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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

OUC - SNO

  • OUCH protocol - OUCH is a digital communications protocol that allows customers of the NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) to conduct business in the options market.
  • packet coalescing - In network adapters using Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) versions 6.
  • packet filtering - On the Internet, packet filtering is the process of passing or blocking packets at a network interface based on source and destination addresses, ports, or protocols.
  • packet loss - Packet loss is when one or more transmitted data packets fail to arrive at their destination.
  • packet loss concealment (PLC) - Packet loss concealment (PLC) is a technology designed to minimize the practical effect of lost packets in digital communications.
  • paid prioritization - Paid prioritization, in relation to the internet, is the optimization of data transfer rates for certain content providers, websites and web services.
  • payload (computing) - In computing, a payload is the carrying capacity of a packet or other transmission data unit.
  • PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) - PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • peer-to-peer network (P2P network) - A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a network in which each computer functions as a client or server for other computers in the network.
  • peercasting - Peercasting is a method of broadcasting audio or video through multiple streams of data that are transmitted by peers on the same platform, app or network.
  • perigee - When a satellite follows a non-circular orbit around the earth, the satellite's path is an ellipse with the center of the earth at one focus.
  • Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe, PCI-E) - PCIe is a high-speed serial interconnection standard for connecting peripheral devices to a computer's motherboard.
  • persistent connection (HTTP persistent connection) - A persistent connection (HTTP persistent connection) is a network communication channel that remains open for further HTTP requests and responses rather than closing after a single exchange.
  • personal video recorder (PVR) - A personal video recorder (PVR) is an interactive TV recording device, in essence a sophisticated set-top box with recording capability (although it is not necessarily kept on top of the television set).
  • phased antenna system - .
  • PIO (Programmed Input/Output) - Programmed Input/Output (PIO) is a way of moving data between devices in a computer in which all data must pass through the processor.
  • plane (in networking) - A plane, in a networking context, is one of three integral components of a telecommunications architecture.
  • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) - Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) refers to a suite of computer communication protocols that provide a standard way to transport multiprotocol data over point-to-point links.
  • Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) - Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol that facilitates communication between network endpoints.
  • Port Address Translation (PAT) - Port Address Translation (PAT), is an extension to network address translation (NAT) that permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address.
  • preamble - A preamble is a signal used in network communications to synchronize transmission timing between two or more systems.
  • private IP address - A private IP address is a range of non-internet facing IP addresses used in an internal network.
  • probe - In telecommunications generally, a probe is an action taken or an object used for the purpose of learning something about the state of the network.
  • processing in memory (PIM) - Processing in memory, or PIM (sometimes called processor in memory), refers to the integration of a processor with Random Access Memory (RAM) on a single chip.
  • programmable network (network programmability) - A programmable network is one in which the behavior of network devices and flow control is handled by software that operates independently of network hardware.
  • promiscuous mode - In computer networking, promiscuous mode is a mode of operation, as well as a security, monitoring and administration technique.
  • propagation delay - Propagation delay is the amount of time required for a signal to be received after it has been sent; it is caused by the time it takes for the signal to travel through a medium.
  • pull notification - Pull notifications are communications that are sent as a response to a client request.
  • pulse code modulation (PCM) - Pulse code modulation (PCM) is a digitalscheme for transmitting analogdata.
  • Q signaling (QSIG) - Q signaling (abbreviated QSIG), a protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications based on the Q.
  • Q.931 - Q.931 (also called Q93 is a signaling protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications that is used in voice over IP (VoIP).
  • QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) - QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is a method of combining two amplitude modulation (AM) signals into a single channel.
  • QIX (NASDAQ Information Exchange protocol) - QIX (NASDAQ Information Exchange protocol) is a proprietary specification intended to streamline automated trading in the financial industry.
  • radio access network (RAN) - A radio access network (RAN) is a major component of a wireless telecommunications system that connects individual devices to other parts of a network through a radio link.
  • radio silence - Radio silence is a mandatory or voluntary cessation of transmission for the duration of some sensitive time period.
  • RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) - RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is a client-server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service.
  • real-time location system (RTLS) - A real-time location system (RTLS) is one of a number of technologies used to pinpoint the current geographic position and location of a target.
  • Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) - Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) is a protocol that works with Real-Time Protocol (RTP) to monitor data delivery on large multicast networks, mainly for streaming media, telephony and video conferencing.
