickly resume operations after an unplanned incident.
  • distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack - A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is one in which multiple compromised computer systems attack a target, such as a server, website or other network resource, and cause a denial of service for users of the targeted resource.
  • DMZ in networking - In computer networks, a DMZ, or demilitarized zone, is a physical or logical subnet that separates a local area network (LAN) from other untrusted networks -- usually, the public internet.
  • DNS over HTTPS (DoH) - DNS over HTTPS (DoH) is a relatively new protocol that encrypts domain name system traffic by passing DNS queries through a Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure encrypted session.
Networking
Security
  • cloud security

    Cloud security, also known as 'cloud computing security,' is a set of policies, practices and controls deployed to protect ...

  • privacy impact assessment (PIA)

    A privacy impact assessment (PIA) is a method for identifying and assessing privacy risks throughout the development lifecycle of...

  • proof of concept (PoC) exploit

    A proof of concept (PoC) exploit is a nonharmful attack against a computer or network. PoC exploits are not meant to cause harm, ...

CIO
  • data collection

    Data collection is the process of gathering data for use in business decision-making, strategic planning, research and other ...

  • chief trust officer

    A chief trust officer (CTrO) in the IT industry is an executive job title given to the person responsible for building confidence...

  • green IT (green information technology)

    Green IT (green information technology) is the practice of creating and using environmentally sustainable computing resources.

HRSoftware
  • diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI)

    Diversity, equity and inclusion is a term used to describe policies and programs that promote the representation and ...

  • ADP Mobile Solutions

    ADP Mobile Solutions is a self-service mobile app that enables employees to access work records such as pay, schedules, timecards...

  • director of employee engagement

    Director of employee engagement is one of the job titles for a human resources (HR) manager who is responsible for an ...

Customer Experience
  • digital marketing

    Digital marketing is the promotion and marketing of goods and services to consumers through digital channels and electronic ...

  • contact center schedule adherence

    Contact center schedule adherence is a standard metric used in business contact centers to determine whether contact center ...

  • customer retention

    Customer retention is a metric that measures customer loyalty, or an organization's ability to retain customers over time.

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