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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.
  • job step - In certain computer operating systems, a job step is part of a job, a unit of work that a computer operator (or a program called a job scheduler) gives to the operating system.
  • K-12 - K-12, a term used in education and educational technology in the United States, Canada and some other countries, is a short form for the publicly supported school grades prior to college.
  • Kbps (kilobits per second) - In the U.S.
  • kelvin (K) - The kelvin (abbreviation K), less commonly called the degree Kelvin (symbol, o K), is the Standard International (SI) unit of thermodynamic temperature.
  • kinetic energy - Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, observable as the movement of an object or subatomic particle.
  • knowledge base - In general, a knowledge base is a centralized repository of information.
  • lambda - Lambda, the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, is used as both a symbol and a concept in various fields of science, mathematics and computing.
  • laser - A laser is a coherent and focused beam of photons; coherent, in this context, means that it is all one wavelength, unlike ordinary light which showers on us in many wavelengths.
  • latitude and longitude - Latitude and longitude are parameters or coordinates that help determine the location of any place on Earth.
  • lean manufacturing (lean production) - Lean manufacturing is a methodology that focuses on minimizing waste within manufacturing systems while simultaneously maximizing productivity.
  • lights-out management (LOM) - Lights-out management (LOM) is a form of out-of-band management.
  • line of sight (LOS) - Line of sight (LOS) is the imaginary line between an observer and the target.
  • linearity - Linearity is the behavior of a circuit, particularly an amplifier, in which the output signal strength varies in direct proportion to the input signal strength.
  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute network traffic across a pool of servers known as a server farm.
  • localization - Localization is the process of adapting and customizing a product to meet the needs of a specific market, as identified by its language, culture, expectations, local standards and legal requirements.
  • logical block addressing (LBA) - Logical block addressing (LBA) is a technique to specify the addresses of blocks of data on a storage device, such as a hard disk.
  • logical equivalence - Logical equivalence is the condition of equality that exists between two statements or sentences in propositional logic or Boolean algebra.
  • logical implication - Logical implication is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences.
  • logical OR symbol - In mathematics, the logical OR symbol is a Boolean function that is positioned between two statements to indicate an inclusive disjunction between them.
  • logon (or login) - In computing, a logon is a procedure that enables an entity to access a secure system such as an operating system, application, service, website or other resource.
  • longitudinal time code (LTC) - Longitidinal time code (LTC) is a timing signal that is part of an audio tape recording.
  • lossless and lossy compression - Lossless and lossy file compression describe whether all original data can be recovered when the file is uncompressed.
  • lowerCamelCase - A part of CamelCase, lowerCamelCase is a naming convention in which a name contains multiple words that are joined together as a single word.
  • Luddite - A Luddite is a person resistant to increased industrialization or new technologies, especially computers.
  • LZW compression - LZW compression is a method to reduce the size of Tag Image File Format (TIFF) or Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) files.
  • m-commerce (mobile commerce) - M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • magnetic stripe reader (magstripe reader) - A magnetic stripe reader, also called a magstripe reader, is a hardware device that reads the information encoded in the magnetic stripe located on the back of a plastic badge.
  • management information systems (MIS) - Management information systems (MIS) is a department within an enterprise responsible for controlling the hardware and software systems that the organization uses to make business-critical decisions.
  • marcom (or marcomm) - Marcom (sometimes spelled 'marcomm') is an abbreviation for 'marketing communications.
  • Master Boot Record (MBR) - The Master Boot Record (MBR) is the information in the first sector of a hard disk or a removable drive.
  • Mathematical symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent and how they are used.
  • matter - Matter is a substance made up of various types of particles that occupies physical space and has inertia.
  • mean time to innocence - Mean time to innocence is the average elapsed time between when a system problem is detected and any given team's ability to say the team or part of its system is not the root cause of the problem.
  • mebibyte (MiB) - A mebibyte (MiB) is a unit of measurement used in computer data storage.
  • megabits per second (Mbps) - Megabits per second (Mbps) are units of measurement for network bandwidth and throughput.
  • megabyte (MB) - A megabyte is a unit of data capacity that is equal to 1,000,000 bytes in decimal notation (base 10) or 1,048,576 bytes in binary notation (base 2).
  • memory - Memory is the electronic holding place for the instructions and data a computer needs to reach quickly.
  • memory dump - A memory dump is the process of taking all information content in RAM and writing it to a storage drive as a memory dump file (*.
  • memory management - Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating a computer's main memory.
  • metered services (pay-per-use) - Metered services (also called pay-per-use) are any type of payment structure in which a customer has access to potentially unlimited resources but only pays for what they actually use.
  • microsecond - A microsecond (us or Greek letter mu plus s) is one millionth (10 -6) of a second.
  • Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) - Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) is a Remote Desktop Services role in some versions of the Windows Server OS.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that bridges the gap between applications and operating systems by providing a method for communication and data management.
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is a standard to transmit and store music, originally designed for digital music synthesizers.
  • millimeter (mm, millimetre) - A millimeter (abbreviated as mm and sometimes spelled as millimetre) is a small unit of length/distance in the metric system, one-thousandth of a meter (which is similar in length to a yard in the Imperial system of measurement).
  • mobile device - A mobile device is essentially a portable, handheld computer that enables users to access information, perform tasks and connect with other people and devices.
  • modeling and simulation (M&S) - Modeling and simulation (M&S) is the use of a physical or logical representation of a given system to generate data and help determine decisions or make predictions about the system.
  • mole per meter cubed (Avogadro constant) - The mole per meter cubed (mol / m 3) is the International Unit of amount-of-substance concentration.
  • molecule - A molecule is two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds, which form the smallest unit of a substance that retains the composition and properties of that substance.
  • most significant bit (MSB) - The most significant bit (MSB) is the bit in a multiple-bit binary number with the largest value.
