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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.
  • encapsulation (object-orientated programming) - In object-oriented programming (OOP), encapsulation is the practice of bundling related data into a structured unit, along with the methods used to work with that data.
  • encoding and decoding - Encoding and decoding are used in many forms of communications, including computing, data communications, programming, digital electronics and human communications.
  • end-to-end principle - The end-to-end principle is a network design method in which application-specific features are kept at communication end points.
  • Ethernet - Ethernet is the traditional technology for connecting devices in a wired local area network (LAN) or wide area network.
  • extranet - An extranet is a private network that enterprises use to provide trusted third parties -- such as suppliers, vendors, partners, customers and other businesses -- secure, controlled access to business information or operations.
  • failover - Failover is a backup operational mode in which the functions of a system component are assumed by a secondary component when the primary becomes unavailable.
  • fax - A fax -- short for 'facsimile' and sometimes called 'telecopying' -- is the telephonic transmission of scanned-in printed material, including text or images.
  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a network standard that uses fiber optic connections in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers (124 miles).
  • fiber optics (optical fiber) - Fiber optics, or optical fiber, refers to the technology that transmits information as light pulses along a glass or plastic fiber.
  • fiber to the home (FTTH) - Fiber to the home (FTTH), also called fiber to the premises (FTTP), is the installation and use of optical fiber from a central point to individual buildings to provide high-speed internet access.
  • fiber to the x (FTTx) - Fiber to the x (FTTx) is a collective term for various optical fiber delivery topologies that are categorized according to where the fiber terminates.
  • Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) - Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FcoE) is a storage protocol that enables Fibre Channel (FC) communications to run directly over Ethernet.
  • File Transfer Access and Management (FTAM) - File Transfer Access and Management (FTAM) is an OSI application Layer 7 protocol that standardizes how files are accessed and managed in a distributed network file system.
  • filter (computing) - The term filter in computing can mean a variety of things, depending on the technology or technical discipline in question.
  • FiOS (Fiber Optic Service) - FiOS (Fiber Optic Service) is a fiber to the premises (FTTP) telecommunications service offered by Verizon to consumers in the United States.
  • fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) - A fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) refers to a type of enterprise or provider networking where a block of IP addresses is divided into multiple subnets of equal length (i.
  • flow routing - Flow routing is a network routing technology that takes variations in the flow of data into account to increase routing efficiency.
  • free-space optics (FSO) - Free-space optics (FSO), also called free-space photonics (FSP), refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere to obtain broadband communications.
  • frequency jammer - Frequency jamming is the disruption of radio signals through use of an over-powered signal in the same frequency range.
  • frequency-shift keying (FSK) - Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a method of transmitting digital signals using discrete signals.
  • fronthaul - Fronthaul, also known as mobile fronthaul, is a term that refers to the fiber-based connection of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN), a new type of cellular network architecture of centralized baseband units (BBUs) and remote radio heads (RRHs) at the access layer of the network.
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a network protocol for transmitting files between computers over TCP/IP connections.
  • full-duplex - Full-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier at the same time.
  • Gbps (billions of bits per second) - Gbps stands for billions of bits per second and is a measure of bandwidth on a digital data transmission medium such as optical fiber.
  • geostationary satellite - A geostationary satellite is an Earth-orbiting satellite placed at an altitude of approximately 22,300 miles or 35,800 kilometers directly above the equator.
  • gigabit (Gb) - In data communications, a gigabit (Gb) is 1 billion bits, or 1,000,000,000 (that is, 10^9) bits.
  • globalization - Globalization is the process by which ideas, knowledge, information, goods and services spread around the world.
  • graceful degradation - Graceful degradation is the ability of a computer, machine, electronic system or network to maintain limited functionality even when a large portion of it has been destroyed or rendered inoperative.
  • green networking - Green networking is the practice of selecting energy-efficient networking technologies and products and minimizing resource use whenever possible.
  • greenfield deployment - A greenfield deployment is the design, installation and configuration of computer infrastructure where none existed before, for example, in a new office.
  • GUID (global unique identifier) - A GUID (globally unique identifier) is a 128-bit text string that represents an identification (ID).
  • hairpinning - In general telecommunication, hairpinning is returning a message from an origin endpoint back in the direction it came from as a way to get it to its destination endpoint.
  • HAProxy - HAProxy is a high-performance, open source load balancer and reverse proxy for TCP and HTTP applications.
  • HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) - HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) is a group of protocols or rules for transmitting data between network points (sometimes called nodes).
  • hop off - Hop off is a term used in telecommunications that refers to a point at which a signal or call leaves a network and moves to another network.
  • host (in computing) - A host is a computer or other device that communicates with other hosts on a network.
  • Hotspot 2.0 - Hotspot 2.0, also known as Wi-Fi Certified Passpoint, is a standard for public-access Wi-Fi that enables seamless roaming among Wi-Fi networks and between Wi-Fi and cellular networks.
  • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) - HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules for transferring files -- such as text, images, sound, video and other multimedia files -- over the web.
  • IDSL - IDSL is a hybrid of a digital subscriber line (DSL) and integrated services digital network (ISDN) technology that transmits data slightly faster than ISDN but much slower than most DSL services.
  • IEEE 802.3 - 802.3, or IEEE 802.
  • incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC) - An incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC) is a type of U.
  • Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU) - In telecommunications, the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU) is a contractual agreement (temporary ownership) of a portion of the capacity of an international cable.
  • InfiniBand - InfiniBand is an industry standard communications specification the InfiniBand Trade Association (IBTA) developed.
  • infrared radiation (IR) - Infrared radiation (IR), sometimes referred to simply as infrared, is a region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum where wavelengths range from about 700 nm to 1 mm.
  • ingress filtering - Ingress filtering is a method used by enterprises and internet service providers to prevent suspicious traffic from entering a network.
  • initialization vector - An initialization vector (IV) is an arbitrary number that can be used with a secret key for data encryption to foil cyber attacks.
  • integration server - An integration server is a type of computer server that facilitates the interaction between different operating systems (OSes), services and applications across an enterprise IT environment.
  • international private leased circuit (IPLC) - An international private leased circuit (IPLC) is a point-to-point private line used by an organization to communicate between offices that are dispersed throughout the world.
  • Internet Key Exchange (IKE) - Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is a standard protocol used to set up a secure and authenticated communication channel between two parties via a virtual private network (VPN).
