Enterprise resource planning (ERP)Terms related to business, including definitions about project management and words and phrases about human resources, finance and vertical industries.
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- change agent (agent of change) - A change agent, or agent of change, is someone who promotes and enables change to happen within any group or organization.
- change control - Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.
- change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes or technologies.
- change management strategy - A change management strategy is a systematic approach to making adjustments to the application of a set of tools, processes or skills during a project or initiative.
- change request - A change request is a formal proposal for an alteration to some product or system.
- channel conflict - Channel conflict is a situation in which channel partners have to compete against one another or a vendor's internal sales department.
- channel partner - A channel partner is a person or organization that provides services or sells products on behalf of a software, hardware, networking or cloud services vendor.
- channel partner portal - A channel partner portal is a web-based application that provides a vendor's established partners (usually distributors, resellers, service providers or other strategic partners) with access to deal registration, marketing resources, pricing and sales information for products and services, as well as technical details and support that are unavailable to other end users.
- chart of accounts (COA) - A chart of accounts (COA) is a financial, organizational tool that provides an index of every account in an accounting system.
- chief customer officer (CCO) - A chief customer officer, or customer experience officer, is responsible for customer research, communicating with company employees and taking charge of customer experience (CX) metrics.
- chief data officer (CDO) - A chief data officer (CDO) in many organizations is a C-level executive whose position has evolved into a range of strategic data management responsibilities related to the business to derive maximum value from the data available to the enterprise.
- chief digital officer (CDO) - A chief digital officer (CDO) is charged with helping an enterprise use digital information and advanced technologies to create business value.
- chief experience officer (CXO) - A chief experience officer (CXO) is an executive in the C-suite who ensures positive interactions with an organization's customers.
- chief human resources officer (CHRO) - Chief human resources officer (CHRO) is a top-level management executive in charge of an organization's employees.
- chief operating officer (COO) - A chief operating officer (COO) is the corporate executive who oversees ongoing business operations within the company.
- Chief Process and Innovation Officer (CPIO) - Chief Process and Innovation Officer (CPIO) or sometimes just Chief Process Officer (CPO) is a corporate C-level position that calls for a leader who is able to identify which parts of a company's business processes could be improved and identify specific ways to make them work better.
- chief procurement officer (CPO) - The chief procurement officer, or CPO, leads an organization's procurement department and oversees the acquisitions of goods and services made by the organization.
- chief risk officer (CRO) - The chief risk officer (CRO) is the corporate executive tasked with assessing and mitigating significant competitive, regulatory and technological threats to an enterprise's capital and earnings.
- Chief Strategy Officer (CSO) - A chief strategy officer (CSO), or chief strategist, is an executive charged with helping formulate, facilitate and communicate the overarching strategy of an organization, usually a large corporation.
- Chief Technology Officer (CTO) - The chief technology officer (CTO) is the individual within an organization who oversees the current technology and creates relevant policy.
- chief trust officer - A chief trust officer in the IT industry is an executive job title given to the person responsible for building confidence around the use of customer information.
- CIO (Chief Information Officer) - A chief information officer (CIO) is the corporate executive in charge of information technology (IT) strategy and implementation.
- circular economy - A circular economy is a model of production and consumption, where items and products are reused whenever possible rather than discarded.
- CKO (chief knowledge officer) - Chief knowledge officer (CKO) is a corporate title for the person responsible overseeing knowledge management within an organization.
- clean desk policy (CDP) - A clean desk policy (CDP) is a corporate directive that specifies how employees should leave their working space when they leave the office.
- closed loop control system - A closed loop control system is a mechanical or electronic device that automatically regulates a system to maintain a desired state or set point without human interaction.
- cloud computing - Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet.
- cloud ERP - Cloud ERP is a type of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software that runs on a provider's cloud computing platform, rather than on premises in an enterprise's own data center.
- cloud service provider (cloud provider) - A cloud service provider, or CSP, is a company that offers components of cloud computing -- typically, infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) or platform as a service (PaaS).
- cloud services - Cloud services is an umbrella term that may refer to a variety of resources provided over the internet, or to professional services that support the deployment of such cloud-based resources.
- cloud sourcing - Cloud sourcing is an arrangement in which a company pays a third-party cloud hosting provider to deliver and support IT services that could be provided in-house.
- CMO (chief marketing officer) - A CMO (chief marketing officer) is a C-level corporate executive responsible for activities in an organization that have to do with creating, communicating and delivering offerings that have value for customers, clients or business partners.
