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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

3-T - COD

  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
  • ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) - ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is the primary programming language supported on the SAP NetWeaver ABAP application server platform and applications that run on it, such as SAP ERP (formerly R/3), S/4HANA and CRM.
  • abend (abnormal end) - An abend (abnormal end) is an unexpected or abnormal termination of an application or operating system that results from a problem with the software.
  • absolute link - An absolute link is a hyperlink containing a full URL, which includes all the information needed to find a particular site, page or document or other addressable item on the Internet.
  • abstract class - In Java and other object oriented programming (OOP) languages, objects and classes (categories of objects) may be abstracted, which means that they are summarized into characteristics that are relevant to the current program’s operation.
  • Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) - Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) is a set of application program interfaces (APIs) used by Java programmers to create graphical user interface (GUI) objects, such as buttons, scroll bars, and windows.
  • abstraction - Abstraction (from the Latin abs, meaning away from and trahere, meaning to draw) is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics.
  • acceptance testing - Acceptance testing is a quality assurance (QA) process that determines to what degree an application meets end users' approval.
  • access method - In computing, an access method is a program or a hardware mechanism that moves data between the computer and an outlying device such as a hard disk (or other form of storage) or a display terminal.
  • ActionScript - ActionScript is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is designed specifically for Web site animation.
  • Active Template Library (ATL) - Active Template Library (ATL), formerly called ActiveX Template Library) is a Microsoft program library (set of prepackaged program routines) for use when creating Active Server Page (ASP) code and other ActiveX program components with C++ (including Visual C++).
  • ActiveX - ActiveX is a set of object-oriented programming technologies Microsoft developed for Internet Explorer to facilitate rich media playback.
  • ActiveX controls - ActiveX controls are component program objects that Microsoft developed to enable applications to perform specific functions, such as displaying a calendar or playing a video.
  • ad hoc testing - Ad hoc testing is a non-methodical approach to assessing the viability of a product.
  • Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada King) - Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, was an English mathematician who is credited with being the first computer programmer.
  • address space - Address space is the amount of memory allocated for all possible addresses for a computational entity -- for example, a device, a file, a server or a networked computer.
  • Agile Software Development - Agile software development -- also referred to simply as Agile -- is a type of development methodology that anticipates the need for flexibility and applies a level of pragmatism to the delivery of the finished product.
  • agile test automation pyramid - The agile test automation pyramid is a graphical strategy guide for implementing automated software testing.
  • agnostic - Agnostic, in an information technology (IT) context, refers to something that is generalized so that it is interoperable among various systems.
  • AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) - AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a technique aimed at creating better and faster interactive web apps by combining several programming tools including JavaScript, dynamic HTML (DHTML) and Extensible Markup Language (XML).
  • algorithm - An algorithm is a procedure used for solving a problem or performing a computation.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • alt text (alternative text) - Alt text (alternative text) is a word or phrase that can be inserted as an attribute in an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) document to tell Web site viewers the nature or contents of an image.
  • Amdahl's law - In computer programming, Amdahl's law is that, in a program with parallel processing, a relatively few instructions that have to be performed in sequence will have a limiting factor on program speedup such that adding more processors may not make the program run faster.
  • AMIBIOS (AMI BIOS) - AMIBIOS is one of the original brands of basic input/output system (BIOS) chip and is probably the most commonly installed BIOS chip in today's personal computers.
  • anchor - In Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), an anchor is the establishing of a term, phrase, image, or other information object as being either: The target of a hypertext link within a document, or A reference (a link you can select) to such a target Note that any HTML file name is automatically an anchor or target that can be linked to.
  • Apache - Apache is a freely available Web server that is distributed under an "open source" license.
  • Apache Solr - Apache Solr is an open source search platform built upon a Java library called Lucene.
  • Apex (Salesforce) - Salesforce Apex is a Microsoft-certified framework for building software as a service (SaaS) apps on top of Salesforce's customer relationship management (CRM) functionality.
  • API gateway - An API gateway is a software pattern that sits in front of an application programming interface (API) or group of microservices, to facilitate requests and delivery of data and services.
  • Apple Swift - Apple Swift is Apple's programming language for IOS, WatchOS, TVOS, MacOS and Linux.
  • Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) - Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) is a set of freely downloadable program utilities and related documents from Microsoft for ensuring compatibility among application programs in Windows operating systems, especially in a large network environment.
