Browse Definitions :

Threat management

Terms related to security threats, including definitions about anti-virus programs or firewalls and words and phrases about malware, viruses, Trojans and other security attacks.

ROG - VIR

  • rogue employee - A rogue employee is a worker who undermines the organization that employs him by failing to comply with its business rules and policies.
  • rolling code - Rolling code, also known as hopping code, is an encryption technique commonly used to provide a fresh code for each use of a passive keyless entry (PKE) system.
  • romance scam - A romance scam is a fraudulent scheme in which a swindler pretends romantic interest in a target, establishes a relationship and then attempts to get money or sensitive information from the target under various false pretenses.
  • rootkit - A rootkit is a program or a collection of malicious software tools that give a threat actor remote access to and control over a computer or other system.
  • Roots of Trust (RoT) - Roots of Trust (RoT) is a set of functions in the trusted computing module that are always trusted by the computer’s operating system (OS).
  • Rowhammer - Rowhammer is a vulnerability in commodity dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips that allows an attacker to exploit devices with DRAM memory by repeatedly accessing (hammering) a row of memory until it causes bit flips and transistors in adjacent rows of memory reverse their binary state: ones turn into zeros and vice versa.
  • RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) - The RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is the basis of a cryptosystem -- a suite of cryptographic algorithms that are used for specific security services or purposes -- which enables public key encryption and is widely used to secure sensitive data, particularly when it is being sent over an insecure network, such as the internet.
  • S-HTTP (Secure HTTP) - S-HTTP (Secure HTTP) is an extension to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that allows the secure exchange of files on the World Wide Web.
  • Same Origin Policy (SOP) - The Same Origin Policy (SOP), also called Single Origin Policy, is a security measure used in Web browser programming languages such as JavaScript and Ajax to protect the confidentiality and integrity of information.
  • scareware - Scareware is a type of malware tactic used to manipulate victims into downloