Browse Definitions by Alphabet
B2B - BIT
- B2B (business-to-business) - B2B (business-to-business), a type of electronic commerce (e-commerce), is the exchange of products, services or information between businesses, rather than between businesses and consumers (B2C).
- B2B2C (business-to-business-to-consumer) - B2B2C (business-to-business-to-consumer) adds consumer e-commerce to the B2B (business-to-business) model, allowing a company to market its product or service more effectively by entering a B2B relationship with a company whose expertise is selling online.
- B2C (business-to-consumer) - B2C, or business-to-consumer, is a retail model where products or services move directly from a business to the end user who has purchased the goods or services for personal use.
- BABOK Guide (Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge) - The guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, or the BABOK Guide, is a book from the International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA) that provides essential support and direction to business analysts (BAs) by presenting a collection of the activities that comprise business analysis.
- backdoor (computing) - A backdoor attack is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
- backdoor selling - Backdoor selling is the unscrupulous practice of seeking information beyond what is publicly available as a means of gaining a competitive advantage for a contract or sale.
- backfire effect - The backfire effect is the tendency of some people to resist accepting evidence that conflicts with their beliefs.
- backpropagation algorithm - Backpropagation, or backward propagation of errors, is an algorithm that is designed to test for errors working back from output nodes to input nodes.
- backscatter spam - Backscatter spam, also called misdirected bounce spam or NDR spam, is a strategy for sending unsolicited email messages that takes advantage of the fact that certain types of mail transfer agent (MTA) programs return the entire message to the sender when a recipient's email address is invalid.
- backslash - The backslash ( \ ) is a typographic and/or keyboard mark that is widely used in programming languages and other computing contexts.
- backup - Backup refers to the copying of physical or virtual files or databases to a secondary location for preservation in case of equipment failure or catastrophe.
- backup and recovery testing - A backup and recovery test is the process of assessing the effectiveness of an organization’s software and methods of replicating data for security and its ability to reliably retrieve that data should the need arise.
- backup as a service (BaaS) - Backup as a service (BaaS) is an approach to backing up data that involves purchasing backup and recovery services from an online data backup provider.
- backup domain controller (Windows NT) - A backup domain controller (BDC) is a role a Windows NT computer takes on to help manage access to network resources.
- backup storage device - A backup storage device is used to make copies of data that is actively in use.
- backward chaining - Backward chaining is the logical process of inferring unknown truths from known conclusions by moving backward from a solution to determine the initial conditions and rules.
- backward compatible (backward compatibility) - Backward compatible (also known as downward compatible or backward compatibility) refers to a hardware or software system that can successfully use interfaces and data from earlier versions of the system or with other systems.
- bad block - A bad block is an area of storage media that is no longer reliable for storing and retrieving data because it has been physically damaged or corrupted.
- baffle (data center hot aisle containment) - Baffle paneling covers unwanted space between racks, under the raised floor and above dropped ceilings in the data center, reducing energy consumption and power use.
- BAI2 file format - BAI2 file format is a specialized and standardized set of codes used for cash management by the Bank Administration Institute (BAI).
- Baidu - Baidu is a Chinese technology, internet search and internet services company.
- balanced scorecard - The balance scorecard (BSC) is a management system aimed at translating an organization's strategic goals into a set of organizational performance objectives that, in turn, are measured, monitored, and changed if necessary to ensure that an organizations strategic goals are met.
- Ballerina language - Ballerina language is an open-source, cloud-native programming language designed to ease the burden of integration development associated with enterprise applications.
- bandwidth (network bandwidth) - Network bandwidth is a measurement indicating the maximum capacity of a wired or wireless communications link to transmit data over a network connection in a given amount of time.
- bang-bang (bang-bang control) - Bang-bang control is a type of control system that mechanically or electronically turns something on or off when a desired target (setpoint) has been reached.
- Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) - The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), also known as the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, is legislation passed by the United States Congress in 1970 that requires U.
- BANT - BANT is an acronym that stands for 'Budget, Authority, Need, Timing.
- Bar Coded Medication Administration (BCMA) - Bar Coded Medication Administration (BCMA) is a hospital inventory control system that uses barcodes in the distribution of prescription medications with the goal of ensuring the patient is receiving the correct medication.
- barcode (or bar code) - A barcode (sometimes seen as two words, bar code) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person or location.
