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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

NET - SOF

  • NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) - NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) is a network service that enables applications on different computers to communicate with each other across a local area network (LAN).
  • network analytics - Network analytics is the application of big data principles and tools to the data used to manage and secure data networks.
  • network convergence - Network convergence is the efficient coexistence of telephone, video and data communication within a single network.
  • network drive - A network drive is a storage device on a local access network (LAN) within a business or home.
  • network fabric - Network fabric is an industry term that describes a network topology in which devices pass data to each other through interconnecting switches.
  • Network File System (NFS) - Network File System (NFS) is a networking protocol for distributed file sharing.
  • Network layer - Located at Layer 3 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model, the primary function of the network layer is to move data into and through other networks.
  • Network Load Balancing (NLB) - Network Load Balancing is a Windows Server feature that can distribute network traffic among multiple servers.
  • network node - A computer network is a system of computers and computing devices that are connected via communication links.
  • network operations center (NOC) - A network operations center (NOC) is a centralized place from which enterprise information technology (IT) administrators -- either internal or third party -- supervise, monitor and maintain a telecommunications network.
  • network packet - A network packet is a basic unit of data that's grouped together and transferred over a computer network, typically a packet-switched network, such as the internet.
  • network protocol - A network protocol is a set of established rules that dictate how to format, transmit and receive data so that computer network devices -- from servers and routers to endpoints -- can communicate, regardless of the differences in their underlying infrastructures, designs or standards.
  • network switch - A network switch is a hardware device that channels incoming data from multiple input ports to a specific output port that will take it toward its intended destination.
  • network topology - A network topology is the physical and logical arrangement of nodes and connections in a network.
  • network traffic - Network traffic is the amount of data that moves across a network during any given time.
  • Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) - Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is an automated configuration technology that routes data on a distributed network by discovering the best routing path between endpoints.
  • NFV MANO (network functions virtualization management and orchestration) - NFV MANO (network functions virtualization management and orchestration), also called MANO, is an architectural framework for managing and orchestrating virtualized network functions (VNFs) and other software components.
  • NFVi (network functions virtualization infrastructure) - NFVi (network functions virtualization infrastructure) encompasses all of the networking hardware and software needed to support and connect virtual network functions in carrier networks.
  • nibble - In computing and digital technology, a nibble is four consecutive binary digits or half of an 8-bit byte.
  • NVGRE (Network Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation) - NVGRE (Network Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation) is a network virtualization method that uses encapsulation to create large numbers of virtual LANs (VLANs) for subnets that can extend across dispersed data centers and Layers 2 and 3.
  • OAuth - OAuth (Open Authorization) is an open standard authorization framework for token-based authorization on the internet.
  • OFDMA (orthogonal frequency-division multiple access) - Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is a feature of Wi-Fi 6 (802.
  • omnidirectional antenna - An omnidirectional antenna is a wireless transmitting or receiving antenna that radiates or intercepts radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields equally well in all horizontal directions in a flat, two-dimensional (2D) geometric plane.
  • ONC (Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology) - The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, abbreviated ONC, is an entity within the U.
  • ONOS (Open Network Operating System) - ONOS (Open Network Operating System) is an operating system (OS) designed for network service providers to help build carrier-grade software-defined networks architected for high scalability, availability and performance.
  • Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) - The Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) is a set of standards defining the way in which information is shared among diverse components of large, heterogeneous grid systems.
  • optical line terminal (OLT) - An optical line terminal (OLT) is a device that is located at the service provider's central office and is the endpoint of a passive optical network (PON).
  • orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) - Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of data transmission where a single information stream is split among several closely spaced narrowband subchannel frequencies instead of a single wideband channel frequency.
  • OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection) - OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a reference model for how applications communicate over a network.
  • packet coalescing - In network adapters using Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) versions 6.
  • packet filtering - On the Internet, packet filtering is the process of passing or blocking packets at a network interface based on source and destination addresses, ports, or protocols.
  • packet loss - Packet loss is when one or more transmitted data packets fail to arrive at their destination.
  • payload (computing) - In computing, a payload is the carrying capacity of a packet or other transmission data unit.
  • PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) - PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • peer-to-peer network (P2P network) - A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a network in which each computer functions as a client or server for other computers in the network.
  • Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe, PCI-E) - PCIe is a high-speed serial interconnection standard for connecting peripheral devices to a computer's motherboard.
  • persistent connection (HTTP persistent connection) - A persistent connection (HTTP persistent connection) is a network communication channel that remains open for further HTTP requests and responses rather than closing after a single exchange.
  • personal video recorder (PVR) - A personal video recorder (PVR) is an interactive TV recording device, in essence a sophisticated set-top box with recording capability (although it is not necessarily kept on top of the television set).
  • PIO (Programmed Input/Output) - Programmed Input/Output (PIO) is a way of moving data between devices in a computer in which all data must pass through the processor.
  • plane (in networking) - A plane, in a networking context, is one of three integral components of a telecommunications architecture.
  • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) - Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) refers to a suite of computer communication protocols that provide a standard way to transport multiprotocol data over point-to-point links.
  • Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) - Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol that facilitates communication between network endpoints.
  • Port Address Translation (PAT) - Port Address Translation (PAT), is an extension to network address translation (NAT) that permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address.
  • preamble - A preamble is a signal used in network communications to synchronize transmission timing between two or more systems.
  • private IP address - A private IP address is a range of non-internet facing IP addresses used in an internal network.
  • probe - In telecommunications generally, a probe is an action taken or an object used for the purpose of learning something about the state of the network.
  • processing in memory (PIM) - Processing in memory, or PIM (sometimes called processor in memory), refers to the integration of a processor with Random Access Memory (RAM) on a single chip.
  • programmable network (network programmability) - A programmable network is one in which the behavior of network devices and flow control is handled by software that operates independently of network hardware.
  • promiscuous mode - In computer networking, promiscuous mode is a mode of operation, as well as a security, monitoring and administration technique.
  • propagation delay - Propagation delay is the amount of time required for a signal to be received after it has been sent; it is caused by the time it takes for the signal to travel through a medium.
  • QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) - QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is a method of combining two amplitude modulation (AM) signals into a single channel.
  • radio access network (RAN) - A radio access network (RAN) is a major component of a wireless telecommunications system that connects individual devices to other parts of a network through a radio link.
  • RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) - RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is a client-server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service.
  • real-time location system (RTLS) - A real-time location system (RTLS) is one of a number of technologies used to pinpoint the current geographic position and location of a target.
  • Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) - Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) is a protocol that works with Real-Time Protocol (RTP) to monitor data delivery on large multicast networks, mainly for streaming media, telephony and video conferencing.
  • recursive DNS query - A recursive DNS query is a request from a client for a website that must be responded to with either the sought response or an error message stating that the site does not exist.
  • recursive DNS server - A recursive DNS server is a domain name system server that takes website name or URL (uniform resource locator) requests from users and checks the records attained from authoritative DNS servers for the associated IP address.
  • regional Bell operating company (RBOC) - Regional Bell operating company (RBOC) is a term describing one of the U.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • remote access - Remote access is the ability for an authorized person to access a computer or network from a geographical distance through a network connection.
  • remote desktop - A remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows a user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as if it were local.
  • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) - Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a technology that enables two networked computers to exchange data in main memory without relying on the processor, cache or operating system of either computer.
  • remote sensing - Remote sensing is the use of various technologies to make observations and measurements at a target that is usually at a distance or scale beyond those observable to the naked eye.
  • repeater - In digital communication systems, a repeater is a device that receives a digital signal on an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and regenerates the signal along the next leg of the medium.
  • return on marketing investment (ROMI) - Return on marketing investment (ROMI) is a metric used to measure the overall effectiveness of a marketing campaign to help marketers make better decisions about allocating future investments.
  • RF-powered computing - RF-powered computing is the use of radio frequency (RF) signals to enable the operation and communication of low-power devices, typically for machine-to-machine (M2M) networking.
  • RFC 1918 - Request for Comment 1918 (RFC 1918), “Address Allocation for Private Internets,” is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) memorandum on methods of assigning of private IP addresses on TCP/IP networks.
  • Rich Internet Application (RIA) - A rich Internet application (RIA) is a Web application designed to deliver the same features and functions normally associated with deskop applications.
  • ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) - An ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) is a device that can add, block, pass or redirect modulated infrared (IR) and visible light beams of various wavelengths in a fiber optic network.
  • roaming service - Roaming service is the ability to get access to the Internet when away from home at the price of a local call or at a charge considerably less than the regular long-distance charges.
  • round robin - A round robin is an arrangement of choosing all elements in a group equally in some rational order, usually from the top to the bottom of a list and then starting again at the top of the list and so on.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization -- also known as route aggregation -- is a method to minimize the number of routing tables in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
  • routing table - A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that's used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed.
  • RS-232C - RS-232C is a long-established standard ("C" is the current version) that describes the physical interface and protocol for relatively low-speed serial data communication between computers and related devices.
  • Samba - Samba is a popular freeware program that allows end users to access and use files, printers, and other commonly shared resources on a company's intranet or on the Internet.
  • scalable video coding (SVC) - Scalable video coding (SVC) is an extension of the H.
  • SDDC (software-defined data center) - An SDDC (software-defined data center) is a data storage facility in which networking, storage, CPU and security are virtualized and delivered as a service.
  • SDN controller (software-defined networking controller) - An SDN controller is an application in a software-defined networking (SDN) architecture that manages flow control for improved network management and application performance.
  • segment routing - Segment routing is a computer networking process used by networking and traffic engineering professionals that organizes collections of information, or packets, to follow a linear set of instructions.
  • serial digital interface (SDI) - Serial digital interface (SDI) is a standard for digital video and audio transmission over coaxial or fiber optic cabling.
  • Server Message Block protocol (SMB protocol) - The Server Message Block protocol (SMB protocol) is a client-server communication protocol used for sharing access to files, printers, serial ports and other resources on a network.
  • service chaining - Service chaining, in an information technology (IT) context, is the addition of software-defined networking (SDN) capabilities in a specific sequence.
  • service mesh - A service mesh is a dedicated infrastructure layer that controls service-to-service communication over a network.
  • session border controller (SBC) - A session border controller (SBC) is a dedicated hardware device or software application that governs the manner in which phone calls are initiated, conducted and terminated on a voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) network.
  • session control protocol (SCP) - Session control protocol (SCP) is a method of creating multiple light-duty connections from a single TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection.
  • Shared Key Authentication (SKA) - Shared Key Authentication (SKA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • shielded twisted pair (STP) - Shielded twisted pair (STP) is a special kind of copper telephone and local area network (LAN) wiring used in some business installations.
  • short message service center (SMSC) - The short message service center (SMSC) is the portion of a mobile phone network that handles text message operations.
  • signal-to-noise ratio (S/N or SNR) - In analog and digital communications, a signal-to-noise ratio, often written S/N or SNR, is a measure of the strength of the desired signal relative to background noise (undesired signal).
  • Signaling System 7 (SS7) - Signaling System 7 (SS7) is an international telecommunication protocol standard that defines how the network elements in a public switched telephone network (PSTN) exchange information and control signals.
  • simplex - Simplex is a communications mode in which only one signal is transmitted, and it always goes in the same direction.
  • SIP trunking (Session Initiation Protocol trunking) - Session Initiation Protocol trunking is a service offered by a communications service provider that uses the protocol to provision voice over IP connectivity between an on-premises phone system and the public switched telephone network.
  • Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) - Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) is a Cisco proprietary standard for terminal control for use with voice over IP (VoIP).
  • sliding window (windowing) - The sliding window (windowing) technique is used by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to manage the flow of packets between two computers or network hosts.
  • smart home app (home automation app) - A smart home app, sometimes referred to as a home automation app or a smart home automation app, is an application used to remotely control and manage connected non-computing devices in the home, typically from a smartphone or tablet.
  • smart home hub (home automation hub) - A smart home hub is hardware or software that connects devices on a home automation network and controls communications among them.
  • smart home kit (home automation kit) - A smart home kit, sometimes called a home automation kit or an Internet of Things (IoT) platform, is a product that includes all the hardware and software required to connect, control and manage compatible smart devices for home automation.
  • smart sensor - A smart sensor is a device that takes input from the physical environment and uses built-in compute resources to perform predefined functions upon detection of specific input and then process data before passing it on.
  • SMS gateway - An SMS gateway is a website that allows users to send SMS messages from a web browser to people within the cell served by that gateway.
  • SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms) - SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms) is a standardized, multilingual vocabulary of clinical terminology that is used by physicians and other health care providers for the electronic exchange of clinical health information.
Networking
  • network traffic

