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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

JAV - PER

  • Java - Java is a widely used programming language expressly designed for use in the distributed environment of the internet.
  • Java abstract class - In Java and other object oriented programming (OOP) languages, objects and classes may be abstracted, which means that they are summarized into characteristics that are relevant to the current program’s operation.
  • Java annotations - Within the Java development kit (JDK), there are simple annotations used to make comments on code, as well as meta-annotations that can be used to create annotations within annotation-type declarations.
  • Java assert - The Java assert is a mechanism used primarily in nonproduction environments to test for extraordinary conditions that will never be encountered unless a bug exists somewhere in the code.
  • Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) - The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) is a set of application program interfaces (APIs) that can determine the identity of a user or computer attempting to run Java code, and ensure that the entity has the privilege or permission to execute the functions requested.
  • Java BufferedReader - Java BufferedReader is a public Java class that allows large volumes to be read from disk and copied to much faster RAM to increase performance over the multiple network communications or disk reads done with each read command otherwise.
  • Java Champion - The Java Champion designation is awarded to leaders and visionaries in the Java technology community.
  • Java Comparator - Java Comparator can compare objects to return an integer based on a positive, equal or negative comparison.
  • Java compiler - Generally, Java compilers are run and pointed to a programmer’s code in a text file to produce a class file for use by the Java virtual machine (JVM) on different platforms.
  • Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) - The Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) is an application program interface (API) that provides a uniform framework for the implementation of security features in Java.
  • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) - Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an API packaged with the Java SE edition that makes it possible to connect from a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) to external, relational database systems.
  • Java Development Kit (JDK) - The Java Development Kit (JDK) provides the foundation upon which all applications that are targeted toward the Java platform are built.
  • Java Flight Recorder - Java Flight Recorder is a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) profiler that gathers performance metrics without placing a significant load on resources.
  • Java IDE - Java IDEs typically provide language-specific features in addition to the code editor, compiler and debugger generally found in all IDEs.
  • Java keyword - Java keywords are terms that have special meaning in Java programming and cannot be used as identifiers for variables, classes or other elements within a Java program.
  • Java Mission Control - Java Mission Control is a performance-analysis tool that renders sampled JVM metrics in easy-to-understand graphs, tables, histograms, lists and charts.
  • Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) - The Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is a collection of Java APIs owned by Oracle that software developers can use to write server-side applications.
  • Java Runtime Environment (JRE) - The Java Runtime Environment (JRE), also known as Java Runtime, is the part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) that contains and orchestrates the set of tools and minimum requirements for executing a Java application.
  • Java string - A Java string is a sequence of characters that exists as an object of the class java.
  • Java virtual machine (JVM) - A Java virtual machine (JVM), an implementation of the Java Virtual Machine Specification, interprets compiled Java binary code (called bytecode) for a computer's processor (or "hardware platform") so that it can perform a Java program's instructions.
  • JavaScript - JavaScript is a programming language that started off simply as a mechanism to add logic and interactivity to an otherwise static Netscape browser.
  • JAX-WS (Java API for XML Web Services) - Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS) is one of a set of Java technologies used to develop Web services.
  • JBoss - JBoss is a division of Red Hat that provides support for the JBoss open source application server program and related middleware services marketed under the JBoss Enterprise Middleware brand.
  • JCL (job control language) - JCL (job control language) is a language for describing jobs (units of work) to the MVS, OS/390, and VSE operating systems, which run on IBM's S/390 large server (mainframe) computers.
  • JDBC driver - A JDBC driver (Java Database Connectivity driver) is a small piece of software that allows JDBC to connect to different databases.
  • Jenkins - Jenkins is an open source continuous integration/continuous delivery and deployment (CI/CD) automation software DevOps tool written in the Java programming language.
  • job - In certain computer operating systems, a job is the unit of work that a computer operator gives to the operating system.
  • job scheduler - A job scheduler is a program that enables an enterprise to schedule and, in some cases, monitor computer 'batch' jobs (units of work, such as the running of a payroll program).
  • job step - In certain computer operating systems, a job step is part of a job, a unit of work that a computer operator (or a program called a job scheduler) gives to the operating system.
  • JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing) - JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing) is a Java application-programming interface (API) for the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) environment that supports the creation, storage, access, and management of data in an online analytical processing (OLAP) application.
  • Joomla! - Joomla! is a free open source website development and content management (CMS) platform.
  • jQuery - jQuery is an open-sourced JavaScript library that simplifies creation and navigation of web applications.
  • JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) - JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used to exchange data between web clients and web servers.
  • just-in-time compiler (JIT) - A just-in-time (JIT) compiler is a program that turns bytecode into instructions that can be sent directly to a computer's processor (CPU).
  • Jython - Jython is an open source implementation of the Python programming language, integrated with the Java platform.
  • Kaizen (continuous improvement) - Kaizen is an approach to creating continuous improvement based on the idea that small, ongoing positive changes can reap significant improvements.
  • Karnaugh map (K-map) - A Karnaugh map (K-map) is a visual method used to simplify the algebraic expressions in Boolean functions without having to resort to complex theorems or equation manipulations.
  • Kebab case - Kebab case -- or kebab-case -- is a programming variable naming convention where a developer replaces the spaces between words with a dash.
  • key-value pair (KVP) - A key-value pair (KVP) is a set of two linked data items: a key, which is a unique identifier for some item of data, and the value, which is either the data that is identified or a pointer to the location of that data.
  • KLOC (thousands of lines of code) - KLOC (thousands of lines of code) is a traditional measure of how large a computer program is or how long or how many people it will take to write it.
  • knowledge engineering - Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.
  • Korn shell - The Korn shell is the UNIX shell (command execution program, often called a command interpreter) that was developed by David Korn of Bell Labs as a comprehensive combined version of other major UNIX shells.
  • Kotlin - Kotlin is a statically typed, object-oriented programing language that is interoperable with the Java virtual machine, Java Class Libraries and Android.
  • LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - LAMP is an open source Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language.