- barcode reader - A barcode reader, also called a price scanner or point-of-sale (POS) scanner, is a hand-held or stationary input device used to capture and read information contained in a barcode.
- bare-metal cloud - Bare-metal cloud is a public cloud service that offers dedicated hardware resources without any installed operating systems or virtualization infrastructure.
- bare-metal hypervisor - A bare-metal hypervisor, also known as a Type 1 hypervisor, is virtualization software that has been installed directly onto the computing hardware.
- bare-metal provisioning - Bare-metal provisioning is the process of installing an operating system (OS) or Type 1 hypervisor directly on a computer's hard disk.
- bare-metal restore - A bare-metal restore (also referred to as bare-metal recovery or bare-metal backup) is a data recovery and restoration process where a computer is restored to a new machine, typically after a catastrophic failure.
- barter economy - A barter economy is a cashless economic system in which services and goods are traded at negotiated rates.
- base station - In telecommunications, a base station is a fixed transceiver that is the main communication point for one or more wireless mobile client devices.
- baseband - Baseband in the transmission of communications signals means only one path is available to send and receive digital signals between devices.
- baseband unit (BBU) - A baseband unit (BBU) is a device that interprets baseband frequencies in telecom systems including computer networks, the internet, phone networks and radio broadcasting systems.
- baseboard management controller (BMC) - A baseboard management controller (BMC) is a specialized service processor that monitors the physical state of a computer, network server or other hardware device using sensors and communicating with the system administrator through an independent connection.
- Basel II - Basel II is an international business standard that requires financial institutions to maintain enough cash reserves to cover risks incurred by their operations.
- bash (Bourne again shell) - Bash (Bourne Again Shell) is the free and enhanced version of the Bourne shell distributed with Linux and GNU operating systems.
- BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) - BASIC was an early programming language that is still among the simplest and most popular of programming languages.
- Basic Assembler Language (BAL) - BAL (Basic Assembler Language) is a version of IBM's assembler language (sometimes called assembly language) for its System/360 and System/370 mainframe operating system.
- batch file - A batch file is a script file that stores commands to be executed in a serial order.
- battery management system (BMS) - A battery management system (BMS) is an electronic regulator that monitors and controls the charging and discharging of rechargeable batteries.
- battery memory effect - The battery memory effect is a reduction in the longevity of a rechargeable battery's charge, due to incomplete discharge in previous uses.
- beamforming - Beamforming is a type of radio frequency (RF) management in which a wireless signal is directed toward a specific receiving device.
- Bean - In its JavaBeans application program interface for writing a component, Sun Microsystems calls a component a "Bean" (thus continuing their coffee analogy).
- beep code - A beep code is the audio signal from a computer when it first powers on to give the Power-On Self-Test (POST) result.
- behavior-based security - Behavior-based security software scans for deviations from the norm and decides whether an anomaly poses a threat or can simply be ignored.
- behavior-driven development (BDD) - Behavior-driven development (BDD) is an Agile software development methodology in which an application is documented and designed around the behavior a user expects to experience when interacting with it.
- behavioral biometrics - Behavioral biometrics are based on human activity such as typing patterns.
- behavioral targeting - Behavioral targeting is the presentation of content and marketing based on the previous choices of users across websites.
- bell curve - A bell curve is a form of graph that is used to visualize the distribution of a set of chosen values across a specified group that tend to have a central, normal values, as peak with low and high extremes tapering off relatively symmetrically on either side.
- benchmark - A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.
- benefits administration - Benefits administration is the process of assembling and managing the benefits an organization provides to employees.
- BERT language model - BERT is an open source machine learning framework for natural language processing (NLP).
- best practice - A best practice is a standard or set of guidelines that is known to produce good outcomes if followed.
- beta test - In software development, a beta test is the second phase of software testing in which a sampling of the intended audience tries the product out.
- Betteridge's law (of headlines) - Betteridge's law (of headlines) is an adage that states "Any headline that ends in a question mark can be answered by the word no.
- Betterworks - Betterworks is cloud-based human capital management software that allows employees to create Objectives and Key Results (OKRs) and link them to organizational goals.
- bezel - A bezel is the border between the screen and frame of a computer monitor, smartphone or any other computing device.
- BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) - BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is the protocol underlying the global routing system of the internet.
- BIC (bank identifier code) - A bank identifier code (BIC) is a unique identifier for a specific financial institution.
- Big 4 - The Big 4 are the four largest international accounting and professional services firms.