  • motherboard - A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer.
  • MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3) - MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3) is a method to compress and store audio.
  • mu - The lowercase Greek letter µ (pronounced mu) generally represents the prefix multiplier 0.
  • multicore processor - A multicore processor is an integrated circuit that has two or more processors attached for enhanced performance and reduced power consumption.
  • multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the utilization of two or more central processing units (CPUs) in a single computer system.
  • NACK (NAK, negative acknowledgment, not acknowledged) - NACK, or NAK, an abbreviation for negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged, is a signal used by computers or other devices to indicate that data transmitted over a network was received with errors or was otherwise unreadable.
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanosecond (ns or nsec) - A nanosecond (ns or nsec) is one-billionth (10-9) of a second.
  • native app - A native application is a software program developers build for use on a particular platform or device.
  • native code - Native code is binary data compiled to run on a processor, such as an Intel x86-class processor.
  • nearline storage - Nearline storage is the on-site storage of data on removable media.
  • nearshore outsourcing - Nearshore outsourcing is the practice of getting work done or services performed by people in neighboring countries rather than an organization's country.
  • network availability - Network availability is the amount of uptime in a network system over a specific time interval.
  • network protocol - A network protocol is a set of established rules that specify how to format, send and receive data so that computer network endpoints, including computers, servers, routers and virtual machines, can communicate despite differences in their underlying infrastructures, designs or standards.
  • neuromarketing - Neuromarketing is the study of how people's brains respond to advertising and other brand-related messages by scientifically monitoring brainwave activity, eye tracking and skin response.
  • nibble - In computing and digital technology, a nibble is four consecutive binary digits or half of an 8-bit byte.
  • nil - In general use, nil (a contraction of Latin "nihil") means "nothing" or the absence of something.
  • null set - In mathematical sets, a null set is a set that does not contain any values or elements.
  • OEM (original equipment manufacturer) - OEM, or original equipment manufacturer, is a broad term that describes a web of relationships among IT hardware vendors, hardware component makers, software vendors and channel partners such as resellers and distributors.
  • ohnosecond - An ohnosecond is that very short moment in time during which you realize that you have pressed the wrong key and deleted hours, days, or weeks of work.
  • on-demand computing (ODC) - On-demand computing (ODC) is a delivery model in which computing resources are made available to the user as needed.
  • onshore outsourcing (domestic outsourcing) - Onshore outsourcing, also known as domestic outsourcing, is the obtaining of services from someone outside a company but within the same country.
  • open system - In computing, an open system is a platform that can be modified and extended and has freely available documentation.
  • operand - In computing and mathematics, an operand is an object that is operated on by some type of operator.
  • operation (computing) - An operation, in computing, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
  • operations research (OR) - Operations research (OR) is an analytical method of problem-solving and decision-making that is useful in the management of organizations.
  • outsourcing - Outsourcing is a business practice in which a company hires a third party to perform tasks, handle operations or provide services for the company.
  • pagefile - In storage, a pagefile is a reserved portion of a hard disk that is used as an extension of random access memory (RAM) for data in RAM that hasn't been used recently.
  • parallel processing - Parallel processing is a method in computing of running two or more processors (CPUs) to handle separate parts of an overall task.
  • parity - Parity is a method of detecting errors in data transmissions between computers, while parity bit and parity checking are used in RAID technology to guard against data loss.
  • pascal - The pascal (Pa) is the unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI).
  • patch catalog - A patch catalog is a repository of data associated with software patches.
  • PC card - A PC card, also known as a PCMCIA card, is a credit card-sized memory or input/output (I/O) device that fits into a PC, usually a laptop.
  • personality profile - A personality profile is a knowledge management tool used to provide an evaluation of an employee's personal attributes, values and life skills in an effort to maximize his or her job performance and contribution to the company.
  • pervasive computing (ubiquitous computing) - Pervasive computing, also called ubiquitous computing, is the growing trend of embedding computational capability (generally in the form of microprocessors) into everyday objects to make them effectively communicate and perform useful tasks in a way that minimizes the end user's need to interact with computers as computers.
  • petaflop - A petaflop is a measure of a computer's processing speed and can be expressed as a quadrillion (thousand trillion) floating point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent websites without their knowledge or consent.
  • phenomenon - A phenomenon, in a scientific context, is something that is observed to occur or to exist.
  • physical security - Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware, software, networks and data from physical actions and events that could cause serious loss or damage to an enterprise, agency or institution.
  • pipelining - Pipelining is the process of storing and prioritizing computer instructions that the processor executes.
  • pixel - The pixel -- a word invented from picture element -- is the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image.
  • Planck's constant - Planck's constant, symbolized as h, is a fundamental universal constant that defines the quantum nature of energy and relates the energy of a photon to its frequency.
  • portal - Portal is a term, generally synonymous with gateway, for a World Wide Web site that is or proposes to be a major starting site for users when they get connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor site.
  • POST (Power-On Self-Test) - A Power-On Self-Test (POST) is an operation initiated by a computer after it has been turned on but before it boots up the OS.
  • printed circuit board (PCB) - A printed circuit board (PCB) is a structure for assembling electronic components and their connections into a unified circuit that allows electrical current to pass between components.
  • problem program - Now seldom used, the term problem program is used to distinguish a computer program that directly supports a user application from an operating system, a utility, or any other underlying support programming.
  • process hollowing - Process hollowing is a security exploit in which an attacker removes code in an executable file and replaces it with malicious code.
  • program - In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform.
  • project management - Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to guide a project from conception through completion.
Networking
  • NBASE-T Ethernet

