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Internet applications

This glossary contains definitions related to Internet applications, including definitions about Software as a Service (SaaS) delivery models and words and phrases about web sites, e-commerce and cloud computing.

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  • .NET Framework - .NET Framework is a managed execution environment for Windows that allows software developers to create a software application in one programming language and be assured the app can work with code written in other languages.
  • 2D barcode (two-dimensional barcode) - A 2D (two-dimensional) barcode is a graphical image that stores information horizontally as one-dimensional barcodes do, as well as vertically.
  • 404 error - 404 is a status code that tells a web user that a requested page is not available.
  • access log - An access log is a list of all requests for individual files -- such as Hypertext Markup Language files, their embedded graphic images and other associated files that get transmitted -- that people or bots have made from a website.
  • access provider - An access provider is any organization that arranges for an individual or an organization to have access to the Internet.
  • Adobe Flash Player - Adobe Flash Player is software used to stream and view video, audio, multimedia and Rich Internet Applications on a computer or supported mobile device.
  • AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) - AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a technique aimed at creating better and faster interactive web apps by combining several programming tools including JavaScript, dynamic HTML (DHTML) and Extensible Markup Language (XML).
  • akamaize - For a Web site, to akamaize (pronounced AHK-uh-myez) is to accelerate the delivery of Web files by placing copies on servers closer to the user than the server that delivers the main file for a Web page.
  • alias - In general, as a noun, an alias (pronounced AY-lee-uhs) is an alternate name for someone or something.
  • Alphabet, Inc. - Alphabet, Inc.
  • AltaVista - AltaVista is an Internet search engine.
  • Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) - Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web-based service that allows businesses to run application programs in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud.
  • Amazon Lightsail - Amazon Lightsail is an Amazon cloud service that offers bundles of cloud compute power and memory for new or less experienced cloud users.
  • Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is a scalable, high-speed, web-based cloud storage service.
  • Android Factory Reset - Android Factory Reset is a feature that erases all device settings, user data, third-party applications, and associated application data from an Android device’s internal flash storage to return the device to the condition it was in when shipped from the factory.
  • Android for Work - Android for Work is a program for devices running on the Google Android mobile operating system that allows IT to manage and secure business applications on a work-specific profile.
  • Android Open Source Project (AOSP) - The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is an initiative created to guide development of the Android mobile platform.
  • Android Oreo - Android Oreo 8.
  • Android OS - Android OS is a Linux-based mobile operating system that primarily runs on smartphones and tablets.
  • Apache ZooKeeper - Apache ZooKeeper is an open source file application program interface (API) that allows distributed processes in large systems to synchronize with each other so that all clients making requests receive consistent data.
  • API gateway - An API gateway is a software pattern that sits in front of an application programming interface (API) or group of microservices, to facilitate requests and delivery of data and services.
  • API management - API management is the process by which an organization creates, oversees and controls application program interfaces (APIs) in a secure and scalable environment.
  • Apigee - Apigee, pronounced App-ih-gee, is an API gateway management tool offered by Google to exchange data across cloud services and applications.
  • APK file (Android Package Kit file format) - An APK (Android Package Kit) is the file format for applications used on the Android operating system.
  • application sandboxing - Application sandboxing, also called application containerization, is an approach to software development and management and mobile application management (MAM) that limits the environments in which certain code can execute.
  • application streaming - Application streaming is an on-demand software delivery model that takes advantage of the fact that most applications require only a small fraction of their total program code to run.
  • Army Knowledge Online (AKO) - Army Knowledge Online (AKO) is the United States Army intranet.
  • at sign (address sign or @) - On the Internet, @ (pronounced "at" or "at sign" or "address sign") is the symbol in an e-mail address that separates the name of the user from the user's Internet address, as in this hypothetical e-mail address example: [email protected]
  • augmented reality (AR) - Augmented reality (AR) is the integration of digital information with the user's environment in real time.
  • automatic vehicle locator (AVL) - An automatic vehicle locator (AVL) is a device that makes use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to enable a business or agency to remotely track the location of its vehicle fleet by using the Internet.
  • AWS certification - AWS certification is a level of Amazon Web Services cloud expertise that an IT professional obtains after passing one or more exams the public cloud provider offers.
  • B2B (business-to-business) - B2B (business-to-business), a type of electronic commerce (e-commerce), is the exchange of products, services or information between businesses, rather than between businesses and consumers (B2C).
  • Baidu - Baidu is a Chinese technology, internet search and internet services company.
  • Bayesian filter - A Bayesian filter is a program that uses Bayesian logic, also called Bayesian analysis, to evaluate the header and content of an incoming e-mail message and determine the probability that it constitutes spam.
