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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

10B - COM

  • 10BASE-36 - 10BASE-36 is a type of physical cabling defined in the IEEE 802.
  • 10BASE-T - 10BASE-T is an Ethernet standard for local area networks and one of several physical media specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.
  • 802.11d - 802.11d is a communications specification for use in countries where systems using other standards in the 802.
  • 802.11h - The 802.11h specification is an addition to the 802.
  • 802.11n - 802.11n is an addition to the 802.
  • Aadhaar - Aadhaar is a 12-digit unique identification number issued by the Indian government to every individual resident of India in the form of a card.
  • absolute truth - In general, absolute truth is whatever is always valid, regardless of parameters or context.
  • absolute value - Absolute value is a term used in mathematics to indicate the distance of a point or number from the origin (zero point) of a number line or coordinate system.
  • accountability - Accountability means being held responsible or answerable for one's actions (or perhaps lack of action where one should have been taken).
  • ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) - The ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), founded in 1947, is the largest and oldest international scientific and industrial computer society.
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a procedure for mapping a dynamic IP address to a permanent physical machine address in a local area network (LAN).
  • administrator code - In government contracting, an administrator code (AC), like a buyer code (BC), is a code assigned to each Post Award Administrator.
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher chosen by the U.
  • Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) - The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) is a standards organization that was created in 1982 as part of the Advanced Television Committee (ATV) to promote the establishment of technical standards for all aspects of advanced television systems.
  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) - The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is a U.
  • algorithmic accountability - Algorithmic accountability is the concept that companies should be held responsible for the results of their programmed algorithms.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) - The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) is a group of individuals from myriad disciplines who convene in the interest of improving health informatics as it relates to patient care, teaching, research and related aspects of health care policy.
  • American Wire Gauge (AWG) - American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard way to denote wire size in North America.
  • amount of substance (material quantity) - Amount of substance, also called material quantity, is a dimensionless expression of the number of particles in a sample.
  • angle symbol - The angle symbol is a mathematical symbol that is placed ahead of character s, usually uppercase italic letters representing spatial points, to describe a geometric angle formed by the intersection of two lines, line segments, or rays.
  • angular acceleration (rotational acceleration) - Angular acceleration, also called rotational acceleration, is a quantitative expression of the change in angular velocity that a spinning object undergoes per unit time.
  • angular degree (deg or °) - The angular degree is a unit of plane angular measure used in some engineering applications, and by most lay people.
  • anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - Using the Internet's File Transfer Protocol (FTP), anonymous FTP is a method for giving users access to files so that they don't need to identify themselves to the server.
  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) - ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States.
  • anti-replay protocol - The anti-replay protocol provides Internet Protocol (IP) packet-level security by making it impossible for a hacker to intercept message packets and insert changed packets into the data stream between a source computer and a destination computer.
  • approximate equality - Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics.
  • area (A) - Area (symbolized A) is a two-dimensional quantity representing amount or extent of surface.
  • Army Knowledge Online (AKO) - Army Knowledge Online (AKO) is the United States Army intranet.
  • ARPANET - The U.S.
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most common character encoding format for text data in computers and on the internet.
  • ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) - ASHRAE was formed in 1959 by the merger of the American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHAE), founded in 1894, and the American Society of Refrigerating Engineers (ASRE), founded in 1904.
  • astronomical unit (AU) - An astronomical unit (AU) is the mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the sun.
  • atomic mass unit (AMU or amu) - An atomic mass unit (symbolized AMU or amu) is defined as precisely 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
  • ATX - ATX is an industry-wide specification for a desktop computer's motherboard.
  • Australian Assistance and Access Bill - The Australian Assistance and Access Bill is legislation introduced and passed in 2018 by the Parliament of Australia to support law enforcement and security agencies in their ability to collect evidence from electronic devices.
  • Automated License Plate Recognition (ALPR) - Automated License Plate Recognition (ALPR) is a technology that uses optical character recognition (OCR) to automatically read license plate characters.
  • Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) - Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) is a feature of Windows-based operating systems (included in Windows 98, ME, 2000, and XP) that enables a computer to automatically assign itself an IP address when there is no Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server available to perform that function.
  • balanced scorecard - The balance scorecard (BSC) is a management system aimed at translating an organization's strategic goals into a set of organizational performance objectives that, in turn, are measured, monitored, and changed if necessary to ensure that an organizations strategic goals are met.
  • bar code (or barcode) - A bar code (often seen as a single word, barcode) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location.
  • Basel II - Basel II is an international business standard that requires financial institutions to have enough cash reserves to cover risks incurred by operations.
  • BeeMe (MIT Media Lab) - BeeMe is a web-based social experiment that will be hosted by the MIT Media Lab at 11pm on October 31, 2018.
  • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) - BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is the protocol underlying the global routing system of the internet.
  • biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.
  • Blue Origin - Blue Origin is a private spaceflight company based in Kent, Wash.
  • Bluetooth - Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile devices, computers and other devices can easily communicate with each other using a short-range wireless connection.
  • Bluetooth 2.0+EDR - Bluetooth 2.
  • Bohr radius - The Bohr radius, symbolized as 0, is the mean radius of the orbit of an electron around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom at its ground state (lowest-energy level).
  • Boltzmann's constant - Boltzmann's constant, also called the Boltzmann constant and symbolized k or k B, defines the relation between absolute temperature and the kinetic energy contained in each molecule of an ideal gas.
  • BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) - BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is an internet protocol that lets a network user automatically be configured to receive an IP address and have an operating system booted without user involvement.
  • bright-line rule - A bright-line rule, also known as a bright-line test, is a directly-stated law or standard that is worded to avoid room for interpretation and also contains a break-down of objectives.
  • British Standards Institution (BSI) - The British Standards Institution (BSI) is a service organization that produces standards across a wide variety of industry sectors.
  • British thermal unit (Btu) - A British thermal unit (Btu) is a standard unit of energy that is used in the United States and sometimes in the U.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) - Established in August 2000, the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) is a non-profit organization that exists to promote the standardization of common business processes, as a means of furthering e-business and B2B development.
  • Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) - Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an XML standard metalanguage used to outline business processes in an easy-to-understand way.
  • call signaling - Call signaling is a process that is used to set up a connection in a telephone network.
  • calorie (cal) - The calorie (symbolized cal) is a unit of heat occasionally used in the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) system of physical units.
  • Can Spam Act of 2003 - The Can Spam Act of 2003 is a commonly used name for the United States Federal law more formally known as S.
  • candela (cd) - The candela (abbreviation, cd) is the standard unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI).
  • canonical name (CNAME) - A canonical name (CNAME) is a type of Domain Name System (DNS) database record that indicates that a domain name is the nickname or alias for another domain name.
  • Categories of twisted-pair cabling systems - A twisted-pair cabling system is a cable consisting of one or several pairs of copper wires.
  • CCHIT - Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology - The Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT) is an independent, not-for-profit group that certifies electronic health records (EHR) and networks for health information exchange (HIE) in the United States.
  • CCITT or ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications) - The CCITT, now known as the ITU-T (for Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union), is the primary international body for fostering cooperative standards for telecommunications equipment and systems.
  • CDAC - The Centre for Development for Advanced Computing (CDAC) is the main research and development group for the Department of Information Technology (DIT) and the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) in India.
  • CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) - CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Promoting a healthy general public and sharing data about chronic diseases are main goals of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • centimeter (cm) - The centimeter (abbreviation, cm) is a unit of displacement or length in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of units.
  • centimeter per second squared - The centimeter per second squared (symbolized cm/s 2 or cm/sec 2) is the unit of acceleration vector magnitude in the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) or small-unit metric system.
  • Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) - Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) is a government agency in India that stores and manages data for the country's Aadhaar project.
  • Centronics parallel interface - The Centronics parallel interface is an older and still widely-used standard I/O interface for connecting printers and certain other devices to computers.
  • CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) - CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) - Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) is a set of courses and exams that, when completed successfully, certifies an individual as capable in Web site development and server administration, including security and e-commerce.
  • change control - Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.
  • change request - A change request is a formal proposal for an alteration to some product or system.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a challenge and response authentication method that Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) servers use to verify the identity of a remote user.
  • charge quantity - Charge quantity is an expression of the extent to which an object is electrically charged.
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol requiring a client or server to wait for an acknowledgment before transmitting data again.
  • CHIME (College of Healthcare Information Management Executives) - The College of Healthcare Information Management Executives (CHIME) is an organization created to serve the professional development needs of CIOs working in the healthcare industry and to promote effective information management within that industry.
  • citation style guides - A number of generally recognized authorities and organizations offer guidance about how to cite sources when writing an academic or journalistic paper.
  • citizen relationship management (CRM) - Citizen relationship management is a growing effort at all levels of government to respond quickly, succinctly and accurately to citizen requests or inquiries for answers to questions and general information about policies, practices, and procedures.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie, or computer presentation.
  • cloud audit - A cloud audit is a periodic examination an organization does to assess and document its cloud vendor's performance.
  • Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) - The Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) is an international standard that defines a functional interface that applications use to create, retrieve, update and delete data elements from cloud storage.
  • Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) - The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is a nonprofit organization that promotes research into best practices for securing cloud computing and the use of cloud technologies to secure other forms of computing.
  • COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) - COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) is a high-level programming language for business applications.
  • CoIP (communications over Internet Protocol) - CoIP (communications over Internet Protocol) is a set of standards defining the transmission of multimedia over the Internet.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) - The Committee on Trade and the Environment (CTE) is a group within the World Trade Organization (WTO) tasked with identifying and understanding the balance of environmental concerns against the interests of international trade.
  • common access card (CAC) - A common access card (CAC) is a Unites States Department of Defense (DoD) smart card for multifactor authentication.
  • Common Criteria (CC) for Information Technology Security Evaluation - Common Criteria (CC) is an international set of guidelines and specifications developed for evaluating information security products, specifically to ensure they meet an agreed-upon security standard for government deployments.
  • Common Information Model (CIM) - The Common Information Model (CIM) is a computer industry standard that defines device and application characteristics so system administrators and management programs can control devices and applications from different manufacturers.
  • Common Service Center (CSC) - A Common Service Center (CSC) is an information and communication technology (ICT) access point created under the National e-Governance Project of the Indian government.
  • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) provides unique identifiers for publicly known security threats.
  • compliance - Compliance is the state of being in accordance with established guidelines or specifications, or the process of becoming so.
  • compliance audit - A compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organization's adherence to regulatory guidelines.
  • CompTIA Project+ - CompTIA Project + is the Computing Technology Industry Association’s certification program designed to demonstrate validated learning and skills in project management.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
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