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Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Terms related to business, including definitions about project management and words and phrases about human resources, finance and vertical industries.

CLO - DEC

  • closed loop control system - A closed loop control system is a mechanical or electronic device that automatically regulates a system to maintain a desired state or set point without human interaction.
  • closed loop manufacturing resource planning (MRP) - Closed loop manufacturing resource planning, also known as closed loop MRP (CLMRP), is a manufacturing resource planning model that includes returned products in the supply chain.
  • cloud computing - Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet.
  • cloud ERP - Cloud ERP is a type of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software that runs on a provider's cloud computing platform, rather than on premises in an enterprise's own data center.
  • cloud federation - Cloud federation is the practice of interconnecting service providers' cloud environments to load balance traffic and accommodate spikes in demand.
  • cloud integrator - A cloud integrator is a product or service that helps a business negotiate the complexities of cloud migrations.
  • cloud service provider (cloud provider) - A cloud service provider, or CSP, is a company that offers some component of cloud computing -- typically, infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) or platform as a service (PaaS).
  • cloud services - Cloud services is an umbrella term that may refer to a variety of resources provided over the internet, or to professional services that support the deployment of such cloud-based resources.
  • cloud sourcing - Cloud sourcing is an arrangement in which a company pays a third-party cloud hosting provider to deliver and support IT services that could be provided in-house.
  • CMO (chief marketing officer) - A CMO (chief marketing officer) is a C-level corporate executive responsible for activities in an organization that have to do with creating, communicating and delivering offerings that have value for customers, clients or business partners.
  • co-selling - Co-selling is an approach to product and service distribution in which channel partners are the primary route to market.
  • coalition loyalty program - A coalition loyalty program is a loyalty card system that offers incentives to customers of two or more businesses in return for allowing those businesses to collect user data.
  • collaboration - Collaboration is a joint effort of multiple individuals or work groups to accomplish a task or project.
  • collaboration specialist - A collaboration specialist is an individual in charge of managing customer experience and implementing a collaborative platform across the enterprise in order to enhance the user experience and employee productivity, and collectively accomplish tasks.
  • collaborative computing - Collaborative computing is a diverse collection of information technologies designed to support work between individuals.
  • collaborative consumption - Collaborative consumption is a new approach to consumer access of goods and services; elements of the model include bartering, sharing, gifting, lending and leasing or renting.
  • communication plan - A communication plan is a policy-driven approach to providing stakeholders with information.
  • competitive advantage - Competitive advantage is the favorable position an organization seeks in order to be more profitable than its rivals.
  • competitive differentiation - Competitive differentiation is a strategic positioning tactic an organization can undertake to set its products, services and brands apart from those of its competitors.
  • compliance audit - A compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organization's adherence to regulatory guidelines.
  • computing arbitrage - Computing arbitrage is a cloud services business model in which a company purchases computing resources -- typically a large block of bandwidth – at wholesale rates and offers it in smaller packages, with a greater cumulative value, to other companies.
  • conduct risk - Conduct risk is the prospect of financial loss to an organization that is caused by the actions of an organization's administrators and employees.
  • confirmation bias - Confirmation bias is a cognitive error in which information that supports a pre-existing belief is assigned more value than other information.
  • conglomerate - A conglomerate is a company that comprises multiple different corporations.
  • conjunction - A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases and clauses.
  • consignment inventory - Consignment inventory is a supply chain model in which a product is sold by a retailer, but ownership is retained by the supplier until the product has been sold.
  • constraint (project constraint) - A project constraint is any limit or restriction applied to a project.
  • consumerism - Consumerism is a cultural model that promotes the aquisition of goods, and especially the purchase of goods, as a vehicle for personal satisfaction and economic stimulation.
  • content personalization - Content personalization is a strategy that tailors webpages and other forms of content to individual users' characteristics or preferences.
  • content services platform - A content services platform is cloud-based SaaS software that enables users to create, share, collaborate on and store text, audio and video content.
  • contextual marketing - Contextual marketing is an online marketing strategy model in which people are served with targeted advertising based on their search terms or their recent browsing behavior.
  • contingency plan - A contingency plan is a course of action designed to help an organization respond effectively to a significant future incident, event or situation that may or may not happen.
  • contingent workforce - A contingent workforce is a labor pool whose members are hired by an organization on an on-demand basis.
  • continuous performance management - Continuous performance management, in a human resource (HR) management context, is the supervision of an employee's performance through one-on-one discussions and ongoing feedback from supervisors during regularly scheduled check-ins.