- collaboration - Collaboration is a joint effort of multiple individuals or work groups to accomplish a task or project.
- communication plan - A communication plan is a policy-driven approach to providing company stakeholders with certain information.
- competitive advantage - Competitive advantage is the favorable position an organization seeks in order to be more profitable than its rivals.
- competitive differentiation - Competitive differentiation is a strategic positioning tactic an organization can undertake to set its products, services and brands apart from those of its competitors.
- compliance audit - A compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organization's adherence to regulatory guidelines.
- conduct risk - Conduct risk is the prospect of financial loss to an organization that is caused by the actions of an organization's administrators and employees.
- confirmation bias - Confirmation bias is a cognitive error in which information that supports a pre-existing belief is assigned more value than other information.
- conjunction - A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases and clauses.
- consignment inventory - Consignment inventory is a supply chain model in which a product is sold by a retailer, but ownership is retained by the supplier until the product has been sold.
- consumerism - Consumerism is a cultural model that promotes the aquisition of goods, and especially the purchase of goods, as a vehicle for personal satisfaction and economic stimulation.
- content personalization - Content personalization is a branding and marketing strategy in which webpages, email and other forms of content are tailored to match the characteristics, preferences or behaviors of individual users.
- content services platform - A content services platform is cloud-based SaaS software that enables users to create, share, collaborate on and store text, audio and video content.
- contextual marketing - Contextual marketing is an online marketing strategy model in which people are served with targeted advertising based on their search terms or their recent browsing behavior.
- contingency plan - A contingency plan is a course of action designed to help an organization respond effectively to a significant future incident, event or situation that may or may not happen.
- contingent workforce - A contingent workforce is a labor pool whose members are hired by an organization on an on-demand basis.
- continuous performance management - Continuous performance management, in a human resource (HR) management context, is the supervision of an employee's performance through one-on-one discussions and ongoing feedback from supervisors during regularly scheduled check-ins.
- contract theory - Contract theory is the study of how people and organizations develop legal agreements in situations with uncertain conditions, unknown factors and information asymmetry.
- control framework - A control framework is a data structure that organizes and categorizes an organization’s internal controls, which are practices and procedures established to create business value and minimize risk.
- control loop - A control loop is a system made up of all the hardware components and software control functions needed for the measurement and adjustment of a variable that controls an individual process.
- control system - A control system is a set of mechanical or electronic devices that regulates other devices or systems by way of control loops.
- CONUS (continental United States) - Refers to the continental United States.
- cooperative (co-op) - A cooperative, often shortened to “co-op,” is a business that is owned and operated by and for the benefit of its members.
- coopetition (co-opetition) - Coopetition is a business strategy that uses insights gained from game theory to understand when it is better for competitors to work together.
- COPE (corporate-owned, personally enabled) - COPE (corporate-owned personally-enabled) is a business model in which an organization provides its employees with mobile computing devices and allows the employees to use them as if they were personally-owned notebook computers, tablets or smartphones.
- core competency (core competencies) - For any organization, its core competency refers to the capabilities, knowledge, skills and resources that constitute its 'defining strength.
- core HR (core human resources) - Core HR (core human resources) is an umbrella term that means the basic functions of an HR department; the basic data captured about employees; and the software used to manage basic HR processes.
- corporate account manager (CAM) - In the channel, a corporate account manager (CAM) is responsible for maintaining the relationship between the clients of a value-added reseller (VAR) and the VAR.
- corporate culture - Corporate culture is the collection of values, beliefs, ethics and attitudes that characterize an organization and guide its practices.
- corporate culture model - A corporate culture model is the organizing principle behind the values, beliefs and attitudes that characterize a company and guide its practices.
- corporate division - A corporate division, also known as a business division, is a discrete part of a company that may operate under the same name and legal responsibility or as a separate corporate and legal entity under another business name.
- corporate social responsibility (CSR) - Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a strategy undertaken by companies to not just grow profits, but also to take an active and positive social role in the world around them.
- corporate wellness coach (health coach) - A corporate wellness coach (health coach) is a professional who is brought into a corporate or office environment to help employees maintain and improve their health and wellness goals.
- COSO cube - The COSO cube is a diagram that shows the relationship among all parts of an internal control system.
- cost containment - Cost containment is a process of judiciously reducing costs in a business or limiting them to a constant level.
