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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.
  • random numbers - As the term suggests, a random number is a number chosen by chance -- i.
  • rapid application development (RAD) - Rapid application development (RAD) is a model based on the concept that higher-quality products can be developed faster through more expedient processes, such as early prototyping, reusing software components and less formality in team communications.
  • rapid mobile app development (RMAD) - Rapid mobile application development (RMAD) uses low-code/no-code programming tools to expedite the application creation process for mobile platforms.
  • reactive programming - Reactive programming describes a design paradigm that relies on asynchronous programming logic to handle real-time updates to otherwise static content.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) - Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is an enterprise Linux operating system (OS) developed by Red Hat for the business market.
  • refactoring - Refactoring is the process of restructuring code, while not changing its original functionality.
  • register (processor register, CPU register) - A processor register is one of a small set of data holding places that are part of the computer processor.
  • regression testing - Regression testing is a type of software test that assesses if changes to an application, or other related software components, introduce defects.
  • release - A release is the distribution of the final version or the newest version of a software application.
  • release plan - In agile software development, a release plan is an evolving flowchart that describes which features will be delivered in upcoming releases.
  • Remote Method Invocation (RMI) - Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is an application programming interface (API) in the Java programming language and development environment.
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) - Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details.
  • reverse-engineering - Reverse-engineering is the act of dismantling an object to see how it works.
  • RFM analysis (recency, frequency, monetary) - RFM analysis is a marketing technique used to quantitatively rank and group customers based on the recency, frequency and monetary total of their recent transactions to identify the best customers and perform targeted marketing campaigns.
  • rounding error - Rounding error is the difference between a rounded-off numerical value and the actual value.
  • Ruby - Ruby is an open source, interpreted, object-oriented programming language created by Yukihiro Matsumoto, who chose the gemstone's name to suggest "a jewel of a language.
  • runtime - Runtime is a piece of code that implements portions of a programming language's execution model.
  • sandbox - A sandbox is an isolated testing environment that enables users to run programs or open files without affecting the application, system or platform on which they run.
  • SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) - SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) is a standard interface to the business object models in SAP products.
  • SAP Basis - Basis is a set of middleware programs and tools from SAP, the German company whose comprehensive R/3 product is used to help manage large corporations.
  • SAP Integration Server - SAP Integration Server is the central component of SAP XI (Exchange Infrastructure), the company's enterprise application integration (EAI) product.
  • SAP NetWeaver - SAP NetWeaver is a technology platform that allows organizations to integrate data, business processes, elements and more from a variety of sources into unified SAP environments.
  • script - In computer programming, a script is a program or sequence of instructions that is interpreted or carried out by another program rather than by the computer processor (as a compiled program is).
  • scripting language - A scripting language is a type of programming language in which the instructions are interpreted individually at runtime.
  • SDL (Specification and Description Language) - SDL (Specification and Description Language) is a program design and implementation language that is used to build real-time event-driven systems that involve parallel processing.
  • security by design - Security by design is an approach to software and hardware development that seeks to make systems as free of vulnerabilities and impervious to attack as possible through such measures as continuous testing, authentication safeguards and adherence to best practices.
  • semaphore - In programming, especially in Unix systems, semaphores are a technique for coordinating or synchronizing activities in which multiple processes compete for the same operating system resources.
  • semiotics - Semiotics is the study of the use of symbolic communication.
  • Service Data Objects (SDO) - Service Data Objects (SDO) is the name of a specification designed to streamline the processing of SOA (service-oriented architecture) data from diverse sources such as XML documents, relational databases and Web services.
  • SFX (special effects) - SFX, an abbreviation for special effects, is a software product that makes it easy to create certain kinds of hypertext links within a collection of information such as the description of a library collection.
  • smoke testing - Smoke testing, also called build verification testing or confidence testing, is a software testing method that is used to determine if a new software build is ready for the next testing phase.
  • snake case - Snake case is a naming convention where a developer replaces spaces between words with an underscore.
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) - SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a message protocol that enables the distributed elements of an application to communicate.
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software agent - A software agent is a persistent, goal-oriented computer program that reacts to its environment and runs without continuous direct supervision to perform some function for an end user or another program.
  • software development kit (SDK) - A software development toolkit (SDK) is a set of software tools and programs provided by hardware and software vendors that developers can use to build applications for specific platforms.
  • software documentation - In the software development process, software documentation is the information that describes the product to the people who develop, deploy and use it.