  • internet metering - Internet metering is a service model in which an internet service provider (ISP) keeps track of bandwidth use and charges users accordingly.
  • internet of things (IoT) - The internet of things, or IoT, is a network of interrelated devices that connect and exchange data with other IoT devices and the cloud.
  • Internet Protocol (IP) - The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the internet.
  • intranet of things - An intranet of things is a closed network that includes smart sensors and actuators.
  • IoT security (internet of things security) - IoT security (internet of things security) is the technology segment focused on safeguarding connected devices and networks in IoT.
  • IP PBX (private branch exchange) - An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise) that switches calls between VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol or IP) users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines.
  • IPTV (Internet Protocol television) - IPTV (Internet Protocol television) is a service that provides television programming and other video content using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite, as opposed to broadcast TV, cable TV or satellite signals.
  • IPv4 address class - An IPv4 address class is a categorical division of internet protocol addresses in IPv4-based routing.
  • IPv6 address - An IPv6 address is a 128-bit alphanumeric value that identifies an endpoint device in an Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) network.
  • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) - ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) is a standard bus (computer interconnection) architecture that was associated with the IBM AT motherboard.
  • ISP (internet service provider) - An ISP (internet service provider) is a company that provides individuals and companies access to the internet and other related services.
  • ITCH - ITCH is a direct data-feed interface that allows customers of the NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) to observe or disseminate information about stock trading activities.
  • iterative DNS query - An iterative DNS query is a request for a website name or URL.
  • jitter - Jitter is any deviation in, or displacement of, the signal pulses in a high-frequency digital signal.
  • jumbo frames - A jumbo frame is an Ethernet frame, or data packet, with a payload greater than the standard size of 1,500 bytes.
  • keystone jack - A keystone jack is a female connector used in audio, video and data communications.
  • leaky bucket algorithm - The leaky bucket algorithm is a "traffic shaping" algorithm to reduce the load the transport layer places on the network layer and reduce congestion in the network.
  • LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) - LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco-proprietary version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • leased line - A leased line is a bidirectional telephone line that has been rented for private voice, data exchange or telecommunication use.
  • Link Control Protocol (LCP) - In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard way to transport multiprotocol data over point-to-point links; within PPP, Link Control Protocol (LCP) establishes, configures and tests data link internet connections.
  • Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) - The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is an open and extendable part of the Internet Protocol Suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, used in the IEEE 802.
  • Linkerd - Linkerd is an open source network proxy installed as a service mesh for Kubernetes.
  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute network traffic across a pool of servers known as a server farm.
  • local area network (LAN) - A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and peripheral devices that are connected together within a distinct geographic area, such as an office building or campus.
  • logical network - A logical network is a software-defined network topology or routing that is often different than the physical network.
  • loose coupling - Loose coupling is an approach to interconnecting the components in a system, network or software application so that those components, also called elements, depend on each other to the least extent practicable.
  • low earth orbit (LEO) satellite - A low earth orbit (LEO) satellite is an object, generally an electronic piece of equipment, that circles around the earth at lower altitudes than geosynchronous satellites.
  • LTE (Long-Term Evolution) - LTE (Long-Term Evolution) is a fourth-generation (4G) wireless standard that provides increased network capacity and speed for cellphones and other cellular devices compared with third-generation (3G) technology.
  • LZW compression - LZW compression is a method to reduce the size of Tag Image File Format (TIFF) or Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) files.
  • MAC address (media access control address) - A MAC address (media access control address) is a 12-digit hexadecimal number assigned to each device connected to the network.
  • machine-to-machine (M2M) - Machine-to-machine, or M2M, is a broad label that can be used to describe any technology that enables networked devices to exchange information and perform actions without the manual assistance of humans.
  • Manchester encoding - In data transmission, Manchester encoding is a form of digital encoding in which a data bit's state -- 0 or 1 -- is represented by the transition from one voltage level to another.
  • MDI/MDIX (medium-dependent interface/MDI crossover) - MDI/MDIX is a type of Ethernet port connection that uses twisted-pair cabling to link two networked devices.
  • megabits per second (Mbps) - Megabits per second (Mbps) are units of measurement for network bandwidth and throughput.
  • megahertz (MHz) - Megahertz (MHz) is a unit multiplier that represents one million hertz (106 Hz).
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • Microsoft Azure - Microsoft Azure, formerly known as Windows Azure, is Microsoft's public cloud computing platform.
  • Microsoft Teams - Microsoft Teams is cloud-based team collaboration software that offers core capabilities, including business messaging, calling, video meetings and file sharing.
  • MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) - MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver).
  • Multipath I/O (MPIO) - Multipath I/O (MPIO) is a Microsoft framework designed to mitigate the effects of a host bus adapter (HBA) failure by providing an alternate data path between storage network devices.
  • NACK (NAK, negative acknowledgment, not acknowledged) - NACK, or NAK, an abbreviation for negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged, is a signal used by computers or other devices to indicate that data transmitted over a network was received with errors or was otherwise unreadable.
  • Nagios - Nagios is an open source IT system monitoring tool.
  • NBASE-T Ethernet - NBASE-T Ethernet is an IEEE standard and Ethernet-signaling technology that enables existing twisted-pair copper cabling to exceed the cable's specified limit of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) for distances of up to 100 meters.
  • NBMA (non-broadcast multiple access) - Non-broadcast multiple access (NBMA) is one of four network types in the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol.
  • NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) - Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) is a Microsoft Windows specification for how communication protocol programs (such as TCP/IP) and network device drivers should communicate with each other.
  • NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) - NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) is a network service that enables applications on different computers to communicate with each other across a local area network (LAN).
  • network analytics - Network analytics is the application of big data principles and tools to the data used to manage and secure data networks.
  • Network as a Service (NaaS) - Network as a service, or NaaS, is a business model for delivering enterprise WAN services virtually on a subscription basis.
  • network convergence - Network convergence is the efficient coexistence of telephone, video and data communication within a single network.
  • network drive - A network drive is a shared storage device on a local area network (LAN) within a business or home.
  • network fabric - 'Network fabric' is a general term used to describe underlying data network infrastructure as a whole.
Networking
  • subnet (subnetwork)