  • BetterWhois - BetterWhois, named after the original whois, lets you look up registration information from all Internet domain name registrars at the same time.
  • bluesnarfing - Bluesnarfing is the theft of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection.
  • bot - A bot -- short for robot and also called an internet bot -- is a computer program that operates as an agent for a user or other program or to simulate a human activity.
  • bounce email (bounce mail) - Bounce e-mail (sometimes referred to as bounce mail) is electronic mail that is returned to the sender because it cannot be delivered for some reason.
  • Box (Box.net) - Box is an online file-sharing, storage and collaboration service provider that caters to individual users as well as businesses.
  • breadcrumb trail - On a Web site, a breadcrumb trail is a navigation tool that allows a user to see where the current page is in relation to the Web site's hierarchy.
  • browser extension - A browser extension is a small application that adds a capacity or functionality to a browser.
  • bulletin board system (BBS) - A bulletin board system (BBS) is a computer or an application dedicated to the sharing or exchange of messages or other files on a network.
  • buzz marketing - Buzz marketing is a viral marketing technique focused on maximizing the word-of-mouth potential of a campaign or product.
  • CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart) - A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response system designed to differentiate humans from robotic computer programs.
  • captive portal - A captive portal is a Web page that the user of a public-access network is obliged to view and interact with before access is granted.
  • carbon copy (cc) - In e-mail, a carbon copy (abbreviated "cc," and sometimes "fcc" for "first carbon copy") is a copy of a note sent to an addressee other than the main addressee.
  • challenge-response authentication - In computer security, challenge-response authentication is a set of protocols used to protect digital assets and services from unauthorized users, programs or activities.
  • channel partner portal - A channel partner portal is a web-based application that provides a vendor's established partners (usually distributors, resellers, service providers or other strategic partners) with access to deal registration, marketing resources, pricing and sales information for products and services, as well as technical details and support that are unavailable to other end users.
  • chat room - A chat room is a Web site, part of a Web site, or part of an online service such as America Online, that provides a venue for communities of users with a common interest to communicate in real time.
  • chatting - While the term chatting or chitchat refers in general to communication between two or more parties that can occur in person, in today's modern age, it can also occur over the internet via Short Message Service (SMS) text message and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) or, for example, through tools like Slack and Microsoft Teams and social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
  • Chromecast - Chromecast is a streaming media adapter from Google that allows users to play online content such as videos and music on a digital television.
  • churn rate - Churn rate is a measure of the number of customers or employees who leave a company during a given period.
  • click-to-talk (CTC) - Click-to-call (CTC), also called click-for-talk, is a technology that converts Web traffic into voice telephone connections using VoIP (Voice over IP).
  • clipboard hijack attack - A clipboard hijacking is an exploit in which the attacker gains control of the victim's clipboard and replaces its contents with their own data, such as a link to a malicious Web site.
  • cloud application performance management (cloud APM) - Cloud application performance management (cloud APM) is the process of monitoring resources that support software application performance in public cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud environments, and ultimately taking actions to resolve issues and maintain optimal performance.
  • cloud computing - Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet.
  • cloud-native application - A cloud-native application is a program that is designed for a cloud computing architecture.
  • CloudOn - CloudOn is a web-based collaboration tool that allows users to open, review and edit Microsoft Office documents on any computing device that has a Google Chrome or Apple Safari browser.
  • cloudware - Cloudware is software that runs on a remote Web server rather than on a mobile computing device, personal computer (PC) or traditional on-premises application server.
  • communication portal - A communication portal is a service that allows individuals, businesses, schools and government agencies to share information from diverse sources using unified communications (UC) media.
  • content delivery (content distribution, content distribution delivery, or content caching) - On the Internet, content delivery (sometimes called content distribution, content distribution delivery, or content caching) is the service of copying the pages of a Web site to geographically dispersed servers and, when a page is requested, dynamically identifying and serving page content from the closest server to the user, enabling faster delivery.
  • content filtering - Content filtering is a process involving the use of software or hardware to screen and/or restrict access to objectionable email, webpages, executables and other suspicious items.
  • content management system (CMS) - A content management system (CMS) is a software application or set of related programs that help create and manage digital content.
  • content personalization - Content personalization is a strategy that tailors webpages and other forms of content to individual users' characteristics or preferences.
  • contextual marketing - Contextual marketing is an online marketing strategy model in which people are served with targeted advertising based on their search terms or their recent browsing behavior.
  • corportal (corporate portal) - Corportals, short for corporate portals, are sometimes referred to as enterprise information portals and are used by corporations to build their internal web presence by leveraging a company's information resources.
  • crawler - A crawler is a program that visits Web sites and reads their pages and other information in order to create entries for a search engine index.
