Browse Definitions :

Network security

Terms related to network security, including definitions about intrusion prevention and words and phrases about VPNs and firewalls.
  • nonrepudiation - Nonrepudiation ensures that no party can deny that it sent or received a message via encryption and/or digital signatures or approved some information.
  • OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol) - OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol) is one of two common schemes used to maintain the security of a server and other network resources.
  • offensive security - Offensive security is the practice of actively seeking out vulnerabilities in an organization's cybersecurity.
  • one-time pad - In cryptography, a one-time pad is a system in which a randomly generated private key is used only once to encrypt a message that is then decrypted by the receiver using a matching one-time pad and key.
  • one-time password - A one-time password (OTP) is an automatically generated numeric or alphanumeric string of characters that authenticates a user for a single transaction or login one-time password session.
  • Open Source Hardening Project - The Open Source Hardening Project is an initiative of the United States Department of Homeland Security, created to improve the security of open source code.
  • Open System Authentication (OSA) - Open System Authentication (OSA) is a process by which a computer could gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • OpenSSL - OpenSSL is an open source cryptographic toolkit that facilitates secure communications between endpoints on a network.
  • packet filtering - Packet filtering is the process of passing or blocking data packets at a network interface by a firewall based on source and destination addresses, ports or protocols.
  • passive attack - A passive attack is a network attack in which a system is monitored and sometimes scanned for open ports and vulnerabilities.
  • passive reconnaissance - Passive reconnaissance is an attempt to gain information about targeted computers and networks without actively engaging with the systems.
  • passphrase - A passphrase is a sentencelike string of words used for authentication that is longer than a traditional password, easy to remember and difficult to crack.
  • password - A password is a string of characters used to verify the identity of a user during the authentication process.
  • password cracking - Password cracking is the process of using an application program to identify an unknown or forgotten password to a computer or network resource.
  • password salting - Password salting is a technique to protect passwords stored in databases by adding a string of 32 or more characters and then hashing them.
  • PCI DSS merchant levels - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) merchant levels rank merchants based on their number of transactions per year to outline compliance verification requirements.
  • pen testing (penetration testing) - A penetration test, also called a pen test or ethical hacking, is a cybersecurity technique that organizations use to identify, test and highlight vulnerabilities in their security posture.
  • Pen Testing as a Service (PTaaS) - Pen testing as a service (PTaaS) is a cloud service that provides information technology (IT) professionals with the resources they need to conduct and act upon point-in-time and continuous penetration tests.
  • personal health record (PHR) - A personal health record (PHR) is an electronic summary of health information that a patient maintains control of themselves, as opposed to their healthcare provider.
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent websites without their knowledge or consent.
  • piggybacking - Piggybacking, in the context of Wi-Fi, is the use of a wireless connection to gain access to the internet without proper authority.
  • ping sweep (ICMP sweep) - A ping sweep (also known as an ICMP sweep) is a basic network scanning technique used to determine which of a range of IP addresses map to live hosts (computers).
  • PKI (public key infrastructure) - PKI (public key infrastructure) is the underlying framework that enables entities -- users and servers -- to securely exchange information using digital certificates.
  • plaintext - In cryptography, plaintext is usually ordinary readable text before it is encrypted into ciphertext or after it is decrypted.
  • polymorphic virus - A polymorphic virus is a harmful, destructive or intrusive type of malware that can change or 'morph,' making it difficult to detect with antimalware programs.
  • POODLE Attack - The POODLE attack, also known as CVE-2014-3566, is an exploit used to steal information from secure connections, including cookies, passwords and any of the other type of browser data that gets encrypted as a result of the secure sockets layer (SSL) protocol.
  • potentially unwanted program (PUP) - A potentially unwanted program (PUP) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download it.
  • Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) - Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) is an infrastructure protection and resilience directive in the United States that aims to strengthen and secure the country's critical infrastructure.
  • Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) - Pretty Good Privacy or PGP was a popular program used to encrypt and decrypt email over the internet, as well as authenticate messages with digital signatures and encrypted stored files.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP) is a concept in computer security that limits users' access rights to only what is strictly required to do their jobs.
  • private certificate authority (CA) - Private CA stands for private certificate authority and is an enterprise specific certificate authority that functions like a publicly trusted CA but is exclusively run by or for the enterprise.
  • private key - A private key, also known as a secret key, is a variable in cryptography that is used with an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data.
  • privileged access management (PAM) - Privileged access management (PAM) is the combination of tools and technology used to secure, control and monitor access to an organization's critical information and resources.
  • promiscuous mode - In computer networking, promiscuous mode is a mode of operation, as well as a security, monitoring and administration technique.
  • proof of concept (PoC) exploit - A proof of concept (PoC) exploit is a non-harmful attack against a computer or network.
  • proxy firewall - A proxy firewall is a network security system that protects network resources by filtering messages at the application layer.
