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Technical support

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

FIR - LIN

  • first call resolution (FCR) - First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.
  • first-order logic - First-order logic is symbolized reasoning in which each sentence, or statement, is broken down into a subject and a predicate.
  • flash memory card - Flash storage memory cards use nonvolatile semiconductor memory to store pictures, audio and video data on portable and remote devices.
  • flash storage - Flash storage is any type of drive, repository or system that uses flash memory to keep data for an extended period of time.
  • FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) - In computers, FLOPS are floating-point operations per second.
  • flowchart - A flowchart is a formalized graphic representation of a logic sequence, work or manufacturing process, organization chart, or similar formalized structure.
  • footprint - In information technology, a footprint is the amount of space a particular unit of hardware or software occupies.
  • form factor - In computers, the form factor is the size, configuration, or physical arrangement of a computing device.
  • format - A format (noun, pronounced FOHR-mat ) is a preestablished layout for data.
  • Fourier analysis - Fourier analysis is a method of defining periodic waveforms in terms of trigonometric function s.
  • FQA (frequently questioned answers) - FQA (frequently questioned answers) are conventions or mandates scrutinized by individuals or groups who doubt their validity.
  • framework - In general, a framework is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something useful.
  • framing effect - Framing effect is a form of cognitive bias which causes people to focus more on the positive or negative aspects of a decision, situation or information based on the way it is presented.
  • freeware - Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is a type of proprietary software that is released without charge to the public.
  • full-stack developer - A full-stack developer is a type of programmer that has a functional knowledge of all techniques, languages and systems engineering concepts required in software development.
  • functionality - In information technology, functionality (from Latin functio meaning "to perform") is the sum or any aspect of what a product, such as a software application or computing device, can do for a user.
  • fuzzy search - A fuzzy search is a technique that uses search algorithms to find strings that match patterns approximately.
  • geek - In computers and the Internet, a geek is a person who is inordinately dedicated to and involved with technology.
  • general-purpose computer - A general-purpose computer is one that, given the application and required time, should be able to perform the most common computing tasks.
  • geospatial analysis - Geospatial analysis is the gathering, display, and manipulation of imagery, GPS, satellite photography and historical data, described explicitly in terms of geographic coordinates or implicitly, in terms of a street address, postal code, or forest stand identifier as they are applied to geographic models.
  • gibibyte (GiB) - A gibibyte (GiB) is a unit of measure of capacity used in computing.
  • gigabit - In data communications, a gigabit is one billion bits, or 1,000,000,000 (that is, 10^9) bits.
  • going forward - Going forward is a relatively new and apparently convenient way to indicate a progression in time from the present.
  • GPGPU (general purpose graphics processing unit) - A general-purpose GPU (GPGPU) is a graphics processing unit (GPU) that performs non-specialized calculations that would typically be conducted by the CPU (central processing unit).
  • Grace Hopper nanosecond - A Grace Hopper nanosecond is a visual aid that represents how fast electricity can travel in one billionth of a second.
  • graphics processing unit (GPU) - A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a computer chip that renders graphics and images by performing rapid mathematical calculations.
  • gravity (or gravitation) - Gravity, also called gravitation, is a force that exists among all material objects in the universe, attracting objects with non-zero mass toward each other.
  • grayscale - Grayscale is a range of shades of gray without apparent color.
  • Gregorian calendar - The Gregorian calendar is the calendar in current use in the Western world, both as the civil and Christian ecclesiastical calendar.
  • grid computing - Grid computing is a system for connecting a large number of computer nodes into a distributed architecture that delivers the compute resources necessary to solve complex problems.
  • GUI (graphical user interface) - A GUI (usually pronounced "GOO-ee") is a graphical (rather than purely textual) user interface to a computer.
  • gyroscope - A gyroscope is a device with a spinning disc or wheel mechanism that harnesses the principle of conservation of angular momentum: the tendency for the spin of a system to remain constant unless subjected to external torque.
  • Hamming code - Hamming code is an error correction system that can detect and correct errors when data is stored or transmitted.
  • haptics - Haptics (pronounced HAP-tiks) is the science of applying touch (tactile) sensation and control to interaction with computer applications.
  • hard copy (printout) - A hard copy (or "hardcopy") is a printed copy of information from a computer.
  • hard drive shredder - A hard drive shredder is a mechanical device that physically destroys old hard drives in such a way that the data they contain cannot be recovered.