    Network traffic is the amount of data that moves across a network during any given time.

  • dynamic and static

    In general, dynamic means 'energetic, capable of action and/or change, or forceful,' while static means 'stationary or fixed.'

  • MAC address (media access control address)

    A MAC address (media access control address) is a 12-digit hexadecimal number assigned to each device connected to the network.

Security
  • Trojan horse

    In computing, a Trojan horse is a program downloaded and installed on a computer that appears harmless, but is, in fact, ...

  • quantum key distribution (QKD)

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method for exchanging encryption keys only known between shared parties.

  • Common Body of Knowledge (CBK)

    In security, the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) is a comprehensive framework of all the relevant subjects a security professional...

CIO
  • benchmark

    A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.

  • spatial computing

    Spatial computing broadly characterizes the processes and tools used to capture, process and interact with 3D data.

  • organizational goals

    Organizational goals are strategic objectives that a company's management establishes to outline expected outcomes and guide ...

HRSoftware
  • talent acquisition

    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

  • hybrid work model

    A hybrid work model is a workforce structure that includes employees who work remotely and those who work on site, in a company's...

Customer Experience
  • database marketing

    Database marketing is a systematic approach to the gathering, consolidation and processing of consumer data.

  • cost per engagement (CPE)

    Cost per engagement (CPE) is an advertising pricing model in which digital marketing teams and advertisers only pay for ads when ...

  • B2C (Business2Consumer or Business-to-Consumer)

    B2C -- short for business-to-consumer -- is a retail model where products move directly from a business to the end user who has ...

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