  • custom domain name suffix (custom TLD) - A custom domain name suffix, or custom TLD, is a top-level domain (TLD) name that belongs to a single organization.
  • customer self-service (CSS) - Customer self-service is a type of electronic support (e-support) that allows end users to access information and perform routine tasks without requiring the assistance of a human.
  • customer service and support - Customer service is the support that organizations offer to customers before and after purchasing a product or service.
  • customer-facing - Customer-facing is an adjective used to describe a hardware or software product, technology, or anything that the customer of a business deals with directly.
  • customer-managed relationship (CMR) - A customer-managed relationship (CMR) is a relationship in which a business uses a methodology, software, apps and perhaps internet capability to encourage the customer to control access to information and ordering.
  • cyberbullying - Cyberbullying is the use of cell phones, instant messaging, e-mail, chat rooms or social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter to harass, threaten or intimidate someone.
  • device-agnostic (device agnosticism) - Device agnosticism, or device-agnostic, is the capacity of a computing component to work with various systems without requiring any particular adaptations.
  • Dialogflow - Dialogflow is a natural language processing (NLP) platform that can be used to build conversational applications and experiences for a company’s customers in various languages and on multiple platforms.
  • digital cash (eCash) - Digital cash is a system of purchasing cash credits in relatively small amounts, storing the credits in your computer, and then spending them when making electronic purchases over the Internet.
  • digital library - A digital library is a collection of documents in organized electronic form, available on the Internet or on CD-ROM (compact-disk read-only memory) disks.
  • direct email marketing - Direct email marketing is a format for email-based campaigns in which standalone advertisements are sent to a targeted list of recipients.
  • disappearing e-mail - Disappearing e-mail is a message sent using a type of distribution management tool for e-mail.
  • discussion board (discussion group, message board, online forum) - A discussion board (known also by various other names such as discussion group, discussion forum, message board, and online forum) is a general term for any online "bulletin board" where you can leave and expect to see responses to messages you have left.
  • disposable email - What is a disposable email?Disposable email is a service that allows a registered user to receive email at a temporary address that expires after a certain time period elapses.
  • distance learning (e-learning) - Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication.
  • distributed search - Distributed search is a search engine model in which the tasks of Web crawling, indexing and query processing are distributed among multiple computers and networks.
  • distribution list - In email applications, a distribution list is a list of email addresses that can be mass mailed via automation without having to add members individually.
  • Drupal - Drupal is free, open source software that can be used by individuals or groups of users -- even those lacking technical skills -- to easily create and manage many types of Web sites.
  • dynamic URL - A dynamic URL is the address - or Uniform Resource Locator (URL) - of a Web page with content that depends on variable parameters that are provided to the server that delivers it.
  • e-commerce hosting - E-commerce hosting is a business in which a company provides other companies whatever they need to sell their products and services on the World Wide Web - including a Web server to serve a company's pages, possibly the Web site design (including catalog pages), and the special capabilities needed to accept, process, and confirm sales orders.
  • e-copy - An e-copy is an electronic copy of a document.
  • e-learning (online learning) - E-learning (sometimes called web-based training) is anywhere, any-time instruction delivered over the internet or a corporate intranet to browser-equipped learners.
  • e-mail reflector - An e-mail reflector is a program that acts as the forwarding broadcaster of e-mail messages to the names on a distribution list.
  • e-paper (radio paper or electronic paper) - E-paper (sometimes called radio paper or just electronic paper) is a portable, reusable storage and display medium that looks like paper but can be repeatedly written on (refreshed) - by electronic means - thousands or millions of times.
  • e-procurement (supplier exchange) - Electronic procurement, also known as e-procurement or supplier exchange, is the process of requisitioning, ordering and purchasing goods and services online.
  • e-ticket (electronic ticket) - An e-ticket (electronic ticket) is a paperless electronic document used for ticketing passengers, particularly in the commercial airline industry.
  • electronic ink - Electronic ink is a liquid substance, in development at MIT's Media Lab in partnership with a company called E Ink, that responds to electrical impulses to enable changeable text and image displays on a flexible surface.
  • electronic newspaper - An electronic newspaper is a self-contained, reusable, and refreshable version of a traditional newspaper that acquires and holds information electronically.
  • email - Email (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication.
  • email archiving - Email archiving is a systematic approach to saving and protecting the data contained in emails to enable fast retrieval.
  • email spam - Email spam, also known as junk email, refers to unsolicited email messages, usually sent in bulk to a large list of recipients.
  • email spoofing - Email spoofing is a form of cyber attack in which a hacker sends an email that has been manipulated to seem as if it originated from a trusted source.
  • emoticon - An emoticon is a short sequence of keyboard letters and symbols, usually emulating a facial expression, that complements a text message.
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