  • hard reset (factory reset; master reset) - A hard reset, also known as a factory reset or master reset, is the restoration of a device, such as a smartphone or tablet, to its state when it left the factory.
  • heuristic - As an adjective, heuristic (pronounced hyu-RIS-tik and from the Greek "heuriskein" meaning "to discover") pertains to the process of gaining knowledge or some desired result by intelligent guesswork rather than by following some preestablished formula.
  • hexadecimal - Hexadecimal is a numbering system with base 16.
  • hierarchy - Generally speaking, hierarchy refers to an organizational structure in which items are ranked in a specific manner, usually according to levels of importance.
  • high-performance computing - High-performance computing (HPC) is the practice of using parallel data processing to improve computing performance and perform complex calculations.
  • histogram - A histogram is a display of statistical information that uses rectangles to show the frequency of data items in successive numerical intervals of equal size.
  • holographic print - A holographic print is a rendition of a hologram on a flat surface, producing 3-D (three-dimensional) effects when viewed.
  • holographic storage (holostorage) - Holographic storage is computer storage that uses laser beams to store computer-generated data in three dimensions.
  • home server - A home server is a computer that functions as a server in a client-server home network.
  • host (in computing) - A host (also known as "network host") is a computer or other device that communicates with other hosts on a network.
  • hotfix - A hotfix is code (sometimes called a patch) that fixes a bug in a product.
  • hybrid application (hybrid app) - A hybrid application (hybrid app) is one that combines elements of both native and Web applications.
  • hypervisor - A hypervisor is a function that abstracts -- isolates -- operating systems (OSes) and applications from the underlying computer hardware.
  • hypothesis - A hypothesis (plural: hypotheses) is a statement that may be tested and proven to be either true or false.
  • ICT (information and communications technology, or technologies) - ICT, or information and communications technology (or technologies), is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing.
  • ICT4D (Information and Communications Technologies for Development) - ICT4D (Information and Communications Technologies for Development) is an initiative aimed at bridging the digital divide (the disparity between technological "have" and "have not" geographic locations or demographic groups) and aiding economic development by ensuring equitable access to up-to-date communications technologies.
  • identity management (ID management) - Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring that individuals have the appropriate access to technology resources.
  • image - An image is a visual representation of something, while a digital image is a binary representation of visual data.
  • image compression - Image compression is a process applied to a graphics file to minimize its size in bytes without degrading image quality below an acceptable threshold.
  • implementation - Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for doing something.
  • inertia - Inertia is a property of matter that causes it to resist changes in velocity (speed and/or direction).
  • infinite sequence - An infinite sequence is a list or string of discrete objects, usually numbers, that can be paired off one-to-one with the set of positive integers {1, 2, 3,.
  • infonesia - Infonesia is an inability to remember where you saw or heard an item of information.
  • information - Information is stimuli that has meaning in some context for its receiver.
  • information technology (IT) - Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data.
  • information theory - Information theory is a branch of mathematics that overlaps into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.
  • inline frame (iframe) - An inline frame (iframe) is a HTML element that loads another HTML page within the document.
  • input/output (I/O) - I/O (input/output), pronounced "eye-oh," describes any operation, program, or device that transfers data to or from a computer.
  • instruction set - An instruction set is a group of commands for a central processing unit (CPU) in machine language.
  • integer - An integer (pronounced IN-tuh-jer) is a whole number (not a fractional number) that can be positive, negative, or zero.
  • integer overflow - Integer overflow is the result of trying to place into computer memory an integer (whole number) that is too large for the integer data type in a given system.
  • integration - Integration is the act of bringing together smaller components into a single system that functions as one.
  • intelligent system - An intelligent system is an advanced computer system that can gather, analyze and respond to the data it collects from its surrounding environment.
  • interface - As a noun, an interface is either:A user interface, consisting of the set of dials, knobs, operating system commands, graphical display formats, and other devices provided by a computer or a program to allow the user to communicate and use the computer or program.
  • internationalization (I18N) - Internationalization (sometimes shortened to "I18N, meaning "I - eighteen letters -N") is the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be adapted to specific local languages and cultures, a process called localization.
  • interoperability - Interoperability (pronounced IHN-tuhr-AHP-uhr-uh-BIHL-ih-tee) is the ability of different systems, devices, applications or products to connect and communicate in a coordinated way, without effort from the end user.
