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Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Terms related to business, including definitions about project management and words and phrases about human resources, finance and vertical industries.

FOU - IT

  • four eyes principle - The four eyes principle is a requirement that two individuals review and approve some action before it can be taken.
  • fractional CIO - A fractional CIO is a high-level consultant who specializes in aligning information technology (IT) with business goals.
  • framing effect - Framing effect is a form of cognitive bias which causes people to focus more on the positive or negative aspects of a decision, situation or information based on the way it is presented.
  • freemium - Freemium is a way of promoting services by offering the basic features at no cost, charging a premium only for supplemental features.
  • frictionless commerce - Frictionless commerce is a method of using data from devices, apps and websites to integrate buying opportunities as simply and seamlessly as possible into consumers’ everyday activities and natural environments.
  • Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) - Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is an advanced service in which third-party vendors store their products in Amazon’s fulfillment centers and the e-commerce giant picks, sorts, packs, ships, keeps records, and handles returns and refunds for these products.
  • fulfillment center - A fulfillment center is a warehouse where incoming orders are received, processed and filled.
  • G-code - G-code (also known as RS-274) is the name of the most prevalent programming language for computer numerical control (CNC) in computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM).
  • GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) - GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) is a collection of commonly followed accounting rules and standards for financial reporting.
  • gamification - Gamification is the application of game theory concepts and techniques to non-game activities.
  • GDSN (Global Data Synchronization Network) - GDSN (Global Data Synchronization Network) is an internet-based network that enables trading partners to exchange product-identification data in a standardized way in real time.
  • Genchi Genbutsu - Genchi Genbutsu is the Japanese principle of going to and directly observing a location and its conditions in order to understand and solve any problems faster and more effectively.
  • general ledger (GL) - A general ledger (GL) is a set of numbered accounts a business uses to keep track of its financial transactions and to prepare financial reports.
  • Generation Z - Generation Z is the demographic cohort following Generation Y -- which is more popularly known as the Millennial Generation.
  • geo-marketing - Geo-marketing is a tool that uses geographic, or location-based, information to help companies put together marketing strategies and campaigns.
  • ghost asset - A ghost asset is a fixed asset in a general ledger (GL) that cannot be accounted for because it is physically missing or otherwise rendered unusable.
  • gift economy - A gift economy is one in which services or goods are given without an agreement as to a suitable payment or trade to be made in return.
  • gig economy - A gig economy is a free market system in which temporary positions are common and organizations hire independent workers for short-term commitments.
  • globalization - Globalization is the process by which ideas, goods and services spread throughout the world.
  • GMP (good manufacturing practice) - A good manufacturing practice (GMP) is one that conforms to the guidelines set by the regulatory agencies that control authorization and licensing for the production and sale of food, beverages and active pharmaceutical products.
  • go-live (go live) - Go-live is the time at which something becomes available for use.
  • go-to-market strategy (GTM strategy) - A go-to-market strategy (GTM strategy) is an action plan that specifies how a company will reach target customers and achieve competitive advantage.
  • gold plating - Gold plating is the practice of making changes to a project that are outside of the original agreed-upon scope.
  • Google Trends - Google Trends is a free service provided by Google that displays how often specific keywords, subjects and phrases have been searched for on Google over a period of time.
  • GR/IR clearing accounts - A GR/IR (goods-receipt/invoice-receipt) clearing account is a bookkeeping device that can be used when goods arrive before the invoice is generated, or when an invoice arrives before the goods are delivered.
  • great recession (Great Recession) - Great recession is a label used by journalists and  economists to describe a severe, prolonged economic downturn.
  • green IT (green information technology) - Green IT (green information technology) is the practice of environmentally sustainable computing.
  • green procurement - Green procurement is a continuous commitment to start-to-finish process management with consideration for environmental impact in business activities used to meet needs for materials, goods, utilities and services.
  • greenwashing - Greenwashing is a term used to describe a false, misleading or untrue action or set of claims made by an organization about the positive impact that a company, product or service has on the environment.
  • gross revenue - Gross revenue is the total of all money generated by a business, without taking into account any part of that total that has been or will be used for expenses.
  • group think - Group think (also spelled groupthink) is a phenomenon that occurs when group's need for consensus supersedes the judgment of individual group members.
  • Groupon - Groupon is a marketing service that offers its subscribers daily discount coupons by email, Facebook and Twitter feeds.
  • growth potential - Growth potential is an organization's future ability to generate larger profits, expand its workforce and ramp up its production.
  • GS1 - GS1 is a global, not-for-profit association that maintains standards for barcodes and RFID tags and for supply chain messaging such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).
  • guaranteed income - Guaranteed income is an umbrella term for a number of models designed to deliver funds to a given population.
  • hard skills - Hard skills are specific abilities, or capabilities, that an individual can possess and demonstrate in a measured way.
  • hardware-as-a-service (in managed services) - Hardware-as-a-service (HaaS) is a procurement model that is similar to leasing or licensing in which hardware that belongs to a managed service provider (MSP) is installed at a customer's site and a service level agreement (SLA) defines the responsibilities of both parties.
  • Hawthorne effect - The Hawthorne effect is the modification of behavior by study participants in response to their knowledge that they are being observed or singled out for special treatment.
  • Heroku - Heroku is a cloud-based development platform as a service (PaaS) provider.
  • hierarchical corporate culture - A hierarchical corporate culture is an organizational model based on clearly defined corporate levels and structures.
  • HiPPO (highest paid person's opinion, highest paid person in the office) - HiPPOs (highest paid person's opinions) is a term used to describe an organization's reliance on executive instinct rather than data in the decision-making process.
  • holacracy - A holacracy is a governance structure characterized by a distribution of power among self-organizing groups, rather than the typical top-down hierarchical corporate culture model.
  • holistic (holistic technology) - Holistic (holistic technology) is a concept concerned with treatment of entire systems, rather than the analysis, treatment or segmentation of parts of those systems.
  • Hosted CRM - Hosted CRM is an arrangement in which a company outsources some or all of its customer relationship management (CRM) functions to an application service provider (ASP).
  • hosted services - Hosted services are applications, IT infrastructure components or functions that organizations access from external service providers, typically through an internet connection.
  • hot desking - Hot desking is a work space sharing model in which employees outnumber desks.