  • recursive DNS query - A recursive DNS query is a request from a client for a website that must be responded to with either the sought response or an error message stating that the site does not exist.
  • recursive DNS server - A recursive DNS server is a domain name system server that takes website name or URL (uniform resource locator) requests from users and checks the records attained from authoritative DNS servers for the associated IP address.
  • regional Bell operating company (RBOC) - Regional Bell operating company (RBOC) is a term describing one of the U.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • remote access - Remote access is the ability for an authorized person to access a computer or network from a geographical distance through a network connection.
  • remote desktop - A remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows a user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as if it were local.
  • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) - Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a technology that enables two networked computers to exchange data in main memory without relying on the processor, cache or operating system of either computer.
  • remote sensing - Remote sensing is the use of various technologies to make observations and measurements at a target that is usually at a distance or scale beyond those observable to the naked eye.
  • repeater - In digital communication systems, a repeater is a device that receives a digital signal on an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and regenerates the signal along the next leg of the medium.
  • resource-oriented architecture (ROA) - A resource-oriented architecture (ROA) is the structural design supporting the internetworking of resources.
  • return on marketing investment (ROMI) - Return on marketing investment (ROMI) is a metric used to measure the overall effectiveness of a marketing campaign to help marketers make better decisions about allocating future investments.
  • RF-powered computing - RF-powered computing is the use of radio frequency (RF) signals to enable the operation and communication of low-power devices, typically for machine-to-machine (M2M) networking.
  • RFC 1918 - Request for Comment 1918 (RFC 1918), “Address Allocation for Private Internets,” is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) memorandum on methods of assigning of private IP addresses on TCP/IP networks.
  • Rich Internet Application (RIA) - A rich Internet application (RIA) is a Web application designed to deliver the same features and functions normally associated with deskop applications.
  • ring network - A ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which the nodes (workstations or other devices) are connected in a closed loop configuration.
  • ringtone - On mobile phones, a ringtone is a brief audio file played to indicate an incoming call.
  • ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) - An ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) is a device that can add, block, pass or redirect modulated infrared (IR) and visible light beams of various wavelengths in a fiber optic network.
  • roaming service - Roaming service is the ability to get access to the Internet when away from home at the price of a local call or at a charge considerably less than the regular long-distance charges.
  • round robin - A round robin is an arrangement of choosing all elements in a group equally in some rational order, usually from the top to the bottom of a list and then starting again at the top of the list and so on.
  • round-trip time (RTT) - Round-trip time (RTT), also called round-trip delay, is the time required for a signal pulse or packet to travel from a specific source to a specific destination and back again.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization -- also known as route aggregation -- is a method to minimize the number of routing tables in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
  • RS-232C - RS-232C is a long-established standard ("C" is the current version) that describes the physical interface and protocol for relatively low-speed serial data communication between computers and related devices.
  • runt - In networks, a runt is a packet that is too small.
  • Samba - Samba is a popular freeware program that allows end users to access and use files, printers, and other commonly shared resources on a company's intranet or on the Internet.
  • satellite news gathering (SNG) - Satellite news gathering (SNG) is the use of mobile communications equipment for the purpose of worldwide newscasting.
  • satellite radio or Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS) - Satellite radio, more formally known as Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS), is a broadcasting network in which digital high-fidelity (hi-fi) audio entertainment is transmitted from orbiting satellites to receivers on the surface.
  • scalable video coding (SVC) - Scalable video coding (SVC) is an extension of the H.
  • SDDC (software-defined data center) - An SDDC (software-defined data center) is a data storage facility in which networking, storage, CPU and security are virtualized and delivered as a service.
  • SDN application (software-defined networking application) - An SDN application is a software program designed to perform a task in a software-defined networking (SDN) environment.
  • SDN controller (software-defined networking controller) - An SDN controller is an application in a software-defined networking (SDN) architecture that manages flow control for improved network management and application performance.
  • SDN overlay (software defined networking overlay) - An SDN overlay is a deployment method for network virtualization and software-defined networking (SDN) that involves running a logically separate network or network component on top of existing infrastructure.
  • segment routing - Segment routing is a computer networking process used by networking and traffic engineering professionals that organizes collections of information, or packets, to follow a linear set of instructions.