  • Lean software development - Lean software development is a concept that emphasizes optimizing efficiency and minimizing waste in the development of software.
  • lexical scoping (static scoping) - Lexical scoping, also known as static scoping, is a convention used with many modern programming languages.
  • Lisp (programming language) - Lisp, an acronym for list processing, is a functional programming language that was designed for easy manipulation of data strings.
  • living documentation - Living documentation is a dynamic method of system documentation that provides information that is current, accurate and easy to understand.
  • logical implication - Logical implication is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences.
  • logical negation symbol - The logical negation symbol is used in Boolean algebra to indicate that the truth value of the statement that follows is reversed.
  • logical OR symbol - In mathematics, the logical OR symbol is a Boolean function that is positioned between two statements to indicate an inclusive disjunction between them.
  • loop - In computer programming, a loop is a sequence of instructions that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • machine learning - Machine learning (ML) is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that allows software applications to become more accurate at predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed to do so.
  • MapReduce - MapReduce is a core component of the Apache Hadoop software framework.
  • massive open online course (MOOC) - A massive open online course (MOOC) is a free web-based distance learning program that is designed for large numbers of geographically dispersed students.
  • memory dump - A memory dump is the process of taking all information content in RAM and writing it to a storage drive.
  • memory management - Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating a computer's main memory.
  • message passing interface (MPI) - The message passing interface (MPI) is a standardized means of exchanging messages between multiple computers running a parallel program across distributed memory.
  • method - In object-oriented programming, a method is a programmed procedure that is defined as part of a class and included in any object of that class.
  • mickey - The mickey, in a computing context, is a unit for the smallest detectable movement of a mouse.
  • Micronaut framework - Micronaut is an open source JVM-based software framework for building lightweight, modular applications and microservices.
  • microservice architecture (MSA) - A microservice architecture (MSA) is a logical structure for the design of a software program involving loosely-coupled modular components known as microservices.
  • Microsoft D - Microsoft D is an end-user programming language in development as part of the company's Oslo service-oriented architecture (SOA) initiative.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and other tools or databases.
  • MIT License (X11 license or MIT X license) - The MIT License (also known as the X11 license or MITX license) is a software license that was originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • mnemonic - In general, a mnemonic (from Greek mnemon or mindful; pronounced neh-MAHN-ik) is a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something.
  • mobile UI (mobile user interface) - A mobile UI is the user interface on a mobile device, usually including a touch screen display and all the other elements of the device that allow the user to interact with it.
  • model-view-controller (MVC) - In object-oriented programming development, model-view-controller (MVC) is the name of a methodology or design pattern for successfully and efficiently relating the user interface to underlying data models.
  • Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) - Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) is a software design pattern that is structured to separate program logic and user interface controls.
  • module - A module is a distinct assembly of components that can be easily added, removed or replaced in a larger system.
  • monolithic - Monolithic, in information technology, means either very large or composed all in one piece, depending on the particular context.
  • monolithic architecture - A monolithic architecture is the traditional unified model for the design of a software program.
  • MPP (massively parallel processing) - MPP (massively parallel processing) is the coordinated processing of a program by multiple processors that work on different parts of the program, with each processor using its own operating system and memory.
  • multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the coordinated processing of programs by more than one computer processor.
  • mutex (mutual exclusion object) - In computer programming, a mutex (mutual exclusion object) is a program object that is created so that multiple program thread can take turns sharing the same resource, such as access to a file.
  • native app - A native application is a software program developers build for use on a particular platform or device.
  • native code - Native code is computer programming (code) that is compiled to run with a particular processor and its set of instructions.
  • natural language processing (NLP) - Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of a computer program to understand human language as it is spoken and written -- referred to as natural language.
  • NetBeans - NetBeans is a Java-based integrated development environment (IDE).
  • nil - In general use, nil (a contraction of Latin "nihil") means "nothing" or the absence of something.
  • no op (no operation) - A no op (or no-op), for no operation, is a computer instruction that takes up a small amount of space but specifies no operation.
  • no-code - No-code is a software development approach that requires few, if any, programming skills to quickly build an application.
  • Node.js (Node) - Node.js (Node) is an open source, cross-platform runtime environment for executing JavaScript code.
  • not invented here (NIH) syndrome - Not invented here (NIH) syndrome is the name of the tendency for management to resist change by overlooking processes or solutions discovered outside of the company.
  • obfuscation - Obfuscation means to make something difficult to understand.
  • object - In object-oriented programming (OOP), objects are the things you think about first in designing a program and they are also the units of code that are eventually derived from the process.
  • object code - Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a computer.
  • object-oriented programming (OOP) - Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming model that organizes software design around data, or objects, rather than functions and logic.
  • object-relational mapping (ORM) - Object-relational mapping (ORM) is a mechanism that makes it possible to address, access and manipulate objects without having to consider how those objects relate to their data sources.
  • Open Document Format (ODF) - The Open Document Format (ODF) is an XML-based open source file format for saving and exchanging text, spreadsheets, charts, and presentations.
  • Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) - OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) is an industry plan for a standard way to connect devices such as home appliances and security systems to the Internet.
  • open source - The term 'open source' refers to any program whose source code is made available for use or modification as users or other developers see fit.
  • Open Source Hardening Project - The Open Source Hardening Project is an initiative of the United States Department of Homeland Security, created to improve the security of open source code.
  • OpenAPI Specification - The OpenAPI (OAI) Specification defines a standard, programming language-agnostic interface description for RESTful APIs.
  • OpenJDK - OpenJDK is a free, open-source version of the Java Development Kit for the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE).
  • operand - In computing and mathematics, an operand is an object that is operated on by some type of operator.
  • operation (computing) - An operation, in computing, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
  • operator - In mathematics and computer programming, an operator is a character that represents a specific mathematical or logical action or process.
  • orthogonal - Orthogonal concepts have their roots in advanced mathematics.
Networking
  • network management system

