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Internet technologies

This WhatIs.com glossary contains terms related to Internet technologies, including definitions about port numbers, standards and protocols and words and phrases about how the Internet works.

ISC - PHI

  • iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) - ISCSI is a transport layer protocol that describes how Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) packets should be transported over a TCP/IP network.
  • IT distributor - An IT channel distributor is a business that acts as an intermediary between vendors and value-added resellers (VARs) or system integrators (SIs) in the distribution of software or hardware.
  • IT reseller - An IT reseller is an intermediary entity in the distribution channel that purchases software and/or hardware from the manufacturer or some other entity, such as a wholesaler or a distributor, and sells it to consumers.
  • Java Card - Java Card is an open standard from Sun Microsystems for a smart card development platform.
  • Java Server Page (JSP) - Java Server Page (JSP) is a technology for controlling the content or appearance of Web pages through the use of servlets, small programs that are specified in the Web page and run on the Web server to modify the Web page before it is sent to the user who requested it.
  • JavaScript hijacking - JavaScript hijacking is a technique that an attacker can use to read sensitive data from a vulnerable Web application, particularly one using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML).
  • JHTML (Java within Hypertext Markup Language) - JHTML (Java within Hypertext Markup Language) is a standard for including a Java program as part of a Web page (a page written using the Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML).
  • join.me - Join.me is an online meeting and screen-sharing application by LogMeIn.
  • JRun - JRun is an application server from Macromedia that is based on Sun Microsystems' Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE).
  • JSON (Javascript Object Notation) - JSON (JS Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used for representing simple data structures and objects in Web browser-based code.
  • JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) - JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) is a Java-based application programming interface (API) for computer telephony applications.
  • jump page - In Web advertising and marketing, a jump page is a Web page that is made to appear temporarily in order to capture the user's attention as a promotion or to gather user information in a survey.
  • just-in-case manufacturing (JIC manufacturing) - Just-in-case (JIC) manufacturing is the traditional model of production, in which products are created in advance and in excess of demand.
  • Kano Model - The Kano Model is a product development theory which is centered on customer satisfaction.
  • Ken Burns effect - Ken Burns effect is the use of still photographs along with zooming, panning and transitions such as fading as the base for video content.
  • Keyhole Markup Language (KML) - Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based markup language designed to annotate and overlay visualizations on various two-dimensional, Web-based online maps or three-dimensional Earth browsers (such as Google Earth).
  • keyword stuffing - Keyword stuffing is the practice of inserting a large number of keywords into Web page content and meta tags in the attempt to artificially increase the page's ranking in search results.
  • LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - LAMP is an open source Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language.
  • LARP (Live Action Role Playing) - LARP (Live Action Role Playing), also called LARPing, is a character-driven type of gameplay that is conducted in the physical world.
  • Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) - Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used by an internet service provider (ISP) to enable the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the internet.
  • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) - LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a software protocol for enabling anyone to locate data such as organizations, individuals and other resources such as files and devices in a network -- whether on the public internet or on a corporate intranet.
  • lead generator - A lead generator is any marketing-related activity intended to publicize the availability of a vendor's product or service.
  • LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) - LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco-proprietary version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • leet speak (leet) - Leet speak, also known as simply leet, is the substitution of a word's letters with numbers or special characters.
  • lights-out management (LOM) - Lights-out management (LOM) is a form of out-of-band management.
  • link - Using hypertext, a link is a selectable connection from one word, picture, or information object to another.
  • Link Control Protocol (LCP) - In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard way to transport multiprotocol data over point-to-point links; within PPP, Link Control Protocol (LCP) establishes, configures and tests data link internet connections.
  • link farm - A link farm is a website (or a group of websites) created only for the purpose of increasing the link popularity of another site by increasing the number of incoming links.
  • link spam - Link spam is the posting of out-of-context links on websites, discussion forums, blog comments, guestbooks or any other online venue that displays user comments.
  • link type - In Hyper-G and possibly other hypertext systems, a link type is the specification of the nature of the information object being linked to.
  • LISA - LISA (Local Integrated System Architecture) was Apple's first personal computer and GUI -based operating system.
  • listicle - A listicle is an index whose point items are supplemented with additional related commentary.
