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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

3-T - CRU

  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
  • ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) - ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is the primary programming language supported on the SAP NetWeaver ABAP application server platform and applications that run on it, such as SAP ERP (formerly R/3), S/4HANA and CRM.
  • abend (abnormal end) - An abend (abnormal end) is an unexpected or abnormal termination of an application or operating system that results from a problem with the software.
  • absolute link - An absolute link is a hyperlink containing a full URL, which includes all the information needed to find a particular site, page or document or other addressable item on the Internet.
  • abstract class - In Java and other object oriented programming (OOP) languages, objects and classes (categories of objects) may be abstracted, which means that they are summarized into characteristics that are relevant to the current program’s operation.
  • abstraction - Abstraction (from the Latin abs, meaning away from and trahere, meaning to draw) is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics.
  • acceptance testing - Acceptance testing is a quality assurance (QA) process that determines to what degree an application meets end users' approval.
  • ActiveX - ActiveX is a set of object-oriented programming technologies Microsoft developed for Internet Explorer to facilitate rich media playback.
  • ActiveX controls - ActiveX controls are component program objects that Microsoft developed to enable applications to perform specific functions, such as displaying a calendar or playing a video.
  • address space - Address space is the amount of memory allocated for all possible addresses for a computational entity -- for example, a device, a file, a server or a networked computer.
  • Adobe Flash - Adobe Flash is a software platform used to create rich digital content containing animation, graphic effects, streaming video and other interactive elements to deliver engaging user experiences over many platforms, including desktops and mobile devices.
  • Agile software development - Agile is a type of software development methodology that anticipates the need for flexibility and applies a level of pragmatism to the delivery of the finished product.
  • agile test automation pyramid - The agile test automation pyramid is a graphical strategy guide for implementing automated software testing.
  • agnostic - Agnostic, in an information technology (IT) context, refers to something that is generalized so that it is interoperable among various systems.
  • AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) - AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a technique aimed at creating better and faster interactive web apps by combining several programming tools including JavaScript, dynamic HTML (DHTML) and Extensible Markup Language (XML).
  • algorithm - An algorithm is a procedure used for solving a problem or performing a computation.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • alt text (alternative text) - Alt text (alternative text) is a word or phrase that can be inserted as an attribute in an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) document to tell Web site viewers the nature or contents of an image.
  • Amdahl's law - In computer programming, Amdahl's law is that, in a program with parallel processing, a relatively few instructions that have to be performed in sequence will have a limiting factor on program speedup such that adding more processors may not make the program run faster.
  • Apache - Apache is a freely available Web server that is distributed under an "open source" license.
  • Apache Solr - Apache Solr is an open source search platform built upon a Java library called Lucene.
  • Apex (Salesforce) - Salesforce Apex is a Microsoft-certified framework for building software as a service (SaaS) apps on top of Salesforce's customer relationship management (CRM) functionality.
  • API gateway - An API gateway is a software pattern that sits in front of an application programming interface (API) or group of microservices, to facilitate requests and delivery of data and services.
  • application lifecycle management (ALM) - Application lifecycle management (ALM) is an integrated system of people, tools and processes that supervise a software application from its initial planning and development, through testing and maintenance, and into decommissioning and retirement.
  • application program interface (API) - An application program interface (API) is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.
  • application security - Application security, or appsec, is the practice of using security software, hardware, techniques, best practices and procedures to protect computer applications from external security threats.
  • aspect-oriented programming (AOP) - Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is an approach to programming that allows global properties of a program to determine how it is compiled into an executable program.
  • assembler - An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations.
  • Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
  • atomic - In ancient philosophy, an atom was the ultimate unit of matter on which more complex views of material reality were based.
  • attribute - In general, an attribute is a property, quality, or characteristic that something or someone has.
  • automated testing - Automated testing is a process that validates if software is functioning appropriately and meeting requirements before it is released into production.
  • AWS SDK for Java - The AWS SDK for Java is a collection of tools for developers creating Java-based Web apps to run on Amazon cloud components such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Amazon SimpleDB.
  • Azure DevOps (formerly Visual Studio Team Services) - Visual Studio Team Services (VSTS) -- rebranded as Azure DevOps in 2018 -- is an Azure cloud-hosted extension of Microsoft's Team Foundation Server (TFS) -- now called Azure DvOps -- that assist development teams with special tools and services for software programmers, analysts and testers as well as IT project or team managers.
  • Azure Service Fabric - Azure Service Fabric is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering designed to facilitate the development, deployment and management of highly-scalable and customizable applications for the Microsoft Azure cloud platform.
  • backdoor (computing) - A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
  • backslash - The backslash ( \ ) is a typographic and/or keyboard mark that is widely used in programming languages and other computing contexts.
  • Ballerina language - Ballerina language is an open-source, cloud-native programming language designed to ease the burden of integration development associated with enterprise applications.
  • bash (Bourne again shell) - Bash (Bourne Again Shell) is the free and enhanced version of the Bourne shell distributed with Linux and GNU operating systems.
  • BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) - BASIC was an early programming language that is still among the simplest and most popular of programming languages.
  • Bayesian logic - Named for Thomas Bayes, an English clergyman and mathematician, Bayesian logic is a branch of logic applied to decision making and inferential statistics that deals with probability inference: using the knowledge of prior events to predict future events.
  • Bean - In its JavaBeans application program interface for writing a component, Sun Microsystems calls a component a "Bean" (thus continuing their coffee analogy).
  • best practice - A best practice is a standard or set of guidelines that is known to produce good outcomes if followed.
  • binary file - A binary file is a file whose content is in a binary format that consists of a series of sequential bytes, each of which is eight bits in length.
  • binary-coded decimal - Binary-coded decimal is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base 10) number.
  • bitwise - Bitwise operations manipulate data at the bit level rather than with bytes or larger units of data, as is more common.