    A network management system, or NMS, is an application or set of applications that lets network engineers manage a network's ...

  • host (in computing)

    A host is a computer or other device that communicates with other hosts on a network.

  • Network as a Service (NaaS)

    Network as a service, or NaaS, is a business model for delivering enterprise WAN services virtually on a subscription basis.

Security
  • WebAuthn API

    The Web Authentication API (WebAuthn API) is a credential management application program interface (API) that lets web ...

  • Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS)

    The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a public framework for rating the severity of security vulnerabilities in ...

  • Dridex malware

    Dridex is a form of malware that targets victims' banking information, with the main goal of stealing online account credentials ...

CIO
  • audit program (audit plan)

    An audit program, also called an audit plan, is an action plan that documents what procedures an auditor will follow to validate ...

  • blockchain decentralization

    Decentralization is the distribution of functions, control and information instead of being centralized in a single entity.

  • outsourcing

    Outsourcing is a business practice in which a company hires a third party to perform tasks, handle operations or provide services...

HRSoftware
  • team collaboration

    Team collaboration is a communication and project management approach that emphasizes teamwork, innovative thinking and equal ...

  • employee self-service (ESS)

    Employee self-service (ESS) is a widely used human resources technology that enables employees to perform many job-related ...

  • learning experience platform (LXP)

    A learning experience platform (LXP) is an AI-driven peer learning experience platform delivered using software as a service (...

Customer Experience
  • market segmentation

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that uses well-defined criteria to divide a brand's total addressable market share ...

  • sales pipeline

    A sales pipeline is a visual representation of sales prospects and where they are in the purchasing process.

  • market basket analysis

    Market basket analysis is a data mining technique used by retailers to increase sales by better understanding customer purchasing...

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