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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.
  • just-in-time compiler (JIT) - A just-in-time (JIT) compiler is a program that turns bytecode into instructions that can be sent directly to a computer's processor (CPU).
  • Jython - Jython is an open source implementation of the Python programming language, integrated with the Java platform.
  • Kaizen (continuous improvement) - Kaizen is an approach to creating continuous improvement based on the idea that small, ongoing positive changes can reap significant improvements.
  • Karnaugh map (K-map) - A Karnaugh map (K-map) is a visual method used to simplify the algebraic expressions in Boolean functions without having to resort to complex theorems or equation manipulations.
  • Kebab case - Kebab case -- or kebab-case -- is a programming variable naming convention where a developer replaces the spaces between words with a dash.
  • key-value pair (KVP) - A key-value pair (KVP) is a set of two linked data items: a key, which is a unique identifier for some item of data, and the value, which is either the data that is identified or a pointer to the location of that data.
  • KLOC (thousands of lines of code) - KLOC (thousands of lines of code) is a traditional measure of how large a computer program is or how long or how many people it will take to write it.
  • knowledge engineering - Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.
  • Korn shell (ksh) - The Korn shell (ksh) is an operating system (OS) command shell that was developed for Unix by David Korn at Bell Labs.
  • Kotlin - Kotlin is a statically typed, object-oriented programing language that is interoperable with the Java virtual machine, Java Class Libraries and Android.
  • lambda - Lambda, the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, is used as both a symbol and a concept in various fields of science, mathematics and computing.
  • LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - LAMP is an open source Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language.
  • Lean software development - Lean software development is a concept that emphasizes optimizing efficiency and minimizing waste in the development of software.
  • lexical scoping (static scoping) - Lexical scoping, also known as static scoping, is a convention used with many modern programming languages.
  • Lisp (programming language) - Lisp, an acronym for list processing, is a functional programming language that was designed for easy manipulation of data strings.
  • logical implication - Logical implication is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences.
  • logical negation symbol - The logical negation symbol is used in Boolean algebra to indicate that the truth value of the statement that follows is reversed.
  • logical OR symbol - In mathematics, the logical OR symbol is a Boolean function that is positioned between two statements to indicate an inclusive disjunction between them.
  • loop - In computer programming, a loop is a sequence of instructions that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • MapReduce - MapReduce is a core component of the Apache Hadoop software framework.
  • massive open online course (MOOC) - A massive open online course (MOOC) is a typically free web-based distance learning program that's designed for large numbers of geographically dispersed students.
  • memory dump - A memory dump is the process of taking all information content in RAM and writing it to a storage drive as a memory dump file (*.
  • memory management - Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating a computer's main memory.
  • message passing interface (MPI) - The message passing interface (MPI) is a standardized means of exchanging messages between multiple computers running a parallel program across distributed memory.
  • method (in object-oriented programming) - In object-oriented programming (OOP), a method is a programmed procedure that is defined as part of a class and is available to any object instantiated from that class.
  • Micronaut framework - Micronaut is an open source JVM-based software framework for building lightweight, modular applications and microservices.
  • Microsoft D - Microsoft D is an end-user programming language in development as part of the company's Oslo service-oriented architecture (SOA) initiative.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and operating systems.
  • MIT License (X11 license or MIT X license) - The MIT License (also known as the X11 license or MITX license) is a software license that was originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • mnemonic - In general, a mnemonic (from Greek mnemon or mindful; pronounced neh-MAHN-ik) is a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something.
  • mob programming - Mob programming is a collaborative approach to software development in which a group of developers work together in real time on one task.
  • mobile UI (mobile user interface) - A mobile UI (mobile user interface) is the graphical and usually touch-sensitive display on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet, that allows the user to interact with the device's apps, features, content and functions.
  • model-view-controller (MVC) - In programming, model-view-controller (MVC) is an architectural design pattern that organizes an application's logic into distinct layers, each of which carries out a specific set of tasks.
  • Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) - Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) is a software design pattern that is structured to separate program logic and user interface controls.
  • module - A module is a distinct assembly of components that can be easily added, removed or replaced in a larger system.
  • monolithic architecture - A monolithic architecture is the traditional unified model for the design of a software program.
  • MPP (massively parallel processing) - MPP (massively parallel processing) is the coordinated processing of a program by multiple processors that work on different parts of the program, with each processor using its own operating system and memory.
  • multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the utilization of two or more central processing units (CPUs) in a single computer system.
  • mutual exclusion (mutex) - In computer programming, a mutual exclusion (mutex) is a program object that prevents multiple threads from accessing the same shared resource simultaneously.
  • native app - A native application is a software program developers build for use on a particular platform or device.
  • native code - Native code is binary data compiled to run on a processor, such as an Intel x86-class processor.
  • natural language processing (NLP) - Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of a computer program to understand human language as it’s spoken and written -- referred to as natural language.
  • NetBeans - NetBeans is a Java-based integrated development environment (IDE).
  • nil - In general use, nil (a contraction of Latin "nihil") means "nothing" or the absence of something.
  • no op (no operation) - No op means 'no operation,' which is a computer instruction that specifies no operation but takes up a small amount of storage space.
  • no-code - No-code is a software development approach that requires few, if any, programming skills to quickly build an application.
  • Node.js (Node) - Node.js (Node) is an open source, cross-platform runtime environment for executing JavaScript code.
  • not invented here (NIH) syndrome - Not invented here (NIH) syndrome is the name of the tendency for management to resist change by overlooking processes or solutions discovered outside of the company.
  • obfuscation - Obfuscation means to make something difficult to understand.
  • object - In object-oriented programming (OOP), objects are the things you think about first in designing a program and they are also the units of code that are eventually derived from the process.