  • contract delivery date (CDD) - A contract delivery date (CDD) is the date of delivery required by a contract.
  • contract management software - Contract management software is a program or series of related programs for storing and managing legal agreements such as contracts with vendors, leases and licensing agreements.
  • contract theory - Contract theory is the study of how people and organizations develop legal agreements in situations with uncertain conditions, unknown factors and information asymmetry.
  • contracting officer - A contracting officer is an individual entrusted by an organization with the authority to enter into, administer, renew or terminate contract s, along with related determinations and findings.
  • control framework - A control framework is a data structure that organizes and categorizes an organization’s internal controls, which are practices and procedures established to create business value and minimize risk.
  • control loop - A control loop is a system made up of all the hardware components and software control functions needed for the measurement and adjustment of a variable that controls an individual process.
  • control system - A control system is a set of mechanical or electronic devices that regulates other devices or systems by way of control loops.
  • CONUS (continental United States) - Refers to the continental United States.
  • cooperative (co-op) - A cooperative, often shortened to “co-op,” is a business that is owned and operated by and for the benefit of its members.
  • coopetition (co-opetition) - Coopetition is a business strategy that uses insights gained from game theory to understand when it is better for competitors to work together.
  • COPE (corporate-owned, personally enabled) - COPE (corporate-owned personally-enabled) is a business model in which an organization provides its employees with mobile computing devices and allows the employees to use them as if they were personally-owned notebook computers, tablets or smartphones.
  • core competency (core competencies) - For any organization, its core competency refers to the capabilities, knowledge, skills and resources that constitute its 'defining strength.
  • core HR (core human resources) - Core HR (core human resources) is an umbrella term that means the basic functions of an HR department; the basic data captured about employees; and the software used to manage basic HR processes.
  • corporate account manager (CAM) - In the channel, a corporate account manager (CAM) is responsible for maintaining the relationship between the clients of a value-added reseller (VAR) and the VAR.
  • corporate culture - Corporate culture is the collection of values, beliefs, ethics and attitudes that characterize an organization and guide its practices.
  • corporate culture model - A corporate culture model is the organizing principle behind the values, beliefs and attitudes that characterize a company and guide its practices.
  • corporate division - A corporate division, also known as a business division, is a discrete part of a company that may operate under the same name and legal responsibility or as a separate corporate and legal entity under another business name.
  • corporate email policy - A corporate email policy is a form of management that outlines how employees can use email and other electronic communication tools, such as instant messaging, in a corporate environment.
  • corporate executive board - A corporate executive board, or board of directors, oversees activities and strategic planning and decision making in an organization.
  • corporate performance - Corporate performance is a composite assessment of how well an organization executes on its most important parameters, typically financial, market and shareholder performance.
  • corporate social responsibility (CSR) - Corporate social responsibility is an umbrella term used to describe voluntary corporate initiatives concerned with community development, the environment and human rights.
  • corporate wellness coach (health coach) - A corporate wellness coach (health coach) is a professional who is brought into a corporate or office environment to help employees maintain and improve their health and wellness goals.
  • COSO cube - The COSO cube is a diagram that shows the relationship among all parts of an internal control system.
  • cost containment - Cost containment is a process of judiciously reducing costs in a business or limiting them to a constant level.
  • cost management - Cost management is the process of planning and controlling the budget of a business.
  • cost of goods sold (COGS) - Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the total of the costs directly attributable to producing goods.
  • cost per impression - Cost per Impression (CPI) is a business efficiency measure common to advertising in paper and web-based media.
  • cost per like (CPL) - Cost per like (CPL) is the amount a company pays to receive a new fan for a Facebook page, through paid advertising and sometimes through earned media.
  • cost price - A cost price includes all outlays that are required for production, including property costs, materials, power, research and development, testing, worker wages and anything else that must be paid for.
  • cost-benefit analysis (CBA) - Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an analytical tool for assessing and the pros and cons of moving forward with a business proposal.
  • cost-benefit analysis software - Cost-benefit analysis software is a computer program or suite that assists personnel in the complex task of determining whether or not a proposed plan or project will pay off.
  • coworking - Coworking is a business services provision model that involves individuals working independently or collaboratively in shared office space.
  • Creative Commons - Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that offers copyright licenses for digital work.
  • creative destruction - Creative destruction is a process through which something new brings about the demise of whatever existed before it.