  • Software patch/fix - A software patch or fix is a quick-repair job for a piece of programming designed to resolve functionality issues, improve security or add new features.
  • software portability - Software portability is a characteristic attributed to a computer program if it can run with minimal rework on operating systems (OSes) other than the one for which it was created.
  • software testing - Software testing is the process of assessing the functionality of a software program.
  • source code - Source code is the fundamental component of a computer program that is created by a programmer, often written in the form of functions, descriptions, definitions, calls, methods and other operational statements.
  • spam filter - A spam filter is a program used to detect unsolicited, unwanted and virus-infected emails and prevent those messages from getting to a user's inbox.
  • spiral model - The spiral model is a systems development lifecycle (SDLC) method used for risk management that combines the iterative development process model with elements of the waterfall model.
  • SQL injection (SQLi) - A SQL injection (SQLi) is a technique that attackers use to gain unauthorized access to a web application database by adding a string of malicious code to a database query.
  • SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method) - SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method) is a widely used computer application development method in the United Kingdom, where its use is often specified as a requirement for government computing projects.
  • stack overflow - A stack overflow is a type of buffer overflow error that occurs when a computer program tries to use more memory space in the call stack than has been allocated to that stack.
  • stack pointer - A stack pointer is a small register that stores the memory address of the last data element added to the stack or, in some cases, the first available address in the stack.
  • state diagram (state machine diagram or statechart diagram) - A state diagram (also known as a state machine or statechart diagram) is an illustration of all the possible behavioral states a software system component may exhibit and the various state changes it's predicted to undergo over the course of its operations.
  • static testing - Static testing is a software testing method that examines a program -- along with any associated documents -- but does not require the program to be executed.
  • statistical mean, median, mode and range - The terms mean, median, mode, and range describe properties of statistical distributions.
  • strongly typed programming language - A strongly typed programming language is one in which each type of data, such as integers, characters, hexadecimals and packed decimals, is predefined as part of the programming language, and all constants or variables defined for a given program must be described with one of the data types.
  • structured programming (modular programming) - Structured programming, or modular programming, is a programming paradigm that facilitates the creation of programs with readable code and reusable components.
  • Sun Microsystems - Sun Microsystems (often just called "Sun"), the leading company in computers used as Web servers, also makes servers designed for use as engineering workstations, data storage products, and related software.
  • supervisor call (SVC) - In computers, especially IBM mainframes, a supervisor call (SVC) is a processor instruction that directs the processor to pass control of the computer to the operating system's supervisor program.
  • systems development life cycle (SDLC) - The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.
  • Systems Modeling Language (SysML) - Systems Modeling Language (SysML) helps teams design, develop, test and deploy complex physical systems.
  • template - A template is a form, mold or pattern used as a guide to make something.
  • test-driven development (TDD) - Test-driven development (TDD), also called test-driven design, is a method of implementing software programming that interlaces unit testing, programming and refactoring on source code.
  • thread - A thread is, fundamentally, a clear, well-defined theme, subject, topic or focus.
  • timebox - In agile software development, a timebox is a defined period of time during which a task must be accomplished.
  • timestamp - A timestamp is the current time of an event that a computer records.
  • Top searches of 2008 - What were people searching the WhatIs.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) - Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management framework based on the belief that an organization can build long-term success by having all its members -- from low-level workers to its highest-ranking executives -- focus on improving quality and, thus, delivering customer satisfaction.
  • truncation error - A truncation error is the difference between an actual and a truncated, or cut-off, value.
  • trunk-based development - In software development, a trunk is the base code into which all subsequent code is merged.
  • truth table - A truth table is a breakdown of all the possible truth values returned by a logical expression.
  • tuple - A tuple, pronounced TUH-pul, is an ordered and finite list of elements in various fields of interest, including computing.
  • Unicode - Unicode is a universal character encoding standard that is maintained by the Unicode Consortium, a standards organization founded in 1991 for the internationalization of software and services.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML) - Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard notation for modeling real-world objects as a first step in designing an object-oriented system.
  • use case - A use case is a methodology used in system analysis to identify, clarify and organize system requirements.
  • use case diagram (UML use case diagram) - A use case diagram is a way to summarize details of a system and the users within that system.
  • user acceptance testing (UAT) - User acceptance testing (UAT), also called application testing or end-user testing, is a phase of software development in which the software is tested in the real world by its intended audience.
  • user interface (UI) - The user interface (UI) is the point of human-computer interaction and communication in a device.
  • Uuencode (Uuencode/Uudecode) - Uuencode (also called Uuencode/Uudecode) is a popular utility for encoding and decoding files exchanged between users or systems in a network.
  • variable - In programming, a variable is a value that can change, depending on conditions or on information passed to the program.
