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Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Terms related to business, including definitions about project management and words and phrases about human resources, finance and vertical industries.

360 - BUS

  • 360-degree customer view - The 360-degree customer view is the idea that companies can get a complete view of customers by aggregating data from the various touch points in which consumers interact with companies.
  • 3PL (third-party logistics) - A 3PL (third-party logistics) provider offers outsourced logistics services, which encompass anything that involves management of one or more facets of procurement and fulfillment activities.
  • 4-D printing (four-dimensional printing) - 4-D printing is additive manufacturing that prints objects capable of transformation and, in some cases, self-assembly.
  • 5 Whys (Five Whys) - Five Whys, sometimes written as '5 Whys,' is a guided team exercise for identifying the root cause of a problem.
  • 70 percent rule for productivity - According to the 70 percent rule, which has its roots in athletics, employees are most productive when a majority of their time is spent working at a less intense pace.
  • 70-20-10 (70-20-10 rule) - 70-20-10 is a formula that describes how someone learns to do their job.
  • A/B testing (split testing) - A/B testing, sometimes called split testing, is an assessment tool for identifying which version of something helps an individual or organization meet a business goal more effectively.
  • ABC analysis (Pareto analysis) - ABC analysis, also known as Pareto analysis, is a method used to categorize something according to its importance or value in a given context.
  • ABC classification - ABC classification is a ranking system for identifying and grouping items in terms of how useful they are for achieving business goals.
  • account - An account is a unique record for each type of asset, liability, equity, revenue and expense.
  • account-based marketing (ABM) - Account-based marketing (ABM) is a business-to-business (B2B) strategy that focuses sales and marketing resources on targeted accounts within a specific market.
  • accountability - Accountability means being held responsible or answerable for one's actions (or perhaps lack of action where one should have been taken).
  • accounts payable - Accounts payable is a liability account in the general ledger (GL).
  • accounts receivable (AR) - Accounts receivable (AR) is an item in the general ledger (GL) that shows money owed to a business by customers who have purchased goods or services on credit.
  • acquisition plan - An acquisition plan, in the context of procurement, is a business document specifying all relevant considerations for the processes involved with acquiring goods, services or other organizations.
  • acronym - An acronym (pronounced AK-ruh-nihm, from Greek acro- in the sense of extreme or tip and onyma or name) is an abbreviation of several words in such a way that the abbreviation itself forms a word.
  • action item - An action item is a discrete task that must be accomplished, usually by a single individual or a small team or group.
  • action plan - An action plan is a document that lists what steps must be taken in order to achieve a specific goal.
  • actionable intelligence - Actionable intelligence is information that can be followed up on, with the further implication that a strategic plan should be undertaken to make positive use of the information gathered.
  • ad hoc - Ad hoc is an adjective used to describe things that are created on the spot, usually for a single use.
  • adaptive enterprise (or adaptive organization) - An adaptive enterprise (or adaptive organization) is a corporation, institution, or agency in which the business demand and the IT (information technology) supply are matched and synchronized at all times.
  • adhocracy - Adhocracy is a business management and corporate culture model based the ability to adapt quickly to changing conditions.
  • advanced shipping notice (ASN) - Advanced shipping notice (ASN) is a document that provides detailed information about a pending delivery.
  • age of the customer - Age of the customer is the concept that consumers are more empowered than ever because they can access information about products and services over the Internet in real time.
  • Agile Project Management (APM) - Agile Project Management (APM) is an iterative approach to planning and guiding project processes that breaks them down into smaller cycles called sprints, or iterations.
  • AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) - The AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) is a member association for the accounting profession that sets ethical standards for accountants, as well as U.
  • AIDA marketing model - The AIDA marketing model is a marketing, advertising and sales approach methodology designed to provide insight into the customer's mind and represent the steps needed to cultivate leads and generate sales.
  • AIOps (artificial intelligence for IT operations) - AIOps is an umbrella term for the use of big data analytics, machine learning and other AI technologies to automate the identification and resolution of common IT issues.
  • Alphabet, Inc. - Alphabet, Inc.
  • Altman Z-score - The Altman Z-score is a statistic that is useful for evaluating the financial health of a publicly traded manufacturing company.
