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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

JUL - SES

  • Julian calendar - The Julian calendar was the 365-day calendar that Julius Caesar made official in 46 B.
  • kilogram-meter per second - The kilogram-meter per second is the standard unit of momentum.
  • Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) - Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used by an internet service provider (ISP) to enable the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the internet.
  • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) - LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a software protocol for enabling anyone to locate data about organizations, individuals and other resources such as files and devices in a network -- whether on the public internet or a corporate intranet.
  • LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, more commonly known as LEED, is an environmentally oriented building certification program run by the U.
  • linearity - Linearity is the behavior of a circuit, particularly an amplifier, in which the output signal strength varies in direct proportion to the input signal strength.
  • Link Control Protocol (LCP) - In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard way to transport multiprotocol data over point-to-point links; within PPP, Link Control Protocol (LCP) establishes, configures and tests data link internet connections.
  • liquid - A liquid is a type of matter with specific properties that make it less rigid than a solid but more rigid than a gas.
  • logical OR symbol - In mathematics, the logical OR symbol is a Boolean function that is positioned between two statements to indicate an inclusive disjunction between them.
  • longitudinal time code (LTC) - Longitidinal time code (LTC) is a timing signal that is part of an audio tape recording.
  • lowerCamelCase - A part of CamelCase, lowerCamelCase is a naming convention in which a name contains multiple words that are joined together as a single word.
  • LTO (Linear Tape-Open) tape - LTO (Linear Tape-Open) tape is an open-format tape storage technology created by Hewlett-Packard (HP), International Business Machines (IBM) and Seagate Technology.
  • lux (lx) - The lux (symbolized lx) is the unit of illuminance in the International System of Units (SI).
  • magnetic field strength - Magnetic field strength is a measure of the intensity of a magnetic field in a given area of that field.
  • managed file transfer (MFT) - Managed file transfer (MFT) is a type of software used to provide secure internal, external and ad-hoc data transfers through a network.
  • management information systems (MIS) - Management information systems (MIS) is a department within an enterprise responsible for controlling the hardware and software systems that the organization uses to make business-critical decisions.
  • mass (m) - Mass (symbolized m) is a dimensionless quantity representing the amount of matter in a particle or object.
  • Massachusetts data protection law - What is the Massachusetts data protection law?The Massachusetts data protection law is legislation that stipulates security requirements for organizations that handle the private data of residents.
  • Mathematical symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent and how they are used.
  • matter - Matter is a substance made up of various types of particles that occupies physical space and has inertia.
  • megabyte (MB) - As a measure of computer processor storage and real and virtual memory, a megabyte (abbreviated MB) is 2 to the 20th power bytes, or 1,048,576 bytes in decimal notation.
  • message passing interface (MPI) - The message passing interface (MPI) is a standardized means of exchanging messages between multiple computers running a parallel program across distributed memory.
  • meter per second (m/s) - The meter per second (m/s) is the standard unit of speed and velocity in the International System of Units.
  • Microsoft - Microsoft is the largest vendor of computer software in the world.
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is a standard to transmit and store music, originally designed for digital music synthesizers.
  • MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) - MIME, or Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, is an extension of the original email protocol.
  • MIT License (X11 license or MIT X license) - The MIT License (also known as the X11 license or MITX license) is a software license that was originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) - Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) is a software design pattern that is structured to separate program logic and user interface controls.
  • molecule - A molecule is two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds, which form the smallest unit of a substance that retains the composition and properties of that substance.
  • most significant bit (MSB) - The most significant bit (MSB) is the bit in a multiple-bit binary number with the largest value.
  • MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) - MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) is a lightweight open messaging protocol that provides resource-constrained network clients with a simple way to distribute telemetry information in low-bandwidth environments.
  • mu - The lowercase Greek letter µ (pronounced mu) generally represents the prefix multiplier 0.
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a switching mechanism used in wide area networks (WANs).
  • nanosecond (ns or nsec) - A nanosecond (ns or nsec) is one-billionth of a second.
  • national identity card - A national identity card is a portable document, typically a plasticized card with digitally embedded information, that is used to verify aspects of a person's identity.
  • National Security Agency (NSA) - The National Security Agency (NSA) is a federal government intelligence agency that is part of the United States Department of Defense and is managed under the authority of the director of national intelligence (DNI).
  • NetFlow - NetFlow is a network protocol developed by Cisco for the collection and monitoring of network traffic flow data that is generated by most Cisco routers and switches.
  • Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) - Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) is an open protocol to control data backup and recovery communications between primary and secondary storage in a heterogeneous network environment.
  • network protocol - A network protocol is a set of established rules that specify how to format, send and receive data so that computer network endpoints, including computers, servers, routers and virtual machines, can communicate despite differences in their underlying infrastructures, designs or standards.
  • Network Time Protocol (NTP) - Network Time Protocol (NTP) is an internet protocol used to synchronize with computer clock time sources in a network.
  • neuromarketing - Neuromarketing is the study of how people's brains respond to advertising and other brand-related messages by scientifically monitoring brainwave activity, eye tracking and skin response.
  • newton-second - The newton-second is the standard unit of impulse.
  • Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) - Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is an automated configuration technology that routes data on a distributed network by discovering the best routing path between endpoints.
  • NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) - NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) is a nonregulatory government agency located in Gaithersburg, Md.
  • nonprofit organization (NPO) - A nonprofit organization (NPO) is one that is not driven by profit but by dedication to a given cause that is the target of all income beyond what it takes to run the organization.
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) - The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is responsible for protecting worker health and safety in the United States.
  • Office of Personnel Management (OPM) - The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is an independent agency of the United States government that is tasked with the oversight of civil service hirings.
  • OLTP (online transaction processing) - OLTP (online transaction processing) is a class of software programs capable of supporting transaction-oriented applications.
  • ONC (Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology) - The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, abbreviated ONC, is an entity within the U.
  • Open Document Format (ODF) - The Open Document Format (ODF) is a zip-compressed, Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based, open source file format for saving and exchanging text, spreadsheets, charts, graphics and presentations.
  • Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) - OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) is an industry plan for a standard way to connect devices such as home appliances and security systems to the Internet.