  • IRQ (interrupt request) - An IRQ (interrupt request) value is an assigned location where the computer can expect a particular device to interrupt it when the device sends the computer signals about its operation.
  • IS (information system or information services) - An information system (IS) is the collection of technical and human resources that provide the storage, computing, distribution, and communication for the information required by all or some part of an enterprise.
  • iSCSI switch (Internet Small Computer System Interface switch) - An iSCSI switch is an appliance that processes and channels data between an iSCSI initiator and target on a storage device.
  • ISV (independent software vendor) - An ISV (independent software vendor) makes and sells software products that run on one or more computer hardware or operating system (OS) platforms.
  • iterative development - Iterative development is a way of breaking down the software development of a large application into smaller chunks.
  • JBoss - JBoss is a division of Red Hat that provides support for the JBoss open source application server program and related middleware services marketed under the JBoss Enterprise Middleware brand.
  • job - In certain computer operating systems, a job is the unit of work that a computer operator gives to the operating system.
  • job step - In certain computer operating systems, a job step is part of a job, a unit of work that a computer operator (or a program called a job scheduler) gives to the operating system.
  • K-12 - K-12, a term used in education and educational technology in the United States, Canada and some other countries, is a short form for the publicly supported school grades prior to college.
  • Kbps (kilobits per second) - In the U.S.
  • kelvin (K) - The kelvin (abbreviation K), less commonly called the degree Kelvin (symbol, o K), is the Standard International (SI) unit of thermodynamic temperature.
  • kilogram (kg) - The kilogram (abbreviation, kg) is the Standard International (SI) System of Units unit of mass.
  • kinetic energy - Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, observable as the movement of an object, particle, or set of particles.
  • kiosk - A kiosk (pronounced KEE-ahsk ) is a small, free-standing physical structure that displays information or provides a service.
  • knowledge base - In general, a knowledge base is a centralized repository of information.
  • Kryder's Law - Kryder's Law describes the rate at which former Seagate CTO Mark Kryder predicted disk drive density would grow.
  • L1 and L2 - L1 and L2 are levels of cache memory in a computer.
  • lambda (general definition) - Lambda, the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, is used as a symbol in optical fiber networking, in mathematics and in computer programming.
  • laser - A laser is a coherent and focused beam of photons; coherent, in this context, means that it is all one wavelength, unlike ordinary light which showers on us in many wavelengths.
  • latitude and longitude - Latitude and longitude are parameters or coordinates that help determine the location of any place on Earth.
  • lean manufacturing (lean production) - Lean manufacturing is a methodology that focuses on minimizing waste within manufacturing systems while simultaneously maximizing productivity.
  • learning curve - Learning curves are a visualization of the difficulty estimated in learning a subject over a period of time as well as relative progress throughout the process of learning.
  • learning management system (LMS) - A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or web-based technology used to plan, implement and assess a specific learning process.
  • lemniscate - A lemniscate is a plane curve with a characteristic shape, consisting of two loops that meet at a central point as shown below.
  • lights-out management (LOM) - Lights-out management (LOM) is a form of out-of-band management.
  • limit - In mathematics, a limit is a value toward which an expression converges as one or more variables approach certain values.
  • line of sight (LOS) - Line of sight (LOS) is the imaginary line between an observer and the target.
  • linearity - Linearity is the behavior of a circuit, particularly an amplifier, in which the output signal strength varies in direct proportion to the input signal strength.
SearchNetworking
  • throughput

    Throughput is a measure of how many units of information a system can process in a given amount of time.

  • traffic shaping

    Traffic shaping, also known as packet shaping, is a congestion management method that regulates network data transfer by delaying...

  • open networking

    Open networking describes a network that uses open standards and commodity hardware.

SearchSecurity
  • buffer underflow

    A buffer underflow, also known as a buffer underrun or a buffer underwrite, is when the buffer -- the temporary holding space ...

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

  • pen testing (penetration testing)

    A penetration test, also called a pen test or ethical hacking, is a cybersecurity technique that organizations use to identify, ...

SearchCIO
  • benchmark

    A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.

  • spatial computing

    Spatial computing broadly characterizes the processes and tools used to capture, process and interact with 3D data.

  • organizational goals

    Organizational goals are strategic objectives that a company's management establishes to outline expected outcomes and guide ...

SearchHRSoftware
  • talent acquisition

    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

  • hybrid work model

    A hybrid work model is a workforce structure that includes employees who work remotely and those who work on site, in a company's...

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