  • bitwise operator - Because they allow greater precision and require fewer resources, bitwise operators, which manipulate individual bits, can make some code faster and more efficient.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • blue/green deployment - A blue/green deployment is a change management strategy for releasing software code.
  • boilerplate - In information technology, a boilerplate is a unit of writing that can be reused over and over without change.
  • Boolean - In computing, the term Boolean means a result that can only have one of two possible values: true or false.
  • Bootstrap - Bootstrap is a free, open source front-end development framework for the creation of websites and web apps.
  • Boto - Boto is a software development kit (SDK) designed to improve the use of the Python programming language in Amazon Web Services.
  • Bourne shell - The Bourne shell is the original Unix shell -- command execution program, often called a command interpreter -- that was developed in 1979 at what at the time was Bell Labs.
  • BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) - BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) is an XML-based language that allows web services, APIs and human processes in a service-oriented architecture (SOA) to interconnect and share data in a business workflow.
  • brogrammer - A brogrammer is a male programmer with traits often associated with fraternity brothers (bros) rather than the coder's stereotypical geek persona.
  • BSD licenses - BSD licenses are a low restriction type of license for open source software that does not put requirements on redistribution.
  • bug - In computer technology, a bug is a coding error in a computer program.
  • build - In a programming context, a build is a version of a program that, as a rule, is a pre-release version and is identified by a build number rather than by a release number.
  • build server - A build server is a machine on which a software project can be continuously built from changes that are committed to the repository.
  • business logic - Business logic is the programming that manages communication between an end user application and a database.
  • Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) - Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an XML standard metalanguage used to outline business processes in an easy-to-understand way.
  • business rules engine (BRE) - A business rules engine (BRE) is a software component that allows non-programmers to add or change business logic in a business process management (BPM) system.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that an interpreter converts into binary machine code so it can be read by a computer's hardware processor.
  • C - The C programming language is a procedural and general-purpose language that provides low-level access to system memory.
  • C# (C-Sharp) - C#, pronounced "C-sharp," is an object-oriented programming language from Microsoft that enables developers to build applications that run on the .
  • C++ - C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is viewed by many as the best language for creating large-scale applications.
  • Capability Maturity Model (CMM) - The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a methodology used to develop and refine an organization's software development process.
  • CAPI (Common Application Programming Interface) - CAPI (Common Application Programming Interface) is an international standard interface that applications can use to communicate directly with ISDN equipment.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid of specified shape, such that each cell changes state as a function of time, according to a defined set of rules driven by the states of neighboring cells.
  • change control - Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.
  • change request - A change request is a formal proposal for an alteration to some product or system.
  • chatbot - A chatbot is a software or computer program that simulates the human conversation or "chatter" through text or voice interactions.
  • CICS (Customer Information Control System) - CICS (Customer Information Control System) is middleware that sits between the z/OS IBM mainframe operating system and business applications.
  • class - In object-oriented programming, a class is a template definition of the methods and variables in a particular kind of object.
  • class library - In object-oriented programming, a class library is a collection of prewritten class es or coded templates, any of which can be specified and used by a programmer when developing an application program.
  • client-server model (client-server architecture) - Client-server is a relationship in which one program (the client) requests a service or resource from another program (the server).
  • COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) - COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) is a high-level programming language for business applications.
  • code - In computer programming, 'computer code' refers to the set of instructions, or a system of rules, written in a particular programming language (i.
  • code review - Code review is a phase in the computer program development process in which the authors of code, peer reviewers, and perhaps quality assurance reviewers get together to review code, line by line.
  • codebase (code base) - A codebase (sometimes spelled as two words, code base) is the complete body of source code for a given software program or application.
  • common gateway interface (CGI) - Also see FastCGI.
  • Common Information Model (CIM) - The Common Information Model (CIM) is a computer industry standard that defines device and application characteristics so system administrators and management programs can control devices and applications from different manufacturers.
  • Common Language Runtime (CLR) - The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is programming that manages the execution of programs written in any of several supported languages, allowing them to share common object-oriented classes written in any of the languages.
  • compiler - A compiler is a special program that translates a programming language's source code into machine code, bytecode or another programming language.
  • component - In programming and engineering disciplines, a component is an identifiable part of a larger program or construction.
  • computer instruction - A computer instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a computer program.
  • computer-aided software engineering (CASE) - Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) describes a broad set of labor-saving tools used in software development.
  • Concurrent Versions System (CVS) - CVS also is an abbreviation for Computer Vision Syndrome.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • const - Const (constant) in programming is a keyword that defines a variable or pointer as unchangeable.
  • content personalization - Content personalization is a strategy that tailors webpages and other forms of content to individual users' characteristics or preferences.
  • context menu (right-click menu) - A context menu is a pop-up menu that provides shortcuts for things the software developer anticipates the user might want to do.
  • continuous integration (CI) - Continuous integration (CI) is a software engineering practice in which frequent, isolated changes are immediately tested and reported on when they are added to a larger code base.
  • copyleft - Copyleft is the idea and the specific stipulation when distributing software that the user will be able to copy it freely, examine and modify the source code, and redistribute the software to others (free or priced) as long as the redistributed software is also passed along with the copyleft stipulation.
  • core dump - A core dump is the printing or the copying to a more permanent medium (such as a hard disk) the contents of random access memory (RAM) at one moment in time.
  • CQRS (command query responsibility segregation) - Command query responsibility segregation (CQRS) is a programming design pattern that treats retrieving data and changing data differently.
  • cross-site scripting (XSS) - Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of injection attack in which a threat actor inserts data, such as a malicious script, into content from otherwise trusted websites.
  • cruft - Cruft is the elements of a program, system or product that are either useless, poorly designed or both.
Networking
  • network traffic