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) - Open Shortest Path First, often shortened to OSPF, is an IP routing protocol used to find the best path to distribute packets as they pass through IP networks.
  • OpenStack - OpenStack is a collection of open source software modules and tools that provide a framework to create and manage both public cloud and private cloud infrastructure.
  • OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) - The OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) specification is a Java framework for developing and deploying modular software programs and libraries.
  • OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection) - OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a reference model for how applications communicate over a network.
  • pascal - The pascal (Pa) is the unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI).
  • PCI compliance - PCI compliance is adherence to the set of policies and procedures developed to protect credit, debit and cash card transactions and prevent the misuse of cardholders' personal information.
  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) - The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to optimize the security of credit, debit and cash card transactions and protect cardholders against misuse of their personal information.
  • PeopleSoft - PeopleSoft is an e-business software product line owned by Oracle.
  • permittivity (electric permittivity) - Permittivity (electric permittivity) is defined as the ratio of electric displacement to the electric field intensity.
  • personal health record (PHR) - A personal health record (PHR) is a collection of health-related information that is documented and maintained by the individual it pertains to.
  • personal identity verification (PIV) card - A personal identity verification (PIV) card is a United States Federal smart card that contains the necessary data for the cardholder to be granted to Federal facilities and information systems and assure appropriate levels of security for all applicable Federal applications.
  • Planck's constant - Planck's constant, symbolized as h, is a fundamental universal constant that defines the quantum nature of energy and relates the energy of a photon to its frequency.
  • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) - Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) refers to a suite of computer communication protocols that provide a standard way to transport multiprotocol data over point-to-point links.
  • Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) - Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol that facilitates communication between network endpoints.
  • poison reverse - In a computer network that uses the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or other distance vector routing protocol, poison reverse is a loop avoidance process.
  • POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) - POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) is the most recent version of a standard protocol for receiving e-mail.
  • POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) - POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) is a set of standard operating system interfaces based on the Unix operating system.
  • Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) - Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) is an infrastructure protection and resilience directive in the United States that aims to strengthen and secure the country's critical infrastructure.
  • Project Management Professional (PMP) - Project Management Professional (PMP) certification is a qualification program overseen by the Project Management Institute (PMI).
  • Project planning: What is it and 5 steps to create a plan - Project planning is a discipline addressing how to complete a project in a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages and designated resources.
  • public sector - The public sector is the segment of an economic system that is controlled by government; it contrasts with the private sector, which is run by private citizens.
  • public-private partnership (PPP) - A public-private partnership (PPP) is a funding model for public infrastructure projects and initiatives such as a new telecommunications system, public transportation system, airport or power plant.
  • quality assurance (QA) - Quality assurance (QA) is any systematic process of determining whether a product or service meets specified requirements.
  • quality control (QC) - Quality control (QC) is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the client or customer.
  • radian per second (rad/s or rad/sec) - The radian per second (symbolized rad/s or rad/sec) is the Standard International (SI) unit of angular (rotational) speed.
  • RAID (redundant array of independent disks) - RAID (redundant array of independent disks) is a way of storing the same data in different places on multiple hard disks or solid-state drives (SSDs) to protect data in the case of a drive failure.
  • Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) - Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is an application-level network communication system that transfers real-time data from multimedia to an endpoint device by communicating directly with the server streaming the data.
  • Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) - Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network standard designed for transmitting audio or video data that is optimized for consistent delivery of live data.
  • registration authority (RA) - A registration authority (RA) is an authority in a network that verifies user requests for a digital certificate and tells the certificate authority (CA) to issue it.
  • remote desktop - A remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows a user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as if it were local.
  • remote desktop protocol (RDP) - Remote desktop protocol (RDP) is a secure network communications protocol from Microsoft.
  • Request for Comments (RFC) - A Request for Comments (RFC) is a formal document from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that contains specifications and organizational notes about topics related to the internet and computer networking, such as routing, addressing and transport technologies.
  • Request for Offer (RFO) - A Request for Offer (RFO) is a document an organization issues to solicit bids or proposals from potential suppliers for goods or services.
  • Resource Description Framework (RDF) - The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a general framework for representing interconnected data on the web.
  • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a protocol a physical machine in a local area network (LAN) can use to request its IP address.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization -- also known as route aggregation -- is a method to minimize the number of routing tables in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector protocol that uses hop count as its primary metric.
  • SAE International - SAE International is a professional association and standards development organization for the engineering industry, with a special focus on transport sectors such as automotive, aerospace and commercial vehicles.
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act - The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a federal law that established sweeping auditing and financial regulations for public companies.
  • scientific notation (power-of-10 notation) - Scientific notation, also called power-of-10 notation, is a method of writing extremely large and small numbers.
  • SDP (Session Description Protocol) - SDP (Session Description Protocol) is a set of rules that defines how multimedia sessions can be set up to allow all end points to effectively participate in the session.
  • second (s or sec) - The second (s or sec) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of time measurement.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) - SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) - The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is the U.
  • security clearance - A security clearance is an authorization that allows access to information that would otherwise be forbidden.
  • SequenceFile - A SequenceFile is a flat, binary file type that serves as a container for data to be used in Hadoop distributed compute projects.
  • serial digital interface (SDI) - Serial digital interface (SDI) is a standard for digital video and audio transmission over coaxial or fiber optic cabling.
  • Server Message Block protocol (SMB protocol) - The Server Message Block protocol (SMB protocol) is a client-server communication protocol used for sharing access to files, printers, serial ports and other resources on a network.
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol used for initiating, maintaining, modifying and terminating real-time sessions that involve video, voice, messaging and other communications applications and services between two or more endpoints on IP networks.
Networking
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