  • HP Channel Services Network (HP CSN) - HP Channel Services Network (HP CSN) is a Web-based management system and membership program for HP's authorized channel service partners.
  • HP Partner First Program (formerly HP PartnerOne program) - HP Partner First is a channel partner program that provides resources and benefits for value-added resellers (VARs), systems integrators (SIs), service providers, hosting providers, independent software vendors (ISVs), distributors and other businesses that want to collaborate with HP Inc.
  • HRIS (human resource information system) - A human resource information system (HRIS) is software that provides a centralized repository of employee master data that the human resource management (HRM) group needs for completing core human resource (core HR) processes.
  • HubSpot - HubSpot is a company that sells software designed for inbound marketing, including content management, search engine optimization and other tools.
  • human capital management (HCM) - Human capital management (HCM) is a comprehensive set of practices and tools used for recruiting, managing and developing employees.
  • human resource management (HRM) - Human resource management (HRM) is the practice of recruiting, hiring, deploying and managing an organization's employees.
  • Human Resources (HR) Generalist - A human resources (HR) generalist is an employee in the HR department who handles a wide variety of responsibilities.
  • human-centric BPM - Human-centric business process management is an approach to BPM  that considers human skills and activities first and uses automated functions to support them.
  • hurdle rate - A hurdle rate is the required rate of return above which an investment makes sense and below which it does not.
  • hybrid manufacturing - Hybrid manufacturing is a term that describes combining additive manufacturing and subtractive manufacturing in a single machine system.
  • ideation management - Ideation management refers to creating, gathering, analyzing, disseminating and executing on idea generation within the enterprise.
  • identity management (ID management) - Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring that individuals have the appropriate access to technology resources.
  • IFS AB - IFS AB (Industrial and Financial Systems) is an ERP software vendor that specializes in asset-intensive, project-centric industries, such as manufacturing and distribution.
  • implied consent - Implied consent is an assumption of permission to do something that is inferred from an individual's actions rather than explicitly provided.
  • inbound marketing - Inbound marketing is a strategy that focuses on attracting customers, or leads, via company-created Internet content, thereby having potential customers come to the company rather than marketers vying for their attention.
  • incremental innovation - Incremental innovation is the introduction of small improvements or upgrades to already existing products, services, processes or methods.
  • industrial automation - Industrial automation is the control of machinery and processes used in various industries by autonomous systems, which may involve robots or computer software.
  • Industry 4.0 - Industry 4.0, which refers to the fourth industrial revolution, is the cyber-physical transformation of manufacturing.
  • infonomics - Infonomics is a social science that involves studying the production and consumption of information and the transfer of money to produce, sell or obtain it.
  • information - Information is stimuli that has meaning in some context for its receiver.
  • Information Age - The Information Age refers to the idea that access to and the control of information is the defining characteristic of this current era in human civilization.
  • information asymmetry - Information asymmetry is an imbalance between the knowledge of relevant factors and details between two negotiating parties.
  • information governance - Information governance is a holistic approach to managing corporate information by implementing processes, roles, controls and metrics that treat information as a valuable business asset.
  • information lifecycle management (ILM) - Information lifecycle management (ILM) is a comprehensive approach to managing an organization's data and associated metadata, starting with its creation and acquisition through when it becomes obsolete and is deleted.
  • information rights management (IRM) - Information rights management (IRM) technologies help control, secure and manage content from unwanted access.
  • information technology (IT) director - An information technology (IT) director is the person in charge of technology within an organization.
  • inherent risk - Inherent risk is a category of threat that describes potential losses or pitfalls that exist before internal security controls or mitigating factors are implemented.
  • initial public offering (IPO) - An initial public offering (IPO) is the event when a privately held organization initially offers stock shares in the company on a public stock exchange.
  • innovation culture - Innovation culture is an environment that organizations cultivate in order to nurture new, creative thinking and its application.
  • innovation management - Innovation management is the process of managing an organization's innovation procedure, which helps increase competitive advantage and drives business growth.
  • innovation manager - An innovation manager fosters the development of new products, services and processes.
  • innovation process management (IPM) - Innovation process management (IPM) a systematic approach to nurturing the creative capabilities of employees and creating a workplace environment that encourages new ideas for workflows, methodologies, services or products.
  • insourcing - Insourcing is a business practice in which work that would otherwise have been contracted out is performed in house.
  • integrated accounting system - An integrated accounting system is a type of software that combines major financial accounting functions into one application.
  • intellectual property (IP) - Intellectual property (IP) is a term for any intangible asset -- something proprietary that doesn't exist as a physical object but has value.
  • intelligent transportation system (ITS) - Intelligent transportation system (ITS) is the application of sensing, analysis, control and communications technologies to ground transportation in order to improve safety, mobility and efficiency.
  • interim CIO (interim chief information officer) - An interim CIO is an experienced chief information officer employed by a company on a temporary basis to lead or transform its IT organization.
  • internal audit (IA) - An internal audit (IA) is an organizational initiative to monitor and analyze its own business operations in order to determine how well it conforms to a set of specific criteria.
  • internal control - An internal control is a business practice, policy or procedure that is established within an organization to create value or minimize risk.
  • internet metering - Internet metering is a service model in which an internet service provider (ISP) keeps track of bandwidth use and charges users accordingly.
  • intrapreneur (intrapreneurship) - Intrapreneurs are employees who use entrepreneurial skills and critical thinking to seek out initiatives that could benefit the organization financially.
  • inventory management - Inventory management is the supervision of noncapitalized assets -- or inventory -- and stock items.
  • inventory optimization - Inventory optimization (IO) is a strategy for balancing the amount of working capital that's tied up in inventory with service-level goals across multiple stock-keeping units (SKUs).
  • inventory turns (inventory turnover) - Inventory turns, also referred to as inventory turnover and inventory turnover ratio, are a popular measurement used in inventory management to assess operational and supply chain efficiency.
  • invitation to tender (ITT) - An invitation to tender (ITT) is the initial step in competitive tendering, in which suppliers and contractors are invited to provide offers for supply or service contracts.
  • IoT Cloud (Salesforce IoT Cloud) - IoT Cloud is a platform from Salesforce.
  • IQMS - IQMS introduced one of its newest services, WebIQ, in August 2016.
  • ISACA - ISACA is an independent, nonprofit, global association that engages in the development, adoption and use of globally accepted information system (IS) knowledge and practices.
SearchNetworking
  • network security