  • object code - Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a computer.
  • object-oriented programming (OOP) - Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming model that organizes software design around data, or objects, rather than functions and logic.
  • object-relational mapping (ORM) - Object-relational mapping (ORM) is a way to align programming code with database structures.
  • Open Document Format (ODF) - The Open Document Format (ODF) is a zip-compressed, Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based, open source file format for saving and exchanging text, spreadsheets, charts, graphics and presentations.
  • Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) - OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) is an industry plan for a standard way to connect devices such as home appliances and security systems to the Internet.
  • open source - The term 'open source' refers to any program whose source code is made available for use or modification as users or other developers see fit.
  • Open Source Hardening Project - The Open Source Hardening Project is an initiative of the United States Department of Homeland Security, created to improve the security of open source code.
  • OpenAPI Specification - The OpenAPI (OAI) Specification defines a standard, programming language-agnostic interface description for RESTful APIs.
  • OpenJDK - OpenJDK is a free, open-source version of the Java Development Kit for the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE).
  • operand - In computing and mathematics, an operand is an object that is operated on by some type of operator.
  • operation (computing) - An operation, in computing, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
  • operator - In mathematics and computer programming, an operator is a character that represents a specific mathematical or logical action or process.
  • orthogonal - Orthogonal concepts have their roots in advanced mathematics.
  • OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) - The OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) specification is a Java framework for developing and deploying modular software programs and libraries.
  • out-of-order execution (OoOE) - Out-of-order execution (OoOE) is an approach to processing that allows instructions for high-performance microprocessors to begin execution as soon as their operands are ready.
  • pair programming - Pair programming is an Agile software development technique originating from Extreme programming (XP) in which two developers team together and work on one computer.
  • parallel processing - Parallel processing is a method in computing of running two or more processors (CPUs) to handle separate parts of an overall task.
  • parser - In computer technology, a parser is a program that's usually part of a compiler.
  • Pascal case - Pascal case is a naming convention in which developers start each new word in a variable with an uppercase letter.
  • performance testing - Performance testing is a testing measure that evaluates the speed, responsiveness and stability of a computer, network, software program or device under a workload.
  • Perl - Perl is a family of script programming languages that is similar in syntax to the C language.
  • PERT chart - A PERT chart, sometimes called a PERT diagram, is a project management tool used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a project.
  • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) - PHP (Hypertext Processor) is a general-purpose scripting language and interpreter that is freely available and widely used for web development.
  • pigs and chickens - Pigs and chickens is an analogy used in the Scrum software development model to define the type of role an attendee can play at a daily scrum meeting.
  • pipe - In computer programming, especially in Unix operating systems (OSes), a pipe is a technique for passing information from one program process or command to another.
  • PL/SQL (procedural language extension to Structured Query Language) - In Oracle database management, PL/SQL is a procedural language extension to Structured Query Language (SQL).
  • polyglot programming - Polyglot programming is the practice of writing code in multiple languages to capture additional functionality and efficiency not available in a single language.
  • polymorphism - Polymorphism is a popular concept in object-oriented programming (OOP), referring to the idea that an entity in code such as a variable, function or object can have more than one form.
  • POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) - POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) is a set of standard operating system interfaces based on the Unix operating system.
  • Postscript - Postscript is a programming language that describes the appearance of a printed page.
  • prettyprint - Prettyprint is the process of converting and presenting source code or other objects in a legible and attractive way.
  • primitive (programming) - In computer programming, a primitive is one of a set of fundamental language elements that serve as the foundation for a programming language.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP) is a concept in computer security that limits users' access rights to only what is strictly required to do their jobs.
  • problem program - Now seldom used, the term problem program is used to distinguish a computer program that directly supports a user application from an operating system, a utility, or any other underlying support programming.
  • product owner - A product owner is a role on a Scrum team that is accountable for the project's outcome.
  • program - In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform.
  • program counter - A program counter is a register in a computer processor that contains the address (location) of the instruction being executed at the current time.
  • project management - Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to guide a project from conception through completion.
  • Project planning: What is it and 5 steps to create a plan - Project planning is a discipline addressing how to complete a project in a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages and designated resources.
  • protected mode - Protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is the primary mode of operation for an Intel-based x86 microprocessor.
  • prototype - A prototype is an early version of a product from which future versions are developed.
  • pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) - A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a program written for, and used in, probability and statistics applications when large quantities of random digits are needed.
  • pseudocode - Pseudocode is a detailed yet readable description of what a computer program or algorithm should do.
  • Python - Python is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted object-oriented programming language.
  • quality assurance (QA) - Quality assurance (QA) is any systematic process of determining whether a product or service meets specified requirements.
  • race condition - A race condition is an undesirable situation that occurs when a device or system attempts to perform two or more operations at the same time, but because of the nature of the device or system, the operations must be done in the proper sequence to be done correctly.
  • random numbers - As the term suggests, a random number is a number chosen by chance -- i.
  • rapid application development (RAD) - Rapid application development (RAD) is a model based on the concept that higher-quality products can be developed faster through more expedient processes, such as early prototyping, reusing software components and less formality in team communications.
  • rapid mobile app development (RMAD) - Rapid mobile application development (RMAD) uses low-code/no-code programming tools to expedite the application creation process for mobile platforms.
Networking
  • firewall as a service (FWaaS)