    Network traffic is the amount of data that moves across a network during any given time.

  • dynamic and static

    In general, dynamic means 'energetic, capable of action and/or change, or forceful,' while static means 'stationary or fixed.'

  • MAC address (media access control address)

    A MAC address (media access control address) is a 12-digit hexadecimal number assigned to each device connected to the network.

Security
  • Trojan horse

    In computing, a Trojan horse is a program downloaded and installed on a computer that appears harmless, but is, in fact, ...

  • quantum key distribution (QKD)

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method for exchanging encryption keys only known between shared parties.

  • Common Body of Knowledge (CBK)

    In security, the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) is a comprehensive framework of all the relevant subjects a security professional...

CIO
  • benchmark

    A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.

  • spatial computing

    Spatial computing broadly characterizes the processes and tools used to capture, process and interact with 3D data.

  • organizational goals

    Organizational goals are strategic objectives that a company's management establishes to outline expected outcomes and guide ...

HRSoftware
  • talent acquisition

    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

  • hybrid work model

    A hybrid work model is a workforce structure that includes employees who work remotely and those who work on site, in a company's...

Customer Experience
  • database marketing

    Database marketing is a systematic approach to the gathering, consolidation and processing of consumer data.

  • cost per engagement (CPE)

    Cost per engagement (CPE) is an advertising pricing model in which digital marketing teams and advertisers only pay for ads when ...

  • B2C (Business2Consumer or Business-to-Consumer)

    B2C -- short for business-to-consumer -- is a retail model where products move directly from a business to the end user who has ...

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