  • proxy hacking - Proxy hacking is a cyber attack technique designed to supplant an authentic webpage in a search engine's index and search results pages to drive traffic to an imitation site.
  • public key - In cryptography, a public key is a large numerical value that is used to encrypt data.
  • public key certificate - A public key certificate is a digitally signed document that serves to validate the sender's authorization and name.
  • Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) - Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) are a set of standard protocols, numbered from 1 to 15.
  • quantum key distribution (QKD) - Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method for exchanging encryption keys only known between shared parties.
  • RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) - RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is a client-server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service.
  • rainbow table - A rainbow table is a password hacking tool that uses a precomputed table of reversed password hashes to crack passwords in a database.
  • ransomware as a service (RaaS) - Ransomware as a service (RaaS) is a subscription-based business model that enables affiliates to launch ransomware attacks by accessing and using pre-developed ransomware tools.
  • RAT (remote access Trojan) - A RAT (remote access Trojan) is malware an attacker uses to gain full administrative privileges and remote control of a target computer.
  • remote deposit capture (RDC) - Remote deposit capture (RDC) is a system that allows a customer to scan checks remotely and transmit the check images to a bank for deposit, usually via an encrypted Internet connection.
  • retina scan - Retina scanning is a biometric authentication technology that uses an image of an individual's retinal blood vessel pattern as a unique identifying trait for access to secure installations.
  • reverse brute-force attack - A reverse brute-force attack is a type of brute-force attack in which an attacker uses a common password against multiple usernames in an attempt to gain access to a network.
  • Rich Internet Application (RIA) - A rich Internet application (RIA) is a Web application designed to deliver the same features and functions normally associated with deskop applications.
  • Rijndael - Rijndael (pronounced rain-dahl) is an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm.
  • role-based access control (RBAC) - Role-based access control (RBAC) is a method of restricting network access based on the roles of individual users within an enterprise.
  • rootkit - A rootkit is a program or a collection of malicious software tools that give a threat actor remote access to and control over a computer or other system.
  • RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) - The RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is the basis of a cryptosystem -- a suite of cryptographic algorithms that are used for specific security services or purposes -- which enables public key encryption and is widely used to secure sensitive data, particularly when it is being sent over an insecure network, such as the internet.
  • scareware - Scareware is a type of malware tactic used to manipulate victims into downloading or buying potentially malware-infested software.
  • screened subnet - A screened subnet, or triple-homed firewall, refers to a network architecture where a single firewall is used with three network interfaces.
  • script kiddie - Script kiddie is a derogative term that computer hackers coined to refer to immature, but often just as dangerous, exploiters of internet security weaknesses.
  • secure access service edge (SASE) - Secure access service edge, also known as SASE and pronounced sassy, is a cloud architecture model that bundles network and cloud-native security technologies together and delivers them as a single cloud service.
  • Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) - Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) is a system and electronic protocol to ensure the integrity and security of transactions conducted over the internet.
  • Secure File Transfer Protocol (SSH File Transfer Protocol) - SFTP is a term that refers to either Secure File Transfer Protocol or SSH File Transfer Protocol, and is a computing network protocol for accessing and managing files on remote systems.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) - SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.
  • Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) - Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an open standard for sharing security information about identity, authentication and authorization across different systems.
  • security audit - A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms to an established set of criteria.
  • security clearance - A security clearance is an authorization that allows access to information that would otherwise be forbidden.
  • security identifier (SID) - In the context of Windows computing and Microsoft Active Directory (AD), a security identifier (SID) is a unique value that is used to identify any security entity that the operating system (OS) can authenticate.
  • security incident - A security incident is an event that could indicate that an organization's systems or data have been compromised or that security measures put in place to protect them have failed.
  • security information management (SIM) - Security information management (SIM) is the practice of collecting, monitoring and analyzing security-related data from computer logs and various other data sources.
  • security policy - A security policy is a document that states in writing how a company plans to protect its physical and information technology (IT) assets.
  • security posture - Security posture refers to an organization's overall cybersecurity strength and how well it can predict, prevent and respond to ever-changing cyberthreats.
  • security theater - Security theater includes any measures taken by a company or security team to create an atmosphere of safety that may only achieve the appearance of heightened security.
  • security token - A security token is a physical or wireless device that provides two-factor authentication (2FA) for users to prove their identity in a login process.
  • Sender Policy Framework (SPF) - Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is a protocol designed to restrict who can use an organization's domain as the source of an email message.
  • session ID - A session ID, also called a session token, is a unique identifier that a web server assigns to a user for the duration of the current session.