  • application lifecycle management (ALM) - Application lifecycle management (ALM) is an integrated system of people, tools and processes that supervise a software application from its initial planning and development, through testing and maintenance, and into decommissioning and retirement.
  • application program interface (API) - An application program interface (API) is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.
  • application security - Application security, or appsec, is the practice of using security software, hardware, techniques, best practices and procedures to protect computer applications from external security threats.
  • aspect-oriented programming (AOP) - Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is an approach to programming that allows global properties of a program to determine how it is compiled into an executable program.
  • assembler - An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations.
  • Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
  • atomic - In ancient philosophy, an atom was the ultimate unit of matter on which more complex views of material reality were based.
  • attribute - In general, an attribute is a property or characteristic.
  • automated testing - Automated testing is a process that validates if software is functioning appropriately and meeting requirements before it is released into production.
  • AWS IoT Button - The AWS IoT Button is a programmable, Wi-Fi-enabled handheld device that allows developers to push a button to execute a variety of actions in the Amazon Web Services public cloud.
  • AWS SDK for Java - The AWS SDK for Java is a collection of tools for developers creating Java-based Web apps to run on Amazon cloud components such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Amazon SimpleDB.
  • Azure DevOps (formerly Visual Studio Team Services) - Visual Studio Team Services (VSTS) -- rebranded as Azure DevOps in 2018 -- is an Azure cloud-hosted extension of Microsoft's Team Foundation Server (TFS) -- now called Azure DvOps -- that assist development teams with special tools and services for software programmers, analysts and testers as well as IT project or team managers.
  • Azure Service Fabric - Azure Service Fabric is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering designed to facilitate the development, deployment and management of highly-scalable and customizable applications for the Microsoft Azure cloud platform.
  • backdoor (computing) - A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
  • backslash - The backslash ( \ ) is a typographic and/or keyboard mark that is widely used in programming languages and other computing contexts.
  • backward mapping (inverse mapping or screen order) - Backward mapping (also known as inverse mapping or screen order) is a technique used in texture mapping to create a 2D image from 3D data.
  • Ballerina language - Ballerina language is an open-source, cloud-native programming language designed to ease the burden of integration development associated with enterprise applications.
  • bash (Bourne again shell) - Bash (Bourne Again Shell) is the free and enhanced version of the Bourne shell distributed with Linux and GNU operating systems.
  • BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) - BASIC was an early programming language that is still among the simplest and most popular of programming languages.
  • Bayesian logic - Named for Thomas Bayes, an English clergyman and mathematician, Bayesian logic is a branch of logic applied to decision making and inferential statistics that deals with probability inference: using the knowledge of prior events to predict future events.
  • Bean - In its JavaBeans application program interface for writing a component, Sun Microsystems calls a component a "Bean" (thus continuing their coffee analogy).
  • best practice - A best practice is a standard or set of guidelines that is known to produce good outcomes if followed.
  • binary file - A binary file is a file whose content is in a binary format that consists of a series of sequential bytes, each of which is eight bits in length.
  • binary-coded decimal - Binary-coded decimal is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base 10) number.
  • bind - In computer programming, to bind is to make an association between two or more programming objects or value items for some scope of time and place.
  • bitwise - Bitwise operations manipulate data at the bit level rather than with bytes or larger units of data, as is more common.
  • bitwise operator - Because they allow greater precision and require fewer resources, bitwise operators, which manipulate individual bits, can make some code faster and more efficient.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • block - A block is a contiguous set of bits or bytes that forms an identifiable unit of data.
  • blue/green deployment - A blue/green deployment is a change management strategy for releasing software code.
  • boilerplate - In information technology, a boilerplate is a unit of writing that can be reused over and over without change.
  • Bootstrap - Bootstrap is a free, open source front-end development framework for the creation of websites and web apps.
  • Boto - Boto is a software development kit (SDK) designed to improve the use of the Python programming language in Amazon Web Services.
  • BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) - BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) is an XML-based language that allows web services, APIs and human processes in a service-oriented architecture (SOA) to interconnect and share data in a business workflow.
  • BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless) - BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless) is Qualcomm's open source application development platform for wireless devices equipped for code division multiple access (CDMA) technology.
  • brogrammer - A brogrammer is a male programmer with traits often associated with fraternity brothers (bros) rather than the coder's stereotypical geek persona.
  • BSD licenses - BSD licenses are a low restriction type of license for open source software that does not put requirements on redistribution.
  • bug - In computer technology, a bug is a coding error in a computer program.
  • build - In a programming context, a build is a version of a program that, as a rule, is a pre-release version and is identified by a build number rather than by a release number.
  • build server - A build server is a machine on which a software project can be continuously built from changes that are committed to the repository.