    A subnet, or subnetwork, is a segmented piece of a larger network. More specifically, subnets are a logical partition of an IP ...

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a standard protocol on the internet that ensures the reliable transmission of data between...

  • secure access service edge (SASE)

    Secure access service edge (SASE), pronounced sassy, is a cloud architecture model that bundles together network and cloud-native...

Security
  • cyber attack

    A cyber attack is any malicious attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer, computing system or computer network with the ...

  • digital signature

    A digital signature is a mathematical technique used to validate the authenticity and integrity of a digital document, message or...

  • What is security information and event management (SIEM)?

    Security information and event management (SIEM) is an approach to security management that combines security information ...

CIO
  • product development (new product development)

    Product development -- also called new product management -- is a series of steps that includes the conceptualization, design, ...

  • innovation culture

    Innovation culture is the work environment that leaders cultivate to nurture unorthodox thinking and its application.

  • technology addiction

    Technology addiction is an impulse control disorder that involves the obsessive use of mobile devices, the internet or video ...

HRSoftware
  • organizational network analysis (ONA)

    Organizational network analysis (ONA) is a quantitative method for modeling and analyzing how communications, information, ...

  • HireVue

    HireVue is an enterprise video interviewing technology provider of a platform that lets recruiters and hiring managers screen ...

  • Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI)

    Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) is a U.S.-based credentialing organization offering certifications to HR ...

Customer Experience
  • contact center agent (call center agent)

    A contact center agent is a person who handles incoming or outgoing customer communications for an organization.

  • contact center management

    Contact center management is the process of overseeing contact center operations with the goal of providing an outstanding ...

  • digital marketing

    Digital marketing is the promotion and marketing of goods and services to consumers through digital channels and electronic ...

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