    NBASE-T Ethernet is an IEEE standard and Ethernet-signaling technology that enables existing twisted-pair copper cabling to ...

  • SD-WAN security

    SD-WAN security refers to the practices, protocols and technologies protecting data and resources transmitted across ...

  • net neutrality

    Net neutrality is the concept of an open, equal internet for everyone, regardless of content consumed or the device, application ...

Security
  • privacy impact assessment (PIA)

    A privacy impact assessment (PIA) is a method for identifying and assessing privacy risks throughout the development lifecycle of...

  • proof of concept (PoC) exploit

    A proof of concept (PoC) exploit is a nonharmful attack against a computer or network. PoC exploits are not meant to cause harm, ...

  • virtual firewall

    A virtual firewall is a firewall device or service that provides network traffic filtering and monitoring for virtual machines (...

CIO
HRSoftware
  • diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI)

    Diversity, equity and inclusion is a term used to describe policies and programs that promote the representation and ...

  • ADP Mobile Solutions

    ADP Mobile Solutions is a self-service mobile app that enables employees to access work records such as pay, schedules, timecards...

  • director of employee engagement

    Director of employee engagement is one of the job titles for a human resources (HR) manager who is responsible for an ...

Customer Experience
  • customer retention

    Customer retention is a metric that measures customer loyalty, or an organization's ability to retain customers over time.

  • virtual agent

    A virtual agent -- sometimes called an intelligent virtual agent (IVA) -- is a software program or cloud service that uses ...

  • chatbot

    A chatbot is a software or computer program that simulates human conversation or "chatter" through text or voice interactions.

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