  • session key - A session key is an encryption and decryption key that is randomly generated to ensure the security of a communications session between a user and another computer or between two computers.
  • shadow password file - A shadow password file, also known as /etc/shadow, is a system file in Linux that stores encrypted user passwords and is accessible only to the root user, preventing unauthorized users or malicious actors from breaking into the system.
  • Shared Key Authentication (SKA) - Shared Key Authentication (SKA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • Shodan - Shodan (Sentient Hyper-Optimised Data Access Network) is a search engine designed to map and gather information about internet-connected devices and systems.
  • shoulder surfing - Shoulder surfing is using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone's shoulder, to get information.
  • SIM card - A SIM card, also known as a subscriber identity module, is a smart card that stores identification information that pinpoints a smartphone to a specific mobile network.
  • single sign-on (SSO) - Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for example, a username and password -- to access multiple applications.
  • single-factor authentication (SFA) - Single-factor authentication (SFA) is a process for securing access to a given system, such as a network or website, that identifies the party requesting access through only one category of credentials.
  • SIP trunking (Session Initiation Protocol trunking) - Session Initiation Protocol trunking is a service offered by a communications service provider that uses the protocol to provision voice over IP connectivity between an on-premises phone system and the public switched telephone network.
  • smart card - A smart card is a physical card that has an embedded integrated chip that acts as a security token.
  • smart home - A smart home is a residence that uses internet-connected devices to enable the remote monitoring and management of appliances and systems, such as lighting and heating.
  • smishing (SMS phishing) - Smishing -- or Short Message Service (SMS) phishing -- is a social engineering tactic cybercriminals use to trick people into divulging sensitive information over text messages.
  • SMS spam (cell phone spam or short messaging service spam) - SMS spam (sometimes called cell phone spam) is any junk message delivered to a mobile phone as text messaging through the Short Message Service (SMS).
  • snooping - Snooping, in a security context, is unauthorized access to another person's or company's data.
  • Snort - Snort is an open source network intrusion detection system (NIDS) created by Sourcefire founder and former CTO Martin Roesch.
  • social engineering - Social engineering is an attack vector that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves manipulating people into breaking normal security procedures and best practices to gain unauthorized access to systems, networks or physical locations or for financial gain.
  • social engineering penetration testing - Social engineering pen testing is designed to test employees' adherence to the security policies and practices defined by management.
  • software-defined perimeter (SDP) - A software-defined perimeter, or SDP, is a security technique that controls access to resources based on identity and forms a virtual boundary around networked resources.
  • spear phishing - Spear phishing is a malicious email spoofing attack that targets a specific organization or individual, seeking unauthorized access to sensitive information.
  • SS7 attack - An SS7 attack is a security exploit that takes advantage of a weakness in the design of SS7 (Signaling System 7) to enable data theft, eavesdropping, text interception and location tracking.
  • SSL (secure sockets layer) - Secure sockets layer (SSL) is a networking protocol designed for securing connections between web clients and web servers over an insecure network, such as the internet.
  • stack overflow - A stack overflow is a type of buffer overflow error that occurs when a computer program tries to use more memory space in the call stack than has been allocated to that stack.
  • stateful inspection - Stateful inspection, also known as dynamic packet filtering, is a firewall technology that monitors the state of active connections and uses this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall.
  • stealth virus - A stealth virus is a computer virus that uses various mechanisms to avoid detection by antivirus software.
  • storage security - Storage security is the group of parameters and settings that make storage resources available to authorized users and trusted networks and unavailable to other entities.
  • stream cipher - A stream cipher is a method of encrypting text (to produce ciphertext) in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to each binary digit in a data stream, one bit at a time.
  • strong password - A strong password is one that is designed to be hard for a person or program to guess.
  • SWIFT FIN message - SWIFT FIN is a message type (MT) that transmits financial information from one financial institution to another.
Networking
Security
  • identity management (ID management)

    Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to ...

  • fraud detection

    Fraud detection is a set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses.

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

CIO
  • IT budget

    IT budget is the amount of money spent on an organization's information technology systems and services. It includes compensation...

  • project scope

    Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, ...

  • core competencies

    For any organization, its core competencies refer to the capabilities, knowledge, skills and resources that constitute its '...

HRSoftware
  • Workday

    Workday is a cloud-based software vendor that specializes in human capital management (HCM) and financial management applications.

  • recruitment management system (RMS)

    A recruitment management system (RMS) is a set of tools designed to manage the employee recruiting and hiring process. It might ...

  • core HR (core human resources)

    Core HR (core human resources) is an umbrella term that refers to the basic tasks and functions of an HR department as it manages...

Customer Experience
  • martech (marketing technology)

    Martech (marketing technology) refers to the integration of software tools, platforms, and applications designed to streamline ...

  • transactional marketing

    Transactional marketing is a business strategy that focuses on single, point-of-sale transactions.

  • customer profiling

    Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by ...

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