    Network security encompasses all the steps taken to protect the integrity of a computer network and the data within it.

  • cloud-native network function (CNF)

    A cloud-native network function (CNF) is a service that performs network duties in software, as opposed to purpose-built hardware.

  • microsegmentation

    Microsegmentation is a security technique that splits a network into definable zones and uses policies to dictate how data and ...

SearchSecurity
  • incident response

    Incident response is an organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a security breach or cyberattack, also ...

  • MICR (magnetic ink character recognition)

    MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) is a technology invented in the 1950s that's used to verify the legitimacy or ...

  • What is cybersecurity?

    Cybersecurity is the protection of internet-connected systems such as hardware, software and data from cyberthreats.

SearchCIO
  • privacy compliance

    Privacy compliance is a company's accordance with established personal information protection guidelines, specifications or ...

  • contingent workforce

    A contingent workforce is a labor pool whose members are hired by an organization on an on-demand basis.

  • product development (new product development -- NPD)

    Product development, also called new product management, is a series of steps that includes the conceptualization, design, ...

SearchHRSoftware
  • talent acquisition

    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

  • hybrid work model

    A hybrid work model is a workforce structure that includes employees who work remotely and those who work on site, in a company's...

SearchCustomerExperience
  • hockey stick growth

    Hockey stick growth is a growth pattern in a line chart that shows a sudden and extremely rapid growth after a long period of ...

  • Salesforce Trailhead

    Salesforce Trailhead is a series of online tutorials that coach beginner and intermediate developers who need to learn how to ...

  • Salesforce

    Salesforce, Inc. is a cloud computing and social enterprise software-as-a-service (SaaS) provider based in San Francisco.

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