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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

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  • Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) - The Committee on Trade and the Environment (CTE) is a group within the World Trade Organization (WTO) tasked with identifying and understanding the balance of environmental concerns against the interests of international trade.
  • common access card (CAC) - A common access card (CAC) is a Unites States Department of Defense (DoD) smart card for multifactor authentication.
  • Common Criteria (CC) for Information Technology Security Evaluation - Common Criteria (CC) is an international set of guidelines and specifications developed for evaluating information security products, specifically to ensure they meet an agreed-upon security standard for government deployments.
  • Common Information Model (CIM) - The Common Information Model (CIM) is a computer industry standard that defines device and application characteristics so system administrators and management programs can control devices and applications from different manufacturers.
  • Common Service Center (CSC) - A Common Service Center (CSC) is an information and communication technology (ICT) access point created under the National e-Governance Project of the Indian government.
  • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) provides unique identifiers for publicly known security threats.
  • compliance - Compliance is the state of being in accordance with established guidelines or specifications, or the process of becoming so.
  • compliance audit - A compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organization's adherence to regulatory guidelines.
  • CompTIA Project+ - CompTIA Project + is the Computing Technology Industry Association’s certification program designed to demonstrate validated learning and skills in project management.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual, organization or tool that gathers web content and applications from different online sources for reuse.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, GMT, CUT) - Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world.
  • coordinates - Coordinates are distances or angles, represented by numbers, that uniquely identify points on surfaces of two dimensions (2D) or in space of three dimensions (3D).
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.
  • coulomb - The coulomb (symbolized C) is the standard unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI).
  • CRAM (challenge-response authentication mechanism) - CRAM (challenge-response authentication mechanism) is the two-level scheme for authenticating network users that is used as part of the Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
  • critical infrastructure - Critical infrastructure is the body of systems, networks and assets that are so essential that their continued operation is required to ensure the security of a given nation, its economy, and the public’s health and/or safety.
  • CSO (Chief Security Officer) - A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is a C-suite executive responsible for a company's physical and digital security.
  • cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • cyber espionage - Cyber espionage, also called cyber spying, is a form of cyber attack that is carried out against a competitive company or government entity.
  • cyberpicketing - Cyberpicketing is the use of the Internet to protest a corporation or other institution's wages, work conditions, products, environmental policy, or other issues.
  • Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA) - Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA) is proposed legislation that will allow United States government agencies and non-government entities to share information with each other as they investigate cyberattacks.
  • cyberterrorism - Cyberterrorism is often defined as any premeditated, politically motivated attack against information systems, programs and data that threatens violence or results in violence.
  • cyberwarfare - The generally accepted definition of cyberwarfare is the use of cyber attacks against a nation-state, causing it significant harm, up to and including physical warfare, disruption of vital computer systems and loss of life.
  • data breach - A data breach is a cyber attack in which sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected data has been accessed and/or disclosed in an unauthorized fashion.
  • Data Encryption Standard (DES) - Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric key method of data encryption.
  • data latency - Data latency is the time it takes for data packets to be stored or retrieved.
  • data link layer - The data link layer is the protocol layer in a program that handles the moving of data into and out of a physical link in a network.
  • Daylight Saving Time (DST) - Daylight Saving Time (DST) is the practice of turning the clock ahead as warmer weather approaches and back as it becomes colder again so that people will have one more hour of daylight in the afternoon and evening during the warmer season of the year.
  • DCML (Data Center Markup Language) - DCML (Data Center Markup Language), based on Extensible Markup Language (XML), is a data format and model for exchanging information that describes a data center environment.
  • de facto standard - A de facto standard is something that is used so widely that it is considered a standard for a given application although it has no official status.
  • de jure standard - A de jure standard is a technology, method or product that has been officially endorsed for a given application.
  • DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) - Unlike the analog cordless phones you may have in your home, DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) is a digital wireless telephone technology that is expected to make cordless phones much more common in both businesses and homes in the future.
  • Defense Acquisition Regulatory Council (DARC) - The Defense Acquisition Regulatory Council (DARC) is a group composed of representatives from each Military department, the Defense Logistics Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  • Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) - The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) is a component of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) that works with defense contractors to ensure government services and supplies are delivered on time, come at the expected cost and satisfy all performance requirements.
  • defense contractor - A defense contractor is any person who enters into a contract with a federal government of the United States for the production of material or for the performance of services for national defense.
  • Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) - Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is a U.
  • degree Fahrenheit - The degree Fahrenheit (o F) is the unit of temperature used by most people in the United States in describing weather.
  • Department of Space (India) - The Department of Space (DoS) is a department created by the Indian government to manage their space program and oversee a number of related agencies and institutes.
  • DGS&D (DGS&D rate contracts) - DGS&D is the central purchase organization of the Indian government, functioning under the Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a network management protocol used to dynamically assign an Internet Protocol (IP) address to any device, or node, on a network so they can communicate using IP.
  • dielectric constant - The dielectric constant is the ratio of the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space.
  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS) - Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS) is a protocol for specifying and controlling network traffic by class so that certain types of traffic get precedence - for example, voice traffic, which requires a relatively uninterrupted flow of data, might get precedence over other kinds of traffic.
  • digital audio broadcasting (DAB) - .
  • Digital Data Storage (DDS, DDS-1, DDS-2, DDS-3, DDS-4) - Digital Data Storage (DDS) is a format for storing and backing up computer data on tape that evolved from the Digital Audio Tape (DAT) technology.
  • Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) - The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a controversial United States digital rights management (DRM) law enacted October 28, 1998 by then-President Bill Clinton.
  • digital profiling - Digital profiling is the process of gathering and analyzing information about an individual that exists online.
  • digital video broadcasting (DVB) - Digital video broadcasting (DVB) is a set of standards that define digital broadcasting using DVB satellite, cable and terrestrial broadcasting infrastructures.
  • displacement - Displacement (symbolized d or s), also called length or distance, is a one-dimensional quantity representing the separation between two defined points.
  • DisplayPort - DisplayPort is an interface for digital displays, particularly computer monitors.
  • Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) - The Distributed Management Task Force, Inc.
  • division sign - The division sign resembles a dash or double dash with a dot above and a dot below.
  • DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) - DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) are a set of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards created to address vulnerabilities in the Domain Name System (DNS) and protect it from online threats.
  • document capture - Document capture is any one of several processes used to convert a physical document to another format, typically a digital representation.
  • Document Type Definition (DTD) - A Document Type Definition (DTD) is a specific document defining and constraining definition or set of statements that follow the rules of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of SGML.
  • domain name system (DNS) - The domain name system (DNS) is a naming database in which internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
  • dot pitch - The dot pitch specification for a display monitor tells you how sharp the displayed image can be.
  • downloading - Downloading is the transmission of a file or data from one computer to another over a network, usually from a larger server to a user device.
  • downsizing - In a business enterprise, downsizing is reducing the number of employees on the operating payroll.
  • Driver's Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) - The Driver's Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) is a United States federal law designed to protect the personal information of licensed drivers from improper use or disclosure.
  • DSTP (Data Space Transfer Protocol) - DSTP (Data Space Transfer Protocol) is a protocol that is used to index and retrieve data from a number of databases, files, and other data structures using a key that can find all the related data about a particular object across all of the data.
  • Dublin Core - Dublin Core is an initiative to create a digital "library card catalog" for the Web.
  • dynamic port numbers - Dynamic port numbers, also known as private port numbers, are the port numbers that are available for use by any application to use in communicating with any other application, using the internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
  • e-Choupal - e-Choupal is an India-based business initiative by ITC Limited that links rural farmers with internet access to inform and empower them, improving both the quality of agricultural goods and the quality of life for farmers.
  • e-prescribing (eRx) incentive program - The Electronic Prescribing (eRx) Incentive Program is a US government program that provides financial incentives to physicians, practitioners and therapists who meet certain criteria for the use of qualified e-prescribing systems.