    User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a communications protocol primarily used to establish low-latency and loss-tolerating connections...

  • Telnet

    Telnet is a network protocol used to virtually access a computer and provide a two-way, collaborative and text-based ...

  • big-endian and little-endian

    The term endianness describes the order in which computer memory stores a sequence of bytes.

Security
  • advanced persistent threat (APT)

    An advanced persistent threat (APT) is a prolonged and targeted cyber attack in which an intruder gains access to a network and ...

  • Mitre ATT&CK framework

    The Mitre ATT&CK (pronounced miter attack) framework is a free, globally accessible knowledge base that describes the latest ...

  • timing attack

    A timing attack is a type of side-channel attack that exploits the amount of time a computer process runs to gain knowledge about...

CIO
HRSoftware
  • employee resource group (ERG)

    An employee resource group is a workplace club or more formally realized affinity group organized around a shared interest or ...

  • employee training and development

    Employee training and development is a set of activities and programs designed to enhance the knowledge, skills and abilities of ...

  • employee sentiment analysis

    Employee sentiment analysis is the use of natural language processing and other AI techniques to automatically analyze employee ...

Customer Experience
  • customer profiling

    Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by ...

  • customer insight (consumer insight)

    Customer insight, also known as consumer insight, is the understanding and interpretation of customer data, behaviors and ...

  • buyer persona

    A buyer persona is a composite representation of a specific type of customer in a market segment.

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