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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

10B - CUS

  • 10BASE-T - 10BASE-T is an Ethernet standard for local area networks and one of several physical media specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.
  • 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
  • 802.11d - 802.11d is a communications specification for use in countries where systems using other standards in the 802.
  • 802.11n - 802.11n is an addition to the 802.
  • absolute truth - In general, absolute truth is whatever is always valid, regardless of parameters or context.
  • absolute value - Absolute value is a term used in mathematics to indicate the distance of a point or number from the origin (zero point) of a number line or coordinate system.
  • accountability - Accountability means being held responsible or answerable for one's actions (or perhaps lack of action where one should have been taken).
  • ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) - The ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), founded in 1947, is the largest and oldest international scientific and industrial computer society.
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a procedure for mapping a dynamic IP address to a permanent physical machine address in a local area network (LAN).
  • administrator code - In government contracting, an administrator code (AC), like a buyer code (BC), is a code assigned to each Post Award Administrator.
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher chosen by the U.
  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) - The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is a U.
  • algorithmic accountability - Algorithmic accountability is the concept that companies should be held responsible for the results of their programmed algorithms.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • American Wire Gauge (AWG) - American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard way to denote wire size in North America.
  • angular acceleration (rotational acceleration) - Angular acceleration, also called rotational acceleration, is a quantitative expression of the change in angular velocity that a spinning object undergoes per unit time.
  • anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - Using the Internet's File Transfer Protocol (FTP), anonymous FTP is a method for giving users access to files so that they don't need to identify themselves to the server.
  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) - ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States.
  • anti-replay protocol - The anti-replay protocol provides Internet Protocol (IP) packet-level security by making it impossible for a hacker to intercept message packets and insert changed packets into the data stream between a source computer and a destination computer.
  • approximate equality - Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics.
  • Army Knowledge Online (AKO) - Army Knowledge Online (AKO) is the United States Army intranet.
  • ARPANET - The U.S.
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most common character encoding format for text data in computers and on the internet.
  • ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) - ASHRAE was formed in 1959 by the merger of the American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHAE), founded in 1894, and the American Society of Refrigerating Engineers (ASRE), founded in 1904.
  • astronomical unit (AU) - An astronomical unit (AU) is the mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the sun.
  • atomic mass unit (AMU or amu) - The atomic mass unit (AMU or amu) of an element is a measure of its atomic mass.
  • Australian Assistance and Access Bill - The Australian Assistance and Access Bill is legislation introduced and passed in 2018 by the Parliament of Australia to support law enforcement and security agencies in their ability to collect evidence from electronic devices.
  • Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) - Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) is a feature of Windows-based OSes -- included since Windows 98 and Windows ME -- that enables a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol client to automatically assign an IP address to itself when there's no DHCP server available to perform that function.
  • balanced scorecard - The balance scorecard (BSC) is a management system aimed at translating an organization's strategic goals into a set of organizational performance objectives that, in turn, are measured, monitored, and changed if necessary to ensure that an organizations strategic goals are met.
  • bar code (or barcode) - A bar code (often seen as a single word, barcode) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location.
  • Basel II - Basel II is an international business standard that requires financial institutions to have enough cash reserves to cover risks incurred by operations.
  • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) - BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is the protocol underlying the global routing system of the internet.
  • binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit -- 0 or 1 -- and is the basis for all binary code used in computing systems.
  • biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.
  • Blue Origin - Blue Origin is a private spaceflight company based in Kent, Wash.
  • Bluetooth - Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile devices, computers and other devices can easily communicate with each other using a short-range wireless connection.
  • Bluetooth 2.0+EDR - Bluetooth 2.
  • Bohr radius - The Bohr radius, symbolized as 0, is the mean radius of the orbit of an electron around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom at its ground state (lowest-energy level).
  • Boltzmann's constant - Boltzmann's constant, also called the Boltzmann constant and symbolized k or k B, defines the relation between absolute temperature and the kinetic energy contained in each molecule of an ideal gas.
  • BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) - BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is an internet protocol that lets a network user automatically be configured to receive an IP address and have an operating system booted without user involvement.
  • bright-line rule - A bright-line rule, also known as a bright-line test, is a directly-stated law or standard that is worded to avoid room for interpretation and also contains a break-down of objectives.
  • British Standards Institution (BSI) - The British Standards Institution (BSI) is a service organization that produces standards across a wide variety of industry sectors.
  • British thermal unit (Btu) - A British thermal unit (Btu) is a standard unit of energy that is used in the United States and sometimes in the U.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) - Established in August 2000, the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) is a non-profit organization that exists to promote the standardization of common business processes, as a means of furthering e-business and B2B development.
  • Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) - Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an XML standard metalanguage used to outline business processes in an easy-to-understand way.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • calorie (cal) - The calorie (symbolized cal) is a unit of heat occasionally used in the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) system of physical units.
  • CamelCase - CamelCase is a way to separate the words in a phrase by making the first letter of each word capitalized and not using spaces.
  • candela (cd) - The candela (abbreviation, cd) is the standard unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI).
