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Programming

Definitions related to software programming, including tech terms about programming languages and words and phrases about software design, coding, testing and debugging.

PER - TRU

  • performance testing - Performance testing is a testing measure that evaluates the speed, responsiveness and stability of a computer, network, software program or device under a workload.
  • Perl - Perl is a family of script programming languages that is similar in syntax to the C language.
  • PERT chart - A PERT chart, sometimes called a PERT diagram, is a project management tool used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a project.
  • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) - PHP is a script language and interpreter that is freely available and used primarily on Linux Web servers.
  • pigs and chickens - Pigs and chickens is an analogy used in the Scrum software development model to define the type of role an attendee can play at a daily scrum meeting.
  • pipe - In computer programming, especially in Unix operating systems (OSes), a pipe is a technique for passing information from one program process or command to another.
  • PL/SQL (procedural language extension to Structured Query Language) - In Oracle database management, PL/SQL is a procedural language extension to Structured Query Language (SQL).
  • platform - In IT, a platform is any hardware or software used to host an application or service.
  • polyglot programming - Polyglot programming is the practice of writing code in multiple languages to capture additional functionality and efficiency not available in a single language.
  • polymorphism - In object-oriented programming, polymorphism (from the Greek meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form.
  • polynomial interpolation - Polynomial interpolation is a method of estimating values between known data points.
  • portability - Portability is a characteristic attributed to a computer program if it can be used in an operating systems other than the one in which it was created without requiring major rework.
  • POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) - POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) is a set of standard operating system interfaces based on the Unix operating system.
  • Postscript - Postscript is a programming language that describes the appearance of a printed page.
  • PowerShell - PowerShell is an object-oriented automation engine and scripting language with an interactive command-line shell that Microsoft developed to help IT professionals configure systems and automate administrative tasks.
  • prettyprint - Prettyprint is the process of converting and presenting source code or other objects in a legible and attractive way.
  • primitive - In computer programming, a primitive (pronounced PRIH-muh-teev) is a basic interface or segment of code that can be used to build more sophisticated program elements or interfaces.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP) is a concept in computer security that limits users' access rights to only what are strictly required to do their jobs.
  • problem program - Now seldom used, the term problem program is used to distinguish a computer program that directly supports a user application from an operating system, a utility, or any other underlying support programming.
  • product backlog grooming - Product backlog grooming is an Agile software development process in which the development team revisits a pre-defined product backlog, working with stakeholders to prioritize and break the backlog list into user stories for future use.
  • product owner - A product owner is a role on a Scrum team that is accountable for the project's outcome.
  • product-agnostic - Product-agnostic is a description of something that is not associated with a particular commercial product -- such as a specific device or application -- or something that is interoperable with all products of a given type.
  • program - In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform.
  • program counter - A program counter is a register in a computer processor that contains the address (location) of the instruction being executed at the current time.
  • project management - Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to guide a project from conception through completion.
  • Project planning: What is it and 5 steps to create a plan - Project planning is a discipline addressing how to complete a project in a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages and designated resources.
  • protected mode - Protected mode is a mode of program operation in a computer with an Intel-based microprocessor in which the program is restricted to addressing a specific contiguous area of 640 kilobytes.
  • prototype - In software development, a prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system, usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process.
  • pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) - A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a program written for, and used in, probability and statistics applications when large quantities of random digits are needed.
  • pseudocode - Pseudocode (pronounced SOO-doh-kohd) is a detailed yet readable description of what a computer program or algorithm must do, expressed in a formally-styled natural language rather than in a programming language.
  • Python - Python is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted object-oriented programming language.
  • quality assurance (QA) - Quality assurance (QA) is any systematic process of determining whether a product or service meets specified requirements.
  • race condition - A race condition is an undesirable situation that occurs when a device or system attempts to perform two or more operations at the same time, but because of the nature of the device or system, the operations must be done in the proper sequence to be done correctly.
  • random numbers - As the term suggests, a random number is a number chosen by chance -- i.
  • rapid application development (RAD) - Rapid application development (RAD) is a model based on the concept that higher-quality products can be developed faster through more expedient processes, such as early prototyping, reusing software components and less formality in team communications.
  • rapid mobile app development (RMAD) - Rapid mobile application development (RMAD) uses low-code/no-code programming tools to expedite the application creation process for mobile platforms.
  • reactive programming - Reactive programming describes a design paradigm that relies on asynchronous programming logic to handle real-time updates to otherwise static content.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) - Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is an enterprise Linux operating system (OS) developed by Red Hat for the business market.
  • refactoring - Refactoring is the process of restructuring code, while not changing its original functionality.
  • register (processor register, CPU register) - A processor register is one of a small set of data holding places that are part of the computer processor.
  • regression testing - Regression testing is a type of software test that assesses if changes to an application, or other related software components, introduce defects.
  • release - A release is the distribution of the final version or the newest version of a software application.
  • release plan - In agile software development, a release plan is an evolving flowchart that describes which features will be delivered in upcoming releases.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • Remote Method Invocation (RMI) - RMI (Remote Method Invocation) is a way that a programmer, using the Java programming language and development environment, can write object-oriented programming in which objects on different computers can interact in a distributed network.
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) - Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details.
  • reverse-engineering - Reverse-engineering is the act of dismantling an object to see how it works.
  • RFM analysis (recency, frequency, monetary) - RFM analysis is a marketing technique used to quantitatively rank and group customers based on the recency, frequency and monetary total of their recent transactions to identify the best customers and perform targeted marketing campaigns.
  • rounding error - Rounding error is the difference between a rounded-off numerical value and the actual value.
  • Ruby - Ruby is an open source, interpreted, object-oriented programming language created by Yukihiro Matsumoto, who chose the gemstone's name to suggest "a jewel of a language.
  • runtime - Runtime is a piece of code that implements portions of a programming language's execution model.
  • sandbox (software testing and security) - A sandbox is an isolated testing environment that enables users to run programs or open files without affecting the application, system or platform on which they run.
  • SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) - SAP BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) is a standard interface to the business object models in SAP products.
  • SAP Basis - Basis is a set of middleware programs and tools from SAP, the German company whose comprehensive R/3 product is used to help manage large corporations.
  • SAP Integration Server - SAP Integration Server is the central component of SAP XI (Exchange Infrastructure), the company's enterprise application integration (EAI) product.
  • SAP NetWeaver - SAP NetWeaver is a technology platform that allows organizations to integrate data, business processes, elements and more from a variety of sources into unified SAP environments.
  • script - In computer programming, a script is a program or sequence of instructions that is interpreted or carried out by another program rather than by the computer processor (as a compiled program is).
  • scripting language - A scripting language is a form of programming language that is usually interpreted rather than compiled.
  • SDL (Specification and Description Language) - SDL (Specification and Description Language) is a program design and implementation language that is used to build real-time event-driven systems that involve parallel processing.
  • security by design - Security by design is an approach to software and hardware development that seeks to make systems as free of vulnerabilities and impervious to attack as possible through such measures as continuous testing, authentication safeguards and adherence to best practices.
  • semaphore - In programming, especially in Unix systems, semaphores are a technique for coordinating or synchronizing activities in which multiple processes compete for the same operating system resources.
  • semiotics - Semiotics is the study of the use of symbolic communication.
  • Service Data Objects (SDO) - Service Data Objects (SDO) is the name of a specification designed to streamline the processing of SOA (service-oriented architecture) data from diverse sources such as XML documents, relational databases and Web services.
  • SFX (special effects) - SFX, an abbreviation for special effects, is a software product that makes it easy to create certain kinds of hypertext links within a collection of information such as the description of a library collection.
  • smoke testing - Smoke testing, also called build verification testing or build acceptance testing, is nonexhaustive software analysis that ascertains that the most crucial functions of a program work but does not delve into finer details.
  • Snake case - Snake case is a naming convention where a developer replaces spaces between words with an underscore.
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) - SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a message protocol that enables the distributed elements of an application to communicate.
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software agent - A software agent is a persistent, goal-oriented computer program that reacts to its environment and runs without continuous direct supervision to perform some function for an end user or another program.
  • software development - Software development is the body of processes involved in creating software programs, embodying all the stages throughout the systems development life cycle (SDLC).
  • software development kit (SDK) - A software development toolkit (SDK) is a set of software tools and programs provided by hardware and software vendors that developers can use to build applications for specific platforms.
  • software documentation - In the software development process, software documentation is the information that describes the product to the people who develop, deploy and use it.
  • Software patch/fix - A software patch or fix is a quick-repair job for a piece of programming designed to resolve functionality issues, improve security or add new features.
  • software testing - Software testing is the process of assessing the functionality of a software program.
  • sorting algorithm - A sorting algorithm is a method for reorganizing a large number of items into a specific order, such as alphabetical, highest-to-lowest value or shortest-to-longest distance.
  • source code - Source code is the fundamental component of a computer program that is created by a programmer, often written in the form of functions, descriptions, definitions, calls, methods and other operational statements.
  • spam filter - A spam filter is a program used to detect unsolicited, unwanted and virus-infected emails and prevent those messages from getting to a user's inbox.
  • spiral model - The spiral model is a systems development lifecycle (SDLC) method used for risk management that combines the iterative development process model with elements of the waterfall model.
  • SQL injection - A SQL injection is a technique that attackers use to gain unauthorized access to a web application database by adding a string of malicious code to a database query.
  • SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method) - SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method) is a widely used computer application development method in the United Kingdom, where its use is often specified as a requirement for government computing projects.
  • stack overflow - A stack overflow is a type of buffer overflow error that occurs when a computer program tries to use more memory space in the call stack than has been allocated to that stack.
  • stack pointer - A stack pointer is a small register that stores the memory address of the last data element added to the stack or, in some cases, the first available address in the stack.
  • state diagram (state machine diagram or statechart diagram) - A state diagram, also known as a state machine diagram or statechart diagram, is an illustration of the states an object can attain as well as the transitions between those states in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).
  • static testing - Static testing is a software testing method that examines a program -- along with any associated documents -- but does not require the program to be executed.
  • statistical mean, median, mode and range - The terms mean, median, mode, and range describe properties of statistical distributions.
  • straw man - In general, a straw man is an object, document, person, or argument that temporarily stands in for and is intended to be "knocked down" by something more substantial.
  • strongly typed programming language - A strongly typed programming language is one in which each type of data, such as integers, characters, hexadecimals and packed decimals, is predefined as part of the programming language, and all constants or variables defined for a given program must be described with one of the data types.
  • structured programming (modular programming) - Structured programming (sometimes known as modular programming) is a programming paradigm that facilitates the creation of programs with readable code and reusable components.
  • Sun Microsystems - Sun Microsystems (often just called "Sun"), the leading company in computers used as Web servers, also makes servers designed for use as engineering workstations, data storage products, and related software.
  • supervisor call (SVC) - In computers, especially IBM mainframes, a supervisor call (SVC) is a processor instruction that directs the processor to pass control of the computer to the operating system's supervisor program.
  • syntax - Syntax is the grammar, structure, or order of the elements in a language statement.
  • systems development life cycle (SDLC) - The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.
  • template - A template is a form, mold or pattern used as a guide to make something.
  • test-driven development (TDD) - Test-driven development (TDD), also called test-driven design, is a method of implementing software programming that interlaces unit testing, programming and refactoring on source code.
  • thread - On the Internet in Usenet newsgroups and similar forums, a thread is a sequence of responses to an initial message posting.
  • timebox - In agile software development, a timebox is a defined period of time during which a task must be accomplished.
  • timestamp - A timestamp is the current time of an event that a computer records.
  • Top searches of 2008 - What were people searching the WhatIs.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) - Total Quality Management is a management framework based on the belief that an organization can build long-term success by having all its members, from low-level workers to its highest ranking executives, focus on quality improvement and, thus, delivering customer satisfaction.
  • transaction - In computer programming, a transaction usually means a sequence of information exchange and related work (such as database updating) that is treated as a unit for the purposes of satisfying a request and for ensuring database integrity.
Networking
  • network management system

