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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

PIX - STE

  • pixel - The pixel -- a word invented from picture element -- is the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image.
  • Planck's constant - Planck's constant, symbolized as h, is a fundamental universal constant that defines the quantum nature of energy and relates the energy of a photon to its frequency.
  • platform - In IT, a platform is any hardware or software used to host an application or service.
  • plug-in - Plug-in applications are programs that can easily be installed and used as part of your Web browser.
  • portal - Portal is a term, generally synonymous with gateway, for a World Wide Web site that is or proposes to be a major starting site for users when they get connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor site.
  • POST (Power-On Self-Test) - A Power-On Self-Test (POST) is an operation initiated by a computer after it has been turned on but before it boots up the OS.
  • pounds per square inch (PSI) - PSI is commonly used to measure the pressure of gasses (pneumatic pressure) or liquids (hydraulic pressure).
  • power user - A power user, also called a super user, is someone whose computer skills are better than those of an organization's average end user.
  • printed circuit board (PCB) - A printed circuit board (PCB) is the board base for physically supporting and wiring surface-mounted and socketed components in most electronics.
  • problem program - Now seldom used, the term problem program is used to distinguish a computer program that directly supports a user application from an operating system, a utility, or any other underlying support programming.
  • process hollowing - Process hollowing is a security exploit in which an attacker removes code in an executable file and replaces it with malicious code.
  • program - In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform.
  • project management - Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to successfully guide a project from conception through completion.
  • Project planning: What is it and 5 steps to create a plan - Project planning is a discipline addressing how to complete a project in a certain timeframe, usually with defined stages and designated resources.
  • propagation delay - Propagation delay is the amount of time required for a signal to be received after it has been sent; it is caused by the time it takes for the signal to travel through a medium.
  • propeller head (or propellor head, prop head, prophead) - A propeller head (also spelled propellor head, and sometimes shortened to prop head or prophead) is jargon for someone who is exceptionally, perhaps weirdly bright or knowledgeable, especially in some technical field.
  • proportionality - In mathematics, proportionality indicates that two quantities or variables are related in a linear manner.
  • prototype - In software development, a prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system, usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process.
  • pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) - A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a program written for, and used in, probability and statistics applications when large quantities of random digits are needed.
  • public sector - The public sector is the segment of an economic system that is controlled by government; it contrasts with the private sector, which is run by private citizens.
  • pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) - Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is the transmission of data by varying the amplitudes (voltage or power levels) of the individual pulses in a regularly timed sequence of electrical or electromagnetic pulses.
  • Q format - Q (number) format is a fixed-point method of coding fractional and whole integers for processing by a computer’s CPU or a digital signal processor (DSP).
  • quantum computing - Quantum computing is an area of study focused on the development of computer technologies based on the principles of quantum theory.
  • quantum internet - The quantum internet is a theoretical system of interconnected quantum computers that uses quantum signals to send information rather than radio waves.
  • quantum supremacy - Quantum supremacy is the experimental demonstration of a quantum computer's dominance and advantage over classic computers by performing calculations that were previously impossible at unmatched speeds.
  • quantum theory - Quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level.
  • qubit - A qubit is a quantum bit, the counterpart in quantum computing to the binary digit or bit of classical computing.
  • queries-per-second (QPS) - Queries-per-second (QPS) (or the query-per-second rate) is a measure of how much traffic a particular query server is handling at a given time.
  • radian per second (rad/s or rad/sec) - The radian per second (symbolized rad/s or rad/sec) is the Standard International (SI) unit of angular (rotational) speed.
  • random numbers - As the term suggests, a random number is a number chosen by chance -- i.
  • raster graphics - Raster graphics are digital images created or captured (for example, by scanning in a photo) as a set of samples of a given space.
  • raw data (source data or atomic data) - Raw data (sometimes called source data, atomic data or primary data) is data that has not been processed for use.
  • read-only - Read-only is a file attribute which only allows a user to view a file, restricting any writing to the file.
  • read-only memory (ROM) - Read-only memory, or ROM, is a type of computer storage containing non-volatile, permanent data that, normally, can only be read, not written to.
  • real time - Real time is a level of computer responsiveness that a user senses as sufficiently immediate or that enables the computer to keep up with some external process (for example, to present visualizations of the weather as it constantly changes).
