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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

10B - DIF

  • 10BASE-T - 10BASE-T is an Ethernet standard for local area networks and one of several physical media specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.
  • 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
  • 802.11d - 802.11d is a communications specification for use in countries where systems using other standards in the 802.
  • 802.11n - 802.11n is an addition to the 802.
  • absolute truth - In general, absolute truth is whatever is always valid, regardless of parameters or context.
  • absolute value - Absolute value is a term used in mathematics to indicate the distance of a point or number from the origin (zero point) of a number line or coordinate system.
  • accountability - Accountability is an assurance that an individual or an organization is evaluated on its performance or behavior related to something for which it is responsible.
  • ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) - The ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), founded in 1947, is the largest and oldest international scientific and industrial computer society.
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a procedure for mapping a dynamic IP address to a permanent physical machine address in a local area network (LAN).
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher chosen by the U.
  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) - The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is a U.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • American Wire Gauge (AWG) - American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard way to denote wire size in North America.
  • angular acceleration (rotational acceleration) - Angular acceleration, also called rotational acceleration, is a quantitative expression of the change in angular velocity that a spinning object undergoes per unit time.
  • anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - Using the Internet's File Transfer Protocol (FTP), anonymous FTP is a method for giving users access to files so that they don't need to identify themselves to the server.
  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) - ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States.
  • anti-replay protocol - The anti-replay protocol provides Internet Protocol (IP) packet-level security by making it impossible for a hacker to intercept message packets and insert changed packets into the data stream between a source computer and a destination computer.
  • approximate equality - Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics.
  • Army Knowledge Online (AKO) - Army Knowledge Online (AKO) is the United States Army intranet.
  • ARPANET - The U.S.
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most common character encoding format for text data in computers and on the internet.
  • ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) - ASHRAE was formed in 1959 by the merger of the American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHAE), founded in 1894, and the American Society of Refrigerating Engineers (ASRE), founded in 1904.
  • astronomical unit (AU) - An astronomical unit (AU) is the mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the sun.
  • atomic mass unit (AMU or amu) - The atomic mass unit (AMU or amu) of an element is a measure of its atomic mass.
  • Australian Assistance and Access Bill - The Australian Assistance and Access Bill is legislation introduced and passed in 2018 by the Parliament of Australia to support law enforcement and security agencies in their ability to collect evidence from electronic devices.
  • Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) - Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) is a feature of Windows-based OSes -- included since Windows 98 and Windows ME -- that enables a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol client to automatically assign an IP address to itself when there's no DHCP server available to perform that function.
  • balanced scorecard - The balance scorecard (BSC) is a management system aimed at translating an organization's strategic goals into a set of organizational performance objectives that, in turn, are measured, monitored, and changed if necessary to ensure that an organizations strategic goals are met.
  • barcode (or bar code) - A barcode (sometimes seen as two words, bar code) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person or location.
  • Basel II - Basel II is an international business standard that requires financial institutions to maintain enough cash reserves to cover risks incurred by their operations.
  • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) - BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is the protocol underlying the global routing system of the internet.
  • binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit -- 0 or 1 -- and is the basis for all binary code used in computing systems.
  • biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biology to develop new products, methods and organisms intended to improve human health and society.
  • Blue Origin - Blue Origin is a private spaceflight company based in Kent, Wash.
  • Bluetooth - Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile devices, computers and other devices can easily communicate with each other using a short-range wireless connection.
  • Bluetooth 2.0+EDR - Bluetooth 2.
  • Bohr radius - The Bohr radius, symbolized as 0, is the mean radius of the orbit of an electron around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom at its ground state (lowest-energy level).
  • Boltzmann's constant - Boltzmann's constant, also called the Boltzmann constant and symbolized k or k B, defines the relation between absolute temperature and the kinetic energy contained in each molecule of an ideal gas.
  • BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) - BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is an internet protocol that lets a network user automatically be configured to receive an IP address and have an operating system booted without user involvement.
  • bright-line rule - A bright-line rule, also known as a bright-line test, is a directly-stated law or standard that is worded to avoid room for interpretation and also contains a break-down of objectives.
  • British Standards Institution (BSI) - The British Standards Institution (BSI) is a service organization that produces standards across a wide variety of industry sectors.
  • British thermal unit (Btu) - A British thermal unit (Btu) is a standard unit of energy that is used in the United States and sometimes in the U.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) - Established in August 2000, the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) is a non-profit organization that exists to promote the standardization of common business processes, as a means of furthering e-business and B2B development.
  • Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) - Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an XML standard metalanguage used to outline business processes in an easy-to-understand way.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • CamelCase - CamelCase is a way to separate the words in a phrase by making the first letter of each word capitalized and not using spaces.
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • Categories of twisted-pair cabling systems - A twisted-pair cabling system is a cable consisting of one or several pairs of copper wires.
  • CCITT or ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications) - The CCITT, now known as the ITU-T (for Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union), is the primary international body for fostering cooperative standards for telecommunications equipment and systems.
  • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) - CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Promoting a healthy general public and sharing data about chronic diseases are main goals of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • centimeter (cm) - The centimeter (abbreviation, cm) is a unit of displacement or length in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of units.
  • CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) - CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • change control - Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.
  • change request - A change request is a formal proposal for an alteration to some product or system.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a challenge and response authentication method that Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) servers use to verify the identity of a remote user.
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol requiring a client or server to wait for an acknowledgment before transmitting data again.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie or computer presentation.
  • cloud audit - A cloud audit is a periodic examination an organization does to assess and document its cloud vendor's performance.
  • Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) - The Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) is an international standard that defines a functional interface that applications use to create, retrieve, update and delete data elements from cloud storage.
  • Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) - The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is a nonprofit organization that promotes research into best practices for securing cloud computing and the use of cloud technologies to secure other forms of computing.
  • COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) - COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) is a high-level programming language for business applications.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • common access card (CAC) - A common access card (CAC) is a Unites States Department of Defense (DoD) smart card for multifactor authentication.
  • Common Criteria (CC) for Information Technology Security Evaluation - Common Criteria (CC) is an international set of guidelines and specifications developed for evaluating information security products, specifically to ensure they meet an agreed-upon security standard for government deployments.
  • Common Information Model (CIM) - The Common Information Model (CIM) is a computer industry standard that defines device and application characteristics so system administrators and management programs can control devices and applications from different manufacturers.
  • Common Service Center (CSC) - A Common Service Center (CSC) is an information and communication technology (ICT) access point created under the National e-Governance Project of the Indian government.
  • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) provides unique identifiers for publicly known security threats.
  • compliance - Compliance is the state of being in accordance with established guidelines or specifications, or the process of becoming so.
  • compliance audit - A compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organization's adherence to regulatory guidelines.
  • compound - In chemistry, a compound is a substance made up of two or more different chemical elements that are combined in a fixed ratio.
  • CompTIA Project+ - CompTIA Project + is the Computing Technology Industry Association’s certification program designed to demonstrate validated learning and skills in project management.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual, organization or tool that gathers web content and applications from different online sources for reuse.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, GMT, CUT) - Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world.
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.
  • coulomb (C) - A coulomb (C) is the standard unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI).
  • critical infrastructure - Critical infrastructure is the body of systems, networks and assets that are so essential that their continued operation is required to ensure the security of a given nation, its economy, and the public’s health and/or safety.
  • CSO (Chief Security Officer) - A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is a C-suite executive responsible for a company's physical and digital security.
  • cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • cyber espionage - Cyber espionage, also called cyber spying, is a form of cyber attack that is carried out against a competitive company or government entity.
  • cyberpicketing - Cyberpicketing is the use of the Internet to protest a corporation or other institution's wages, work conditions, products, environmental policy, or other issues.
  • Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA) - Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA) is proposed legislation that will allow United States government agencies and non-government entities to share information with each other as they investigate cyberattacks.
  • cyberterrorism - Cyberterrorism is often defined as any premeditated, politically motivated attack against information systems, programs and data that threatens violence or results in violence.
  • cyberwarfare - The generally accepted definition of cyberwarfare is the use of cyber attacks against a nation-state, causing it significant harm, up to and including physical warfare, disruption of vital computer systems and loss of life.
  • data breach - A data breach is a cyber attack in which sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected data has been accessed or disclosed in an unauthorized fashion.
  • Data Encryption Standard (DES) - Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric key method of data encryption.
  • data latency - Data latency is the time it takes for data packets to be stored or retrieved.
  • data link layer - The data link layer is the protocol layer in a program that handles the moving of data into and out of a physical link in a network.
  • Daylight Saving Time (DST) - Daylight Saving Time (DST) is the practice of turning the clock ahead as warmer weather approaches and back as it becomes colder again.
  • Defense Acquisition Regulatory Council (DARC) - The Defense Acquisition Regulatory Council (DARC) is a group composed of representatives from each Military department, the Defense Logistics Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  • Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) - The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) is a component of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) that works with defense contractors to ensure government services and supplies are delivered on time, come at the expected cost and satisfy all performance requirements.
  • defense contractor - A defense contractor is any person who enters into a contract with a federal government of the United States for the production of material or for the performance of services for national defense.
  • Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) - Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is a U.
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a network management protocol used to dynamically assign an Internet Protocol (IP) address to any device, or node, on a network so they can communicate using IP.
  • dielectric constant - The dielectric constant of a substance or material is a measure of its ability to store electrical energy.
  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS) - Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS) is a protocol for specifying and controlling network traffic by class so that certain types of traffic get precedence - for example, voice traffic, which requires a relatively uninterrupted flow of data, might get precedence over other kinds of traffic.
Networking
  • network traffic

    Network traffic is the amount of data that moves across a network during any given time.

  • dynamic and static

    In general, dynamic means 'energetic, capable of action and/or change, or forceful,' while static means 'stationary or fixed.'

  • MAC address (media access control address)

    A MAC address (media access control address) is a 12-digit hexadecimal number assigned to each device connected to the network.

Security
  • Evil Corp

    Evil Corp is an international cybercrime network that uses malicious software to steal money from victims' bank accounts and to ...

  • Trojan horse

    In computing, a Trojan horse is a program downloaded and installed on a computer that appears harmless, but is, in fact, ...

  • quantum key distribution (QKD)

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method for exchanging encryption keys only known between shared parties.

CIO
  • green IT (green information technology)

    Green IT (green information technology) is the practice of creating and using environmentally sustainable computing.

  • benchmark

    A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.

  • spatial computing

    Spatial computing broadly characterizes the processes and tools used to capture, process and interact with 3D data.

HRSoftware
  • talent acquisition

    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

  • hybrid work model

    A hybrid work model is a workforce structure that includes employees who work remotely and those who work on site, in a company's...

Customer Experience
  • BOPIS (buy online, pick up in-store)

    BOPIS (buy online, pick up in-store) is a business model that allows consumers to shop and place orders online and then pick up ...

  • real-time analytics

    Real-time analytics is the use of data and related resources for analysis as soon as it enters the system.

  • database marketing

    Database marketing is a systematic approach to the gathering, consolidation and processing of consumer data.

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