    Firewall as a service (FWaaS), also known as a cloud firewall, is a service that provides cloud-based network traffic analysis ...

  • private 5G

    Private 5G is a wireless network technology that delivers 5G cellular connectivity for private network use cases.

  • NFVi (network functions virtualization infrastructure)

    NFVi (network functions virtualization infrastructure) encompasses all of the networking hardware and software needed to support ...

Security
  • phishing

    Phishing is a fraudulent practice in which an attacker masquerades as a reputable entity or person in an email or other form of ...

  • computer forensics (cyber forensics)

    Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular ...

  • cybersecurity

    Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting internet-connected systems such as hardware, software and data from cyberthreats.

CIO
HRSoftware
  • OKRs (Objectives and Key Results)

    OKRs (Objectives and Key Results) encourage companies to set, communicate and monitor organizational goals and results in an ...

  • cognitive diversity

    Cognitive diversity is the inclusion of people who have different styles of problem-solving and can offer unique perspectives ...

  • reference checking software

    Reference checking software is programming that automates the process of contacting and questioning the references of job ...

Customer Experience
  • martech (marketing technology)

    Martech (marketing technology) refers to the integration of software tools, platforms, and applications designed to streamline ...

  • transactional marketing

    Transactional marketing is a business strategy that focuses on single, point-of-sale transactions.

  • customer profiling

    Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by ...

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