    A network management system, or NMS, is an application or set of applications that lets network engineers manage a network's ...

  • host (in computing)

    A host is a computer or other device that communicates with other hosts on a network.

  • Network as a Service (NaaS)

    Network as a service, or NaaS, is a business model for delivering enterprise WAN services virtually on a subscription basis.

Security
  • WebAuthn API

    The Web Authentication API (WebAuthn API) is a credential management application program interface (API) that lets web ...

  • Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS)

    The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a public framework for rating the severity of security vulnerabilities in ...

  • Dridex malware

    Dridex is a form of malware that targets victims' banking information, with the main goal of stealing online account credentials ...

CIO
  • audit program (audit plan)

    An audit program, also called an audit plan, is an action plan that documents what procedures an auditor will follow to validate ...

  • blockchain decentralization

    Decentralization is the distribution of functions, control and information instead of being centralized in a single entity.

  • outsourcing

    Outsourcing is a business practice in which a company hires a third party to perform tasks, handle operations or provide services...

HRSoftware
  • team collaboration

    Team collaboration is a communication and project management approach that emphasizes teamwork, innovative thinking and equal ...

  • employee self-service (ESS)

    Employee self-service (ESS) is a widely used human resources technology that enables employees to perform many job-related ...

  • learning experience platform (LXP)

    A learning experience platform (LXP) is an AI-driven peer learning experience platform delivered using software as a service (...

Customer Experience
  • market segmentation

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that uses well-defined criteria to divide a brand's total addressable market share ...

  • sales pipeline

    A sales pipeline is a visual representation of sales prospects and where they are in the purchasing process.

  • market basket analysis

    Market basket analysis is a data mining technique used by retailers to increase sales by better understanding customer purchasing...

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