  • real-time monitoring - Real-time (data) monitoring is the delivery of continuously updated information streaming at zero or low latency.
  • reboot (warm boot, cold boot) - To reboot is to restart a computer and reload the operating system.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • reseller - In information technology, a reseller is a company that typically purchases IT products or services from a product manufacturer, distributor or service provider and then markets them to customers.
  • resolution - Resolution is the number of pixels -- picture elements or individual points of color -- that can be contained on a display screen or in a camera sensor.
  • return merchandise authorization (RMA) - An RMA (return merchandise authorization) is a numbered authorization provided by a mail-order or e-commerce merchant to permit the return of a product.
  • reverse-engineering - Reverse-engineering is the act of dismantling an object to see how it works.
  • RGB (red, green, and blue) - RGB (red, green, and blue) refers to a system for representing the colors to be used on a computer display.
  • RISC (reduced instruction set computer) - RISC (reduced instruction set computer) is a microprocessor that is designed to perform a smaller number of types of computer instructions so that it can operate at a higher speed (perform more millions of instructions per second, or MIPS).
  • robot - A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks automatically with speed and precision.
  • robotics - Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture and operation of robots.
  • ROI (return on investment) - Return on investment, or ROI, is a mathematical formula that investors can use to evaluate their investments and judge how well a particular investment has performed compared to others.
  • root cause analysis - Root cause analysis (RCA) is a method for understanding the underlying cause of an observed or experienced incident.
  • runbook - Runbooks are a set of standardized written procedures for completing repetitive IT processes within a company.
  • runtime system - A runtime system is an engine that translates a given programming language or languages into machine code.
  • S-Video (Super-Video, Y/C Video, component video) - S-Video (Super-Video, sometimes referred to as Y/C Video, or component video) is a video signal transmission in which the luminance signal and the chrominance signal are transmitted separately to achieve superior picture clarity.
  • sample rate - In developing an audio sound for computers or telecommunication, the sample rate is the number of samples of a sound that are taken per second to represent the event digitally.
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act - The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a federal law that established sweeping auditing and financial regulations for public companies.
  • scalability - Scalability is the ability of a computer application or product (hardware or software) to continue to perform well when it (or its context) is changed in size or volume in order to meet a users need.
  • Schrodinger's cat - Schrödinger's cat is a famous hypothetical experiment designed to point out a flaw in the Copenhagen interpretation of superposition as it applies to quantum theory.
  • scientific method - The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation.
  • scientific notation (power-of-10 notation) - Scientific notation, also called power-of-10 notation, is a method of writing extremely large and small numbers.
  • search operator - A search operator (sometimes referred to as a search parameter) is a character or string of characters used in a search engine query to narrow the focus of the search.
  • second (s or sec) - The second (s or sec) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of time measurement.
  • sensor - A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.
  • serial presence detect (SPD) - When a computer is booted (started), serial presence detect (SPD) is information stored in anelectrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip on a synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) memory module that tells thebasic input/output system (BIOS) the module's size, data width, speed, and voltage.
  • server stack - A server stack is the collection of software that forms the operational infrastructure on a given machine.
  • service-oriented architecture (SOA) - Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a software development model that allows services to communicate across different platforms and languages to form applications.
  • shift register - A shift register is a digital memory circuit found in calculators, computers, and data-processing systems.
  • significant figures - The term significant figures refers to the number of important single digits (0 through 9 inclusive) in the coefficient of an expression in scientific notation.
  • silicon (Si) - Silicon is a chemical element (its symbol in chemical formula expressions is "Si") that is present in sand and glass and which is the best known semiconductor material in electronic components.
  • six degrees of separation - Six degrees of separation is the theory that any person on the planet can be connected to any other person on the planet through a chain of acquaintances that has no more than five intermediaries.
  • Six Sigma - Six Sigma is a business methodology for quality improvement that measures how many defects there are in a current process and seeks to systematically eliminate them.
  • SkunkWorks project (Skunk Works) - A skunk works is a small group of people who work on a project that needs to be completed quickly.
  • slack space (file slack space) - Slack space is the difference between its logical and physical size.
  • sleep mode - Sleep mode, sometimes called standby or suspend mode, is a power-sparing state that a computer can enter when not in use.