  • e-voting (electronic voting) - E-voting is an election system that allows voters to record a secret ballot and have it tabulated electronically.
  • E.164 - E.164 is an international numbering plan for public telephone systems in which each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
  • Earth's mean orbital speed - Earth's mean orbital speed is the average speed at which the Earth revolves around the sun.
  • Earth's mean radius - The Earth's mean radius is determined as the average distance from the physical center to the surface, based on a large number of samples.
  • EDRM (electronic discovery reference model) - The Electronic Discovery Reference Model (EDRM) is a framework that outlines standards for the recovery and discovery and of digital data.
  • EIA (Electronic Industries Association or Electronics Industries Alliance) - The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) comprises individual organizations that together have agreed on certain data transmission standards such as EIA/TIA-232 (formerly known as RS-232).
  • EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) - Enhanced (sometimes "Expanded") IDE is a standard electronic interface between your computer and its mass storage drives.
  • electric field strength - Electric field strength is a quantitative expression of the intensity of an electric field at a particular location.
  • Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) - The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) is a United States federal statute that prohibits a third party from intercepting or disclosing communications without authorization.
  • Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (e-signature bill) - The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (often referred to as the e-signature bill) specifies that in the United States, the use of a digital signature is as legally valid as a traditional signature written in ink on paper.
  • element-of symbol - The element-of symbol is used in mathematical set theory to indicate that a point, object, or number belongs to a certain set.
  • email address internationalization (EAI) - Email address internationalization (EAI) is a process that enables email addresses with either the domain name or mailbox name in different languages and scripts to work properly when sending and receiving emails.
  • encoding and decoding - Encoding and decoding are used in many forms of communications, including computing, data communications, programming, digital electronics and human communications.
  • Energy Star - Energy Star is a government-backed labeling program that helps people and organizations save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by identifying factories, office equipment, home appliances and electronics that have superior energy efficiency.
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a network protocol that enables routers to exchange information more efficiently than earlier network protocols, such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
  • ENISA (European Network and Information Security Agency) - The European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) is a European Union (EU) agency dedicated to preventing and addressing network security and information security problems.
  • enterprise architecture (EA) - An enterprise architecture (EA) is a conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and operation of an organization.
  • ES-IS (End System-to-Intermediate System) - ES-IS (End System-to-Intermediate System) is a routing protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as part of their Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.
  • ESMTP (Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - ESMTP (Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) specifies extensions to the original protocol for sending e-mail that supports graphics, audio and video files, and text in various national languages.
  • Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) - Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) is a network communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at speeds of 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and at up to 1500 bytes per packet.
  • Euler's constant (gamma or the Euler-Mascheroni constant) - Euler's constant, sometimes called gamma or the Euler-Mascheroni constant, has the mathematical value of.
  • Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) - The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a protocol for wireless networks that expands the authentication methods used by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), a protocol often used when connecting a computer to the internet.
  • Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) - Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is a protocol for exchanging routing information between two neighbor gateway hosts (each with its own router) in a network of autonomous systems.
  • FACTA (Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act) - FACTA (Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act) is an amendment to FCRA (Fair Credit Reporting Act ) that was added, primarily, to protect consumers from identity theft.
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) - The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) is United States federal legislation that promotes accuracy, fairness and privacy for data used by consumer reporting agencies.
  • Fair Information Practices (FIP) - FIP (Fair Information Practices) is a general term for a set of standards governing the collection and use of personal data and addressing issues of privacy and accuracy.
  • fair opportunity - Fair opportunity is a requirement that U.
  • fair use - Fair use is a legal concept that allows the reproduction of copyrighted material for certain purposes without obtaining permission and without paying a fee or royalty.
  • farad (F) - A farad (F) is the standard unit of capacitance in the International System of Units (SI).
  • FCC (Federal Communications Commission) - The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is the government body responsible for maintaining laws, censorship and broadcast licensing pertaining to interstate and international communications in the United States.
  • Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is the body of laws that govern the U.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) - The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent agency of the United States (U.
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