  • crisis management - Crisis management is the application of strategies designed to help an organization deal with a sudden and significant negative event.
  • crisis management plan (CMP) - A crisis management plan (CMP) outlines how to respond to a critical situation that would negatively affect an organization's profitability, reputation or ability to operate.
  • critical success factors - Critical success factors are a limited number of key variables or conditions that have a tremendous impact on how successfully and effectively an organization meets its mission or the strategic goals or objectives of a program or project.
  • critical thinking - Critical thinking is the capacity to be objective, rational and analytical about subjects, situations and cognitive problems.
  • crop insurance - Crop insurance is a type of protection policy that covers agricultural producers against unexpected loss of projected crop yields or profits from produce sales at market.
  • cross-docking - Cross-docking is the practice of unloading goods from inbound delivery vehicles and loading them directly onto outbound vehicles.
  • cross-functional team - A cross-functional team is a workgroup made up of employees from different functional areas within an organization who collaborate to reach a stated objective.
  • cross-media ownership - Media cross-ownership is a situation in which a single corporate entity owns multiple types of media companies.
  • CSO (Chief Security Officer) - A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is a C-suite executive responsible for a company's physical and digital security.
  • cultural fit - Cultural fit is the likelihood that a job candidate will be able to conform and adapt to the core values and collective behaviors that make up an organization.
  • culture of failure (blameless culture) - A culture of failure is a set of shared values, goals and practices that encourages learning through experimentation.
  • currency - Currency is anything that is generally accepted to have value as a medium of exchange so that it can be traded for goods and services.
  • customer account record - A customer account record is the basic unit of information about a customer that resides in a CRM, or customer relationship management system.
  • customer experience (CX) - Customer experience (CX) is the sum total of customers' perceptions and feelings resulting from interactions with a brand's products and services.
  • customer health score - A customer health score is a value that indicates the long-term prospect for a customer to drop off or, conversely, to become a high-value, repeat customer through renewal or Cross-selling or up-selling strategies.
  • customer journey map - A customer journey map is a visual representation of the stages a customer goes through when interacting with a company.
  • customer lifecycle - In customer relationship management (CRM), customer lifecycle is a term used to describe the progression of steps a customer goes through when considering, purchasing, using and maintaining loyalty to a product or service.
  • customer lifetime value (CLV) - The customer lifetime value (CLV) is a metric that represents a customer's monetary worth to an organization.
  • customer satisfaction (CSAT) - In customer relationship management, customer satisfaction (CSAT) is a measure of the degree to which a product or service meets customer expectations.
  • customer segmentation - Customer segmentation is the practice of dividing a customer base into groups of individuals that are similar in specific ways relevant to marketing, such as age, gender, interests and spending habits.
  • customer-centric - Customer-centric is an approach to doing business that focuses on providing a positive customer experience both at the point of sale and after the sale in order to drive profit and gain competitive advantage.
  • cutting edge - Cutting edge is an adjective used to describe the newest, most advanced version of a product or service.
  • CVO (Chief Visionary Officer) - The Chief Visionary Officer (CVO) is a newer title where the holder is expected to have a broad and comprehensive knowledge of all matters related to the business of the organization, as well as the vision required to steer its course into the future.
  • cycle counting - Cycle counting is an inventory-control method that lets businesses conduct a regular count of several items in different areas in a warehouse, without constantly adding up the entire inventory.
  • CYOD (choose your own device) - CYOD (choose your own device) is an alternative model to BYOD (bring your own device) that involves allowing employees to select the device they want from among a limited number of options.
  • daily stand-up meeting - A daily stand-up meeting is a short organizational meeting that is held early each day.
  • data artist - A data artist is a business analytics (BA) specialist who creates graphs, charts, infographics and other visual tools that help people understand complex data.
  • Data as a Service (DaaS) - Data as a Service (DaaS) is an information provision and distribution model in which data files (including text, images, sounds, and videos) are made available to customers over a network, typically the Internet.
  • data broker (information broker) - A data broker, also called an information broker or information reseller, is a business that collects personal information about consumers and sells that information to other organizations.
  • data currency (data as currency) - Data currency is monetary value assigned to data so that it can be used as the unit of exchange in a transaction either as the sole payment or in combination with money.
  • data historian - A data historian is a software program that records the data created by processes running in a computer system.
  • data modeling - Data modeling is the process of creating a simplified diagram of a software system and the data elements it contains, using text and symbols to represent the data and how it flows.
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