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • Categories of twisted-pair cabling systems - A twisted-pair cabling system is a cable consisting of one or several pairs of copper wires.
  • CCITT or ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications) - The CCITT, now known as the ITU-T (for Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union), is the primary international body for fostering cooperative standards for telecommunications equipment and systems.
  • CDAC - The Centre for Development for Advanced Computing (CDAC) is the main research and development group for the Department of Information Technology (DIT) and the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) in India.
  • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) - CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Promoting a healthy general public and sharing data about chronic diseases are main goals of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • centimeter (cm) - The centimeter (abbreviation, cm) is a unit of displacement or length in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of units.
  • centimeter per second squared - The centimeter per second squared (symbolized cm/s 2 or cm/sec 2) is the unit of acceleration vector magnitude in the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) or small-unit metric system.
  • Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) - Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) is a government agency in India that stores and manages data for the country's Aadhaar project.
  • Centronics parallel interface - The Centronics parallel interface is an older and still widely-used standard I/O interface for connecting printers and certain other devices to computers.
  • CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) - CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) - Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) is a set of courses and exams that, when completed successfully, certifies an individual as capable in Web site development and server administration, including security and e-commerce.
  • change control - Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.
  • change request - A change request is a formal proposal for an alteration to some product or system.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a challenge and response authentication method that Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) servers use to verify the identity of a remote user.
  • charge quantity - Charge quantity is an expression of the extent to which an object is electrically charged.
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol requiring a client or server to wait for an acknowledgment before transmitting data again.
  • citation style guides - A number of generally recognized authorities and organizations offer guidance about how to cite sources when writing an academic or journalistic paper.
  • citizen relationship management (CRM) - Citizen relationship management is a growing effort at all levels of government to respond quickly, succinctly and accurately to citizen requests or inquiries for answers to questions and general information about policies, practices, and procedures.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie or computer presentation.
  • cloud audit - A cloud audit is a periodic examination an organization does to assess and document its cloud vendor's performance.
  • Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) - The Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) is an international standard that defines a functional interface that applications use to create, retrieve, update and delete data elements from cloud storage.
  • Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) - The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is a nonprofit organization that promotes research into best practices for securing cloud computing and the use of cloud technologies to secure other forms of computing.
  • COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) - COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) is a high-level programming language for business applications.
  • CoIP (communications over Internet Protocol) - CoIP (communications over Internet Protocol) is a set of standards defining the transmission of multimedia over the Internet.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) - The Committee on Trade and the Environment (CTE) is a group within the World Trade Organization (WTO) tasked with identifying and understanding the balance of environmental concerns against the interests of international trade.
  • common access card (CAC) - A common access card (CAC) is a Unites States Department of Defense (DoD) smart card for multifactor authentication.
  • Common Criteria (CC) for Information Technology Security Evaluation - Common Criteria (CC) is an international set of guidelines and specifications developed for evaluating information security products, specifically to ensure they meet an agreed-upon security standard for government deployments.
  • Common Information Model (CIM) - The Common Information Model (CIM) is a computer industry standard that defines device and application characteristics so system administrators and management programs can control devices and applications from different manufacturers.
  • Common Service Center (CSC) - A Common Service Center (CSC) is an information and communication technology (ICT) access point created under the National e-Governance Project of the Indian government.
  • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) provides unique identifiers for publicly known security threats.
  • compliance - Compliance is the state of being in accordance with established guidelines or specifications, or the process of becoming so.
  • compliance audit - A compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organization's adherence to regulatory guidelines.
  • compound - In chemistry, a compound is a substance made up of two or more different chemical elements that are combined in a fixed ratio.
  • CompTIA Project+ - CompTIA Project + is the Computing Technology Industry Association’s certification program designed to demonstrate validated learning and skills in project management.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual, organization or tool that gathers web content and applications from different online sources for reuse.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, GMT, CUT) - Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world.
  • coordinates - Coordinates are distances or angles, represented by numbers, that uniquely identify points on surfaces of two dimensions (2D) or in space of three dimensions (3D).
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.
  • coulomb - The coulomb (symbolized C) is the standard unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI).
  • CRAM (challenge-response authentication mechanism) - CRAM (challenge-response authentication mechanism) is the two-level scheme for authenticating network users that is used as part of the Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
  • critical infrastructure - Critical infrastructure is the body of systems, networks and assets that are so essential that their continued operation is required to ensure the security of a given nation, its economy, and the public’s health and/or safety.
  • CSO (Chief Security Officer) - A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is a C-suite executive responsible for a company's physical and digital security.
  • cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
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    A contingent workforce is a labor pool whose members are hired by an organization on an on-demand basis.

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