- big box store - A big box store is a very large brick and mortar retail location which sells a variety of merchandise, usually at a low price.
- big data - Big data is a combination of structured, semistructured and unstructured data collected by organizations that can be mined for information and used in machine learning projects, predictive modeling and other advanced analytics applications.
- big data analytics - Big data analytics is the often complex process of examining big data to uncover information -- such as hidden patterns, correlations, market trends and customer preferences -- that can help organizations make informed business decisions.
- big data as a service (BDaaS) - Big data as a service (BDaaS) is the delivery of data platforms and tools by a cloud provider to help organizations process, manage and analyze large data sets so they can generate insights in order to improve business operations and gain a competitive advantage.
- big data engineer - A big data engineer is an information technology (IT) professional who is responsible for designing, building, testing and maintaining complex data processing systems that work with large data sets.
- big data management - Big data management is the organization, administration and governance of large volumes of both structured and unstructured data.
- big data storage - Big data storage is a compute-and-storage architecture that collects and manages large data sets and enables real-time data analytics.
- Big Tech - Big Tech is a term that refers to the most dominant and largest technology companies in their respective sectors.
- big-endian and little-endian - Endianness is a term that describes the order in which a sequence of bytes is stored in computer memory.
- bill of lading (BoL, B/L) - A bill of lading (also seen as B/L and BoL) is a document given to a shipper by the carrier that details the shipment and serves as a means of transferring the title of goods.
- bill of materials (BOM) - A bill of materials (BOM) is a comprehensive inventory of the raw materials, assemblies, subassemblies, parts and components, as well as the quantities of each, needed to manufacture a product.
- billable hours - Billable hours are the amounts of an employee’s work time that can be charged to a client.
- bimodal IT (bimodal information technology) - Bimodal IT is a two-tiered IT operations model that allows for the creation of IT systems and processes that are stable and predictable as well as agile and fast.
- binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit -- 0 or 1 -- and is the basis for all binary code used in computing systems.
- binary file - A binary file is a file whose content is in a binary format that consists of a series of sequential bytes, each of which is eight bits in length.
- binary-coded decimal - Binary-coded decimal is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base 10) number.
- binaural sound (binaural beats) - Binaural sound is audio that is recorded through specialized dual microphone setups, allowing for a stereophonic 3D audio effect that simulates sound as heard when physically present.
- biomedical informatics - Biomedical informatics is the branch of health informatics that uses data to help clinicians, researchers and scientists improve human health and provide healthcare.
- biometric payment - Biometric payment is a point-of-sale (POS) technology that uses biometric authentication physical characteristics to identify the user and authorize the deduction of funds from a bank account.
- biometric verification - Biometric verification is any means by which a person can be uniquely identified by evaluating one or more distinguishing biological traits.
- biometrics - Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people's unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
- BIOS (basic input/output system) - BIOS (basic input/output system) is the program a computer's microprocessor uses to start the computer system after it is powered on.
- BIOS password - A BIOS password is a security precaution that requires a computer user to log into the machine's basic input/output system (BIOS) before a computer will boot up.
- BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
- BIOS rootkit attack - A BIOS-level rootkit attack, also known as a persistent BIOS attack, is an exploit in which the BIOS is flashed (updated) with malicious code.
- biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biology to develop new products, methods and organisms intended to improve human health and society.
- BIRT (Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools) - BIRT (Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools) is an open source technology platform sponsored by the Eclipse Foundation that consists of a visual report designer and a runtime component for Java and Java EE environments.
- bit (binary digit) - A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of data that a computer can process and store.
- bit rot - Bit rot is the slow deterioration in the performance and integrity of data stored on storage media.
- bit stuffing - Bit stuffing refers to the insertion of one or more bits into a data transmission as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
- Bitcoin - Bitcoin is a digital currency -- also called cryptocurrency -- that can be traded for goods or services with vendors that accept Bitcoin as payment.
- Bitcoin address - A Bitcoin address is a digital identifier that serves as a location where the cryptocurrency can be sent.
- Bitcoin Cash (BCH) - Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is an altcoin version of the popular Bitcoin cryptocurrency.
- bitcoin mining - Bitcoin mining is the process of verifying new transactions to the Bitcoin digital currency system, as well as the process by which new bitcoin enter into circulation.
- BitLocker - BitLocker Drive Encryption, or BitLocker, is a Microsoft Windows security and encryption feature.