  • build tool - A build tool is a programming utility that automates a software build task, such as ensuring that the proper source code files are compiled and that the proper object files are linked, after changes have been made to a program.
  • burn down chart - A burn down chart is a visual representation of the amount of work that still needs to be completed before the end of a project.
  • business event management - Business event management is the practice of incorporating business logic into labeling events, communicating events and handling events.
  • business logic - Business logic is the programming that manages communication between an end user application and a database.
  • business logic attack - A business logic attack is an exploit that takes advantage of a flaw in programming managing the exchange of information between a user interface and the application's supporting database.
  • Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) - Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an XML standard metalanguage used to outline business processes in an easy-to-understand way.
  • business rules engine (BRE) - A business rules engine (BRE) is a software component that allows non-programmers to add or change business logic in a business process management (BPM) system.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that an interpreter converts into binary machine code so it can be read by a computer's hardware processor.
  • C - C is a structured, procedural programming language that has been widely used both for operating systems and applications and that has had a wide following in the academic community.
  • C# (C-Sharp) - C# (pronounced C-sharp) is an object-oriented programming language in development from Microsoft, which is intended to combine the computing power of C++ with the programming ease of Visual Basic.
  • C++ - C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is viewed by many as the best language for creating large-scale applications.
  • cabinet file (.cab) - In Microsoft program development, a cabinet is a single file created to hold a number of compressed files.
  • Capability Maturity Model (CMM) - The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a methodology used to develop and refine an organization's software development process.
  • CAPI (Common Application Programming Interface) - CAPI (Common Application Programming Interface) is an international standard interface that applications can use to communicate directly with ISDN equipment.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid of specified shape, such that each cell changes state as a function of time, according to a defined set of rules driven by the states of neighboring cells.
  • change control - Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.
  • change request - A change request is a formal proposal for an alteration to some product or system.
  • chatbot - A chatbot is a software or computer program that simulates the human conversation or "chatter" through text or voice interactions.
  • CICS (Customer Information Control System) - CICS (Customer Information Control System) is middleware that sits between the z/OS IBM mainframe operating system and business applications.
  • class - In object-oriented programming, a class is a template definition of the methods and variables in a particular kind of object.
  • class library - In object-oriented programming, a class library is a collection of prewritten class es or coded templates, any of which can be specified and used by a programmer when developing an application program.
  • client-server model (client-server architecture) - Client-server is a relationship in which one program (the client) requests a service or resource from another program (the server).
  • Clojure programming language - The Clojure programming language, used in the Lisp programming language, is a high-level, dynamic functional programming language.
  • COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) - COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) is a high-level programming language for business applications.
  • code - In computer programming, 'computer code' refers to the set of instructions, or a system of rules, written in a particular programming language (i.
  • code review - Code review is a phase in the computer program development process in which the authors of code, peer reviewers, and perhaps quality assurance reviewers get together to review code, line by line.
  • codebase (code base) - A codebase (sometimes spelled as two words, code base) is the complete body of source code for a given software program or application.
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    A network packet is a basic unit of data that's grouped together and transferred over a computer network, typically a ...

  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

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  • Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC)

    The Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC) protocol is one leg of the tripod of internet ...

  • data breach

    A data breach is a cyber attack in which sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected data has been accessed or disclosed in an...

  • insider threat

    An insider threat is a category of risk posed by those who have access to an organization's physical or digital assets.

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  • data privacy (information privacy)

    Data privacy, also called information privacy, is an aspect of data protection that addresses the proper storage, access, ...

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    Leadership skills are the strengths and abilities individuals demonstrate that help to oversee processes, guide initiatives and ...

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    A data governance policy is a documented set of guidelines for ensuring that an organization's data and information assets are ...

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  • recommerce

    Recommerce is the selling of previously owned items through online marketplaces to buyers who reuse, recycle or resell them.

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    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

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