  • VBScript - VBScript is an interpreted script language from Microsoft that is a subset of its Visual Basic programming language designed for interpretation by Microsoft's Internet Explorer (IE) web browser.
  • vertical bar - The vertical bar ( | ) is a symbol used in mathematics, computing and other areas to represent a specific type of logic or operation, depending on its context.
  • virtual appliance - Considered a software equivalent of a hardware device, a virtual appliance (VA) is a preconfigured software solution.
  • Visual Basic (VB) - Visual Basic (VB) is an event-driven programming language and environment from Microsoft that provides a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows programmers to modify code by simply dragging and dropping objects and defining their behavior and appearance.
  • Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET or VB .NET) - Visual Basic .
  • waterfall model - The waterfall model is a linear, sequential approach to the software development lifecycle (SDLC) that is popular in software engineering and product development.
  • web application (web app) - A web application (web app) is an application program that is stored on a remote server and delivered over the internet through a browser interface.
  • web application development - Web app development is the creation of application programs that reside on remote servers and are delivered to the user’s device over the Internet.
  • web services - Web services are a type of internet software that use standardized messaging protocols and are made available from an application service provider's web server for a client or other web-based programs to use.
  • web stack - A web stack is the collection of software used for web development that incorporates, at a minimum, an operating system (OS), a programming language, database software and a web server.
  • WebLogic - Oracle WebLogic Server is a leading e-commerce online transaction processing (OLTP) platform, developed to connect users in distributed computing production environments and to facilitate the integration of mainframe applications with distributed corporate data and applications.
  • What is DevOps? The ultimate guide - The word 'DevOps' is a combination of the terms 'development' and 'operations,' meant to represent a collaborative or shared approach to the tasks performed by a company's application development and IT operations teams.
  • What is machine learning and how does it work? In-depth guide - Machine learning (ML) is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) focused on building computer systems that learn from data.
  • What is PowerShell and how to use it: The ultimate tutorial - PowerShell is an object-oriented automation engine and scripting language with an interactive command-line shell that Microsoft developed to help IT professionals configure systems and automate administrative tasks.
  • What is server virtualization? The ultimate guide - Server virtualization is a process that creates and abstracts multiple virtual instances on a single server.
  • widget - In computing, a widget is an element of a graphical user interface that displays information or provides a specific way for a user to interact with the operating system (OS) or an application.
  • wiki - A wiki is a web-based collaborative platform that enables users to store, create and modify content in an organized manner.
  • wildcard character - A wildcard character is a special character that represents one or more other characters.
  • word (in computing) - In computer architecture, a word is a unit of data of a defined bit length that can be addressed and moved between storage and the computer processor.
  • write once, run anywhere (WORA) - Write once, run anywhere (WORA) is a term that refers to a particular program's supposed ability to run on all common OSs (operating systems).
  • XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) - XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) is a family of standards that specifies how to define Extensible Markup Language (XML) document transformation and presentation.
  • YAGNI principle (You Aren't Gonna Need It) - YAGNI principle ("You Aren't Gonna Need It") is a practice in software development which states that features should only be added when required.
  • yak shaving - Yak shaving is programming lingo for the seemingly endless series of small tasks that have to be completed before the next step in a project can move forward.
  • YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) - YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a data serialization language used as the input format for diverse software applications.
Networking
  • local area network (LAN)

    A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and peripheral devices that are connected together within a distinct ...

  • TCP/IP

    TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect ...

  • firewall as a service (FWaaS)

    Firewall as a service (FWaaS), also known as a cloud firewall, is a service that provides cloud-based network traffic analysis ...

Security
  • identity management (ID management)

    Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to ...

  • fraud detection

    Fraud detection is a set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses.

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

CIO
  • project scope

    Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, ...

  • core competencies

    For any organization, its core competencies refer to the capabilities, knowledge, skills and resources that constitute its '...

  • change management

    Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes...

HRSoftware
  • recruitment management system (RMS)

    A recruitment management system (RMS) is a set of tools designed to manage the employee recruiting and hiring process. It might ...

  • core HR (core human resources)

    Core HR (core human resources) is an umbrella term that refers to the basic tasks and functions of an HR department as it manages...

  • HR service delivery

    HR service delivery is a term used to explain how an organization's human resources department offers services to and interacts ...

Customer Experience
  • martech (marketing technology)

    Martech (marketing technology) refers to the integration of software tools, platforms, and applications designed to streamline ...

  • transactional marketing

    Transactional marketing is a business strategy that focuses on single, point-of-sale transactions.

  • customer profiling

    Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by ...

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