  • slice and dice - To slice and dice is to break a body of information down into smaller parts or to examine it from different viewpoints so that you can understand it better.
  • slowness movement - The slowness movement is a grassroots reaction to the hectic pace, overwork, and lack of leisure typical of modern life.
  • smart machines - A smart machine is a device embedded with machine-to-machine (M2M) and/or cognitive computing technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning or deep learning, all of which it uses to reason, problem-solve, make decisions and even, ultimately, take action.
  • SMB (small and medium-sized business or small and midsized business) - SMB is an abbreviation for small and medium-sized business, sometimes seen as small and midsized business.
  • snap-in - Snap-in, in general, refers to an object that can be attached to another object and that will then function as part of the whole.
  • Sniglet - Words that should be in the dictionary (but aren't) - A sniglet is a word that should be in the dictionary but isn't.
  • soft copy - A soft copy (sometimes spelled 'softcopy') is an electronic copy (or e-copy) of some type of data, such as a file viewed on a computer's display or transmitted as an email attachment.
  • soft reset - A soft reset is a restart of a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, laptop or personal computer (PC).
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software documentation - In the software development process, software documentation is the information that describes the product to the people who develop, deploy and use it.
  • software package - A software package is an assemblage of files and information about those files.
  • Software patch/fix - A software patch or fix is a quick-repair job for a piece of programming designed to resolve functionality issues, improve security or add new features.
  • solid - A solid is a state of matter that retains its shape and density when not confined.
  • sound card - A sound card (also referred to as an audio card) is a peripheral device that attaches to the ISA or PCI slot on a motherboard to enable the computer to input, process, and deliver sound.
  • sound wave - A sound wave is the pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water or any other liquid or solid matter) as it propagates away from the source of the sound.
  • space - Space is a term that can refer to various phenomena in science, mathematics and computing and generally encompasses the concept of an area or region.
  • spectrum analyzer - A spectrum analyzer is a device that measures and displays signal amplitude (strength) as it varies by frequency within its frequency range (spectrum).
  • square meter (meter squared) - The square meter, also called the meter squared, is the International System of Units (SI) unit of area.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • SRAM (static random access memory) - SRAM (static RAM) is a type of random access memory (RAM) that retains data bits in its memory as long as power is being supplied.
  • stack - TCP/IP is frequently referred to as a "stack.
  • stack overflow - A stack overflow is a type of buffer overflow error that occurs when a computer program tries to use more memory space in the call stack than has been allocated to that stack.
  • standard - A standard is a generally agreed-upon technology, method or format for a given application.
  • standard temperature and pressure (STP) - Standard temperature and pressure (STP) refers to the nominal conditions in the atmosphere at sea level.
  • statistical mean, median, mode and range - The terms mean, median, mode, and range describe properties of statistical distributions.
  • Stefan-Boltzmann constant - The Stefan-Boltzmann constant, symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter sigma (σ), is a physical constant expressing the relationship between the heat radiation emitted by a black body and its absolute temperature.
  • STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) - STEM is an educational approach that prepares primary and secondary students for college, graduate study and careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).
  • steradian - The steradian (symbolized sr) is the Standard International (SI) unit of solid angular measure.
  • stereoscopy (stereoscopic imaging) - Stereoscopy, sometimes called stereoscopic imaging, is a technique used to enable a three-dimensional effect, adding an illusion of depth to a flat image.
SearchNetworking
  • throughput

    Throughput is a measure of how many units of information a system can process in a given amount of time.

  • traffic shaping

    Traffic shaping, also known as packet shaping, is a congestion management method that regulates network data transfer by delaying...

  • open networking

    Open networking describes a network that uses open standards and commodity hardware.

SearchSecurity
  • buffer underflow

    A buffer underflow, also known as a buffer underrun or a buffer underwrite, is when the buffer -- the temporary holding space ...

  • pen testing (penetration testing)

    A penetration test, also called a pen test or ethical hacking, is a cybersecurity technique that organizations use to identify, ...

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

SearchCIO
  • benchmark

    A benchmark is a standard or point of reference people can use to measure something else.

  • spatial computing

    Spatial computing broadly characterizes the processes and tools used to capture, process and interact with 3D data.

  • organizational goals

    Organizational goals are strategic objectives that a company's management establishes to outline expected outcomes and guide ...

SearchHRSoftware
  • talent acquisition

    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

  • hybrid work model

    A hybrid work model is a workforce structure that includes employees who work remotely and those who work on site, in a company's...

SearchCustomerExperience
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