  • Amazon effect - The Amazon effect is the ongoing evolution of the retail market, both online and in physical outlets, resulting from increased e-commerce.
  • Amazon Prime - Amazon Prime is a subscription membership to Amazon that offers customers premium services for a yearly or monthly fee.
  • ANSI/ISA-95 - ANSI/ISA-95, more commonly referred to as ISA-95, is an international standard for enterprise and control systems integration developed for manufacturers.
  • Apex (Salesforce) - Salesforce Apex is a Microsoft-certified framework for building software as a service (SaaS) apps on top of Salesforce's customer relationship management (CRM) functionality.
  • Apple Authorized Reseller (AAR) - An Apple Authorized Reseller (AAR) is a business partner that has entered into a contractual relationship with Apple Computer Inc.
  • application portfolio management (APM) - Application portfolio management (APM) is a framework for managing enterprise IT software applications and software-based services.
  • application rationalization (AR) - Application rationalization is the process of identifying which business applications should be kept, replaced, retired or consolidated across an organization to improve business operations.
  • Appreciative inquiry (AI) - Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a change management approach that focuses on identifying what is working well, analyzing why it is working well and then doing more of it.
  • AR-to-GL reconciliation - AR-to-GL (accounts-receivable-to-general-ledger) reconciliation is a process commonly used to balance accounts in bookkeeping, particularly within an Oracle relational database.
  • ASAP, ALAP and ATAP - ASAP, ATAP and ALAP are acronyms that stand for, respectively, as soon as possible, as timely as possible and as late as possible.
  • assembly line - An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are assembled as they are passed in a direct line from workstation to workstation until a final product is produced.
  • asset liability management - Asset liability management (ALM) is the administration of policies and procedures that address financial risks associated with changing interest rates, foreign exchange rates and other factors that can affect a company’s liquidity.
  • asset performance management (APM) - Asset performance management (APM) is both a strategy and a set of software tools for tracking and managing the health of an organization's physical assets.
  • Aura framework - Aura is a user interface framework for developing dynamic Web apps for mobile and desktop devices.
  • authentic leadership - Authentic leadership is a type of management style in which people act in a real, genuine and sincere way that is true to who they are as individuals.
  • authoritarian leadership - Authoritarian leadership is a management style in which an individual has total control over making decisions for a group or organization, with little or no input from his or her subordinates.
  • authorized service provider (ASP) - An authorized service provider (ASP) is an organization that a product manufacturer has deemed qualified to service products covered under the manufacturer's warranty.
  • availability bias - The availability bias is the human tendency to think that examples of things that come readily to mind are more representative than is actually the case.
  • B2B2C (business-to-business-to-consumer) - B2B2C (business-to-business-to-consumer) adds consumer e-commerce to the B2B (business-to-business) model, allowing a company to market its product or service more effectively by entering a B2B relationship with a company whose expertise is selling online.
  • backdoor selling - Backdoor selling is the unscrupulous practice of seeking information beyond what is publicly available as a means of gaining a competitive advantage for a contract or sale.
  • Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) - The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), also known as the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, is legislation passed by the United States Congress in 1970 that requires U.
  • barter economy - A barter economy is a cashless economic system in which services and goods are traded at negotiated rates.
  • Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) - The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) is a group of international banking authorities who work to strengthen the regulation, supervision and practices of banks and improve financial stability worldwide.
  • benefit corporation - Benefit corporation is a type of corporate structure recognized by some state governments in the United States.
  • benefits administration - Benefits administration is the process of assembling and managing the benefits an organization provides to employees.
  • bespoke - Bespoke (pronounced bee-SPOHK) is a term used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere for an individually- or custom-made product or service.
  • best practice - A best practice is a standard or set of guidelines that is known to produce good outcomes if followed.
  • Betteridge's law (of headlines) - Betteridge's law (of headlines) is an adage that states "Any headline that ends in a question mark can be answered by the word no.
  • BIC (bank identifier code) - A bank identifier code (BIC) is a unique identifier for a specific financial institution.
  • Big 4 (Final 4) - The Big 4, also known as the Final 4, are the four largest international accounting and professional services firms.