  • sensor analytics - Sensor analytics is the statistical analysis of data that’s created by wired or wireless sensors.
  • serial digital interface (SDI) - Serial digital interface (SDI) is a standard for digital video and audio transmission over coaxial or fiber optic cabling.
  • Server Message Block protocol (SMB protocol) - The Server Message Block protocol (SMB protocol) is a client-server communication protocol used for sharing access to files, printers, serial ports and other resources on a network.
  • service chaining - Service chaining, in an information technology (IT) context, is the addition of software-defined networking (SDN) capabilities in a specific sequence.
  • service mesh - A service mesh is a dedicated infrastructure layer that controls service-to-service communication over a network.
  • session border controller (SBC) - A session border controller (SBC) is a dedicated hardware device or software application that governs the manner in which phone calls are initiated, conducted and terminated on a voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) network.
  • session control protocol (SCP) - Session control protocol (SCP) is a method of creating multiple light-duty connections from a single TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection.
  • session-based routing - Session-based routing is a type of routing architecture that is application-centric and designed to route entire sessions instead of individual packets.
  • Shared Key Authentication (SKA) - Shared Key Authentication (SKA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • shielded twisted pair (STP) - Shielded twisted pair (STP) is a special kind of copper telephone and local area network (LAN) wiring used in some business installations.
  • short message service center (SMSC) - The short message service center (SMSC) is the portion of a mobile phone network that handles text message operations.
  • signal - In electronics, a signal is an electric current or electromagnetic field used to convey data from one place to another.
  • signal-to-noise ratio (S/N or SNR) - In analog and digital communications, a signal-to-noise ratio, often written S/N or SNR, is a measure of the strength of the desired signal relative to background noise (undesired signal).
  • signaling - In telephony, signaling is the exchange of information between involved points in the network that sets up, controls, and terminates each telephone call.
  • Signaling System 7 (SS7) - Signaling System 7 (SS7) is an international telecommunication protocol standard that defines how the network elements in a public switched telephone network (PSTN) exchange information and control signals.
  • silicon photonics - Silicon photonics is an evolving technology in which data is transferred among computer chips by optical rays.
  • SIMO (single input, multiple output) - SIMO (single input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at the destination (receiver).
  • simplex - Simplex is a communications mode in which only one signal is transmitted, and it always goes in the same direction.
  • SIP trunking (Session Initiation Protocol trunking) - Session Initiation Protocol trunking is a service offered by a communications service provider that uses the protocol to provision voice over IP connectivity between an on-premises phone system and the public switched telephone network.
  • SISO (single input, single output) - SISO (single input, single output) refers to a wireless communications system in which one antenna is used at the source (transmitter) and one antenna is used at the destination (receiver).
  • Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) - Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) is a Cisco proprietary standard for terminal control for use with voice over IP (VoIP).
  • Skype for Business - Skype for Business, formerly known as Microsoft Lync Server, is a unified communications (UC) platform that integrates common channels of business communication and online meetings, including instant messaging (IM), presence, voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, file transfer, web conferencing, voicemail and email.
  • Skype protocol - Skype protocol is a peer-to-peer Internet telephony protocol used to move encrypted voice over IP (VoIP) traffic between Skype members' computers (peers).
  • sliding window (windowing) - The sliding window (windowing) technique is used by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to manage the flow of packets between two computers or network hosts.
  • smart home app (home automation app) - A smart home app, sometimes referred to as a home automation app or a smart home automation app, is an application used to remotely control and manage connected non-computing devices in the home, typically from a smartphone or tablet.
  • smart home hub (home automation hub) - A smart home hub is hardware or software that connects devices on a home automation network and controls communications among them.
  • smart home kit (home automation kit) - A smart home kit, sometimes called a home automation kit or an Internet of Things (IoT) platform, is a product that includes all the hardware and software required to connect, control and manage compatible smart devices for home automation.
  • smart sensor - A smart sensor is a device that takes input from the physical environment and uses built-in compute resources to perform predefined functions upon detection of specific input and then process data before passing it on.
  • SMS gateway - An SMS gateway is a website that allows users to send SMS messages from a web browser to people within the cell served by that gateway.
  • SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms) - SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms) is a standardized, multilingual vocabulary of clinical terminology that is used by physicians and other health care providers for the electronic exchange of clinical health information.
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