- cost management - Cost management is the process of planning and controlling the budget of a business.
- cost of goods sold (COGS) - Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the total of the costs directly attributable to producing things that can be sold.
- cost price - A cost price includes all outlays that are required for production, including property costs, materials, power, research and development, testing, worker wages and anything else that must be paid for.
- crisis management - Crisis management is the application of strategies designed to help an organization deal with a sudden and significant negative event.
- crisis management plan (CMP) - A crisis management plan (CMP) outlines how to respond to a critical situation that would negatively affect an organization's profitability, reputation or ability to operate.
- cross-docking - Cross-docking is the practice of unloading goods from inbound delivery vehicles and loading them directly onto outbound vehicles.
- cross-functional team - A cross-functional team is a workgroup made up of employees from different functional areas within an organization who collaborate to reach a stated objective.
- cross-media ownership - Media cross-ownership is a situation in which a single corporate entity owns multiple types of media companies.
- CSO (Chief Security Officer) - A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is a C-suite executive responsible for a company's physical and digital security.
- cultural fit - Cultural fit is the likelihood that a job candidate will be able to conform and adapt to the core values and collective behaviors that make up an organization.
- culture of failure (blameless culture) - A culture of failure is a set of shared values, goals and practices that encourages learning through experimentation.
- currency - Currency is anything that is generally accepted to have value as a medium of exchange so that it can be traded for goods and services.
- customer account record - A customer account record is the basic unit of information about a customer that resides in a CRM, or customer relationship management system.
- customer experience (CX) - Customer experience (CX) is the sum total of customers' perceptions and feelings resulting from interactions with a brand's products and services.
- customer health score - A customer health score is a value that indicates the long-term prospect for a customer to drop off or, conversely, to become a high-value, repeat customer through renewal or Cross-selling or up-selling strategies.
- customer journey map - A customer journey map is a visual representation of the stages a customer goes through when interacting with a company.
- customer lifecycle - In customer relationship management (CRM), customer lifecycle is a term used to describe the progression of steps a customer goes through when considering, purchasing, using and maintaining loyalty to a product or service.
- customer satisfaction (CSAT) - In customer relationship management, customer satisfaction (CSAT) is a measure of the degree to which a product or service meets customer expectations.
- customer segmentation - Customer segmentation is the practice of dividing a customer base into groups of individuals that have similar characteristics relevant to marketing, such as age, gender, interests and spending habits.
- CVO (Chief Visionary Officer) - The Chief Visionary Officer (CVO) is a newer title where the holder is expected to have a broad and comprehensive knowledge of all matters related to the business of the organization, as well as the vision required to steer its course into the future.
- cycle counting - Cycle counting is an inventory-control method that lets businesses conduct a regular count of several items in different areas in a warehouse, without constantly adding up the entire inventory.
- CYOD (choose your own device) - CYOD (choose your own device) is an employee provisioning model in which an organization allows people to select the mobile devices they would like, usually from a limited number of options.
- daily stand-up meeting - A daily stand-up meeting is a short organizational meeting that is held early each day.
- Data as a Service (DaaS) - Data as a Service (DaaS) is an information provision and distribution model in which data files (including text, images, sounds, and videos) are made available to customers over a network, typically the Internet.
- data broker (information broker) - A data broker, also called an information broker or information reseller, is a business that collects personal information about consumers and sells that information to other organizations.
- data currency (data as currency) - Data currency is monetary value assigned to data so that it can be used as the unit of exchange in a transaction either as the sole payment or in combination with money.
- data historian - A data historian is a software program that records the data created by processes running in a computer system.
- data modeling - Data modeling is the process of creating a simplified diagram of a software system and the data elements it contains, using text and symbols to represent the data and how it flows.
- data monetization - Data monetization is the act of measuring the economic benefit of corporate data.
- data point - A data point is a discrete unit of information.
- days inventory outstanding (DIO) - Days inventory outstanding (DOI) is the average number of days it takes for inventory to be sold.
- days sales outstanding (DSO) - Days sales outstanding (DSO) is the measurement of the average number of days it takes a business to collect payments after a sale has been made.
- deal registration - Deal registration is a common feature of vendors' channel partner programs in which a channel partner, such as a value-added reseller (VAR), informs the vendor about a sales lead.
- decision tree - A decision tree is a graph that uses a branching method to illustrate every possible output for a specific input.