  • big box store - A big box store is a very large brick and mortar retail location which sells a variety of merchandise, usually at a low price.
  • bill of lading (BoL, B/L) - A bill of lading (also seen as B/L and BoL) is a document given to a shipper by the carrier that details the shipment and serves as a means of transferring the title of goods.
  • bill of materials (BOM) - A bill of materials (BOM) is a comprehensive inventory of the raw materials, assemblies, subassemblies, parts and components, as well as the quantities of each, needed to manufacture a product.
  • bimodal IT (bimodal information technology) - Bimodal IT is a two-tiered IT operations model that allows for the creation of IT systems and processes that are stable and predictable as well as agile and fast.
  • Bitcoin Cash (BCH) - Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is an altcoin version of the popular Bitcoin cryptocurrency.
  • BizDevOps (Business, Development and Operations) - BizDevOps, also known as DevOps 2.
  • black hole - The term "black hole" is sometimes used to refer to an imaginary place where objects, files, or funds go when they get lost for no apparent reason.
  • blackout period - A blackout period is a duration of time when access to something usually available is prohibited.
  • blockchain economy - The blockchain economy is a scenario and potential future environment in which the technology replaces current monetary systems, potentially on a global basis.
  • BLOT (build, lease, operate, transfer) - BLOT (build, lease, operate, transfer) is a public-private partnership (PPP) project model in which a private organization designs, finances and builds a facility on leased public land.
  • bloviate - To bloviate (pronounced BLOW-vee-ayt) is to speak or write overexpansively or with undue grandiosity.
  • boil the ocean - To boil the ocean, in a business context, is to increase the scope of a project or task until it is practically impossible to accomplish as envisioned.
  • boilerplate - In information technology, a boilerplate is a unit of writing that can be reused over and over without change.
  • Bombay Stock Exchange - The Bombay Stock Exchange or BSE is Asia's oldest stock exchange.
  • BOO project (build, own, operate project) - BOO (build, own, operate) is a public-private partnership (PPP) project model in which a private organization builds, owns and operates some facility or structure with some degree of public involvement.
  • book of business - Book of business is another name for an account or client list.
  • BOOT (build, own, operate and transfer) - BOOT (build, own, operate, transfer) is a project funding model based on a financial agreement between a private contractor and a public organization.
  • Bootstrap - Bootstrap is a free, open source front-end development framework for the creation of websites and web apps.
  • brain dump - A brain dump (sometimes spelled braindump, or brain-dump) is a complete transfer of accessible knowledge about a particular subject from your brain to some other storage medium, such as paper or your computer's hard drive.
  • brainstorming - Brainstorming is a group problem-solving method that involves the spontaneous contribution of creative ideas and solutions.
  • brand ambassador - A brand ambassador is an advocate of a particular company's products and services.
  • brand equity - Brand equity is the perceived value a company gains by having a known name, logo or other identifier.
  • brand recognition - Brand recognition is the extent to which a consumer can correctly identify a particular product or service just by viewing the product or service's logo, tag line, packaging or advertising campaign.
  • brandjacking - Brandjacking is an act that allows an individual or company to assume or exploit a brand's identity to undermine that brand.
  • bright-line rule - A bright-line rule, also known as a bright-line test, is a directly-stated law or standard that is worded to avoid room for interpretation and also contains a break-down of objectives.
  • broken window theory - Broken window theory is the concept that each problem that goes unattended in a given environment affects people's attitude toward that environment and leads to more problems.
  • broker - A broker is someone or something that acts as an intermediary third party, managing transactions between two other entities.
  • brownfield (brownfield deployment, brownfield site) - A brownfield deployment, in information technology, is the installation and configuration of new hardware or software that must coexist with legacy IT systems.
  • budgeting, planning and forecasting (BP&F) - Budgeting, planning and forecasting (BP&F) is a three-step strategic planning process for determining and detailing an organization's long- and short-term financial goals.
  • Bullwhip Effect - The bullwhip effect is a supply chain phenomenon describing how small fluctuations in demand at the retail level can cause progressively larger fluctuations in demand at the wholesale, distributor, manufacturer and raw material supplier levels.
  • burn down chart - A burn down chart is a visual representation of the amount of work that still needs to be completed before the end of a project.
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