  • LiveJournal - LiveJournal is a social media platform that allows users to keep a blog, journal or diary and share their interests with LiveJournal friends or communities around the world.
  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute workloads uniformly across servers or other compute resources to optimize network efficiency, reliability and capacity.
  • load testing - Load testing is the process of subjecting a computer, peripheral, server, network or application to a work level approaching the limits of its specifications.
  • logo - A logo is a graphic image chosen to represent a company or organization and is uniquely designed for easy recognition.
  • look-to-book ratio - The look-to-book ratio is a figure used in the travel industry that shows the percentage of people who visit a travel Web site compared to those who actually make a purchase.
  • loose coupling - Loose coupling is a method of interconnecting the components in a system or network so that those components, also called elements, depend on each other to the least extent practicable.
  • meta description tag - A meta description tag is the snippet of HTML code that belongs inside the header of a web page.
  • metadata - Often referred to as data that describes other data, metadata is structured reference data that helps to sort and identify attributes of the information it describes.
  • microdata - Microdata is a type of specification language that is embedded within HTML content to improve machine readability, annotate elements and analyze web pages.
  • microsite - As used in at least one leading Web design book, a microsite is a separately promoted part of a larger Web site.
  • Microsoft - Microsoft is the largest vendor of computer software in the world.
  • Microsoft Store - The Microsoft Store -- formerly called the Windows Store -- is an online marketplace for consumers to buy and download a variety of items.
  • Microsoft Windows Update - Microsoft Windows Update is a security service for Windows users that, once activated, automatically searches for and installs updates.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and other tools or databases.
  • Millennials (Generation Y) - Millennials, also known as Generation Y, is a demographic that includes individuals who reached adulthood around the turn of the 21st century.
  • MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) - MIME, or Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, is an extension of the original email protocol.
  • mob mentality (herd/hive mentality) - Mob mentality -- also called herd or hive mentality -- is the inclination that some humans have to be part of a large group, often neglecting their individual feelings in the process, and adopting the behaviors and actions of the people around them.
  • mobile computing - Mobile computing refers to the set of IT technologies, products, services and operational strategies and procedures that enable end users to access computation, information and related resources and capabilities while mobile.
  • mobile Internet device (MID) - The mobile Internet device (MID) is a mini-tablet communications unit aimed at the consumer market and designed to provide entertainment, information and location-based services.
  • Mobile IP - Mobile IP is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining their permanent IP address.
  • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6 or Mobile Internet Protocol version 6) - Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is a protocol developed as a subset of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to support mobile connections.
  • mobile payment (m-payment) - Mobile payment is a point-of-sale transaction made through a mobile device.
  • modular PC - A modular PC is a computer that has individually-housed components, which are interconnected but separately removable for service or upgrading.
  • Monster Worldwide - Monster Worldwide is an online recruiting company noted for its flagship Monster.
  • Morphis - Morphis is a Java -based open source wireless transcoding platform from Kargo, Inc.
  • Mozilla - Mozilla was Netscape Communication's nickname for Navigator, its first Web browser, and the name of an open source public collaboration created to develop Navigator.
  • multi-channel network (MCN) - A multi-channel network (MCN) is a company or entity that works with multiple channels and content creators, consulting or assisting towards success on streaming video platforms such as YouTube.
  • multicast - Multicast is communication between a single sender and multiple receivers on a network.
  • multihomed - Multihomed describes a computer host that has multiple IP addresses to connected networks.
  • Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) - Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) - sometimes called Multimedia Messaging System - is a communications technology developed by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) that allows users to exchange multimedia communications between capable mobile phones and other devices.
  • natural user interface (NUI) - A natural user interface (NUI) is a system for human-computer interaction that the user operates through intuitive actions related to natural, everyday human behavior.
  • NBMA (non-broadcast multiple access) - Non-broadcast multiple access (NBMA) is one of four network types in the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol.
  • NCR (no country redirect) - An explanation of the NCR (no country redirect) search parameter.
  • nearables - Nearables are low-power transmitters that activate in the presence of a Bluetooth-enabled or Near Field Communication (NFC-enabled) computing device.
  • net neutrality - Net neutrality is the concept of an open, equal internet for everyone, regardless of content consumed or the device, application or platform used.
  • netiquette - Netiquette is etiquette on the Internet.
  • netizen - The word netizen seems to have two similar meanings.
  • Netscape - Netscape Communications was a computer services company best known for its Web browser, Navigator.
  • Network Address Translation (NAT) - A Network Address Translation (NAT) is the process of mapping an internet protocol (IP) address to another by changing the header of IP packets while in transit via a router.
  • network service provider (NSP) - A network service provider (NSP) is a company that owns, operates and sells access to internet backbone infrastructure and services.
  • network slicing - Network slicing overlays multiple virtual networks on top of a shared network domain, that is, a set of shared network and computing resources.
  • network-attached storage (NAS) - Network-attached storage (NAS) is dedicated file storage that enables multiple users and heterogeneous client devices to retrieve data from centralized disk capacity.
  • newsfeed - A news feed (newsfeed) is list of newly published content on a website.
  • newsjacking - Newsjacking is the practice of aligning a brand with a current event in an attempt to generate media attention and boost the brand's exposure.
  • Ning - Ning iNing is an web-based social network platform that allows an organization to build customized social websites and interactive virtual communities.
  • nomadicity - Nomadicity is the tendency of a person, or group of people, to move with relative frequency.
  • nonfungible token (NFT) - A nonfungible token (NFT) is a type of cryptographic asset that is unique and used to create and authenticate ownership of digital assets.
  • nym - A nym (pronounced NIHM and a shortened form of "pseudonym,") is a name invented by or provided for an Internet user in order to conceal the user's real identity and, in some cases, to expressly create a new and separate Internet identity.
  • OAuth - OAuth (Open Authorization) is an open standard authorization framework for token-based authorization on the internet.
  • operating system (OS) - An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all of the other application programs in a computer.
  • org - "org" is one of the generic top-level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name.
  • organic search results - Organic search results are the listings on a search engine results page (SERP) that appear because of factors such as relevance to the search term rather than because of search engine marketing (SEM) or trickery.
  • Osborne Effect - The Osborne Effect is a reduction in sales of current products after the announcement of a future product.
  • packet-switched - Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data called packets are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet.
  • page authority (Web page authority) - Page authority, in search engine optimization (SEO), is the value a search engine assigns a Web page.
  • PageRank - PageRank (PR) is Google’s main method of ranking web pages for placement on a search engine results page (SERP).
  • passive cooling - Passive cooling is an approach to cooling computer components through slowing the speed at which the component, such as the processor, is operating.
  • payment gateway - A payment gateway is a service that authorizes a user’s transfer of funds between financial institutions to sellers without direct delivery of either bank or credit card account information.
  • PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) - PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • PEBCAK (problem exists between chair and keyboard) - PEBCAK, one of many terms used in Internet chatting, stands for "problem exists between chair and keyboard," meaning it's a problem in user understanding or behavior rather than something wrong with hardware or software.
  • peer-to-peer (P2P) - Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a decentralized communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.
  • Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe, PCI-E) - PCIe is a high-speed serial interconnection standard for connecting peripheral devices to a computer's motherboard.
  • Perl - Perl is a family of script programming languages that is similar in syntax to the C language.
  • persistent identification element (PIE) - Persistent identification element (PIE) is used to tag individual user’s browsers with a unique identifier that – unlike ordinary HTTP cookies -- cannot be easily deleted.
  • personal video recorder (PVR) - A personal video recorder (PVR) is an interactive TV recording device, in essence a sophisticated set-top box with recording capability (although it is not necessarily kept on top of the television set).
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent websites without their knowledge or consent.
  • phase-change memory (PCM) - Phase-change memory (PCM) is a form of computer RAM (random-access memory) that stores data by altering the state of the matter from which the device is fabricated.
  • phishing kit - A phishing kit is a collection of tools assembled to make it easier for people with little technical skill to launch a phishing exploit.
SearchNetworking
  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

  • overlay network

    An overlay network is a virtual or logical network that is created on top of an existing physical network.

SearchSecurity
  • X.509 certificate

    An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public key infrastructure (PKI) ...

  • directory traversal

    Directory traversal is a type of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a web server to access data in a directory ...

  • malware

    Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is intentionally harmful to a computer, network or server.

SearchCIO
  • data latency

    Data latency is the time it takes for data packets to be stored or retrieved. In business intelligence (BI), data latency is how ...

  • chief data officer (CDO)

    A chief data officer (CDO) in many organizations is a C-level executive whose position has evolved into a range of strategic data...

  • information technology (IT) director

    An information technology (IT) director is the person in charge of technology within an organization. IT directors manage ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

  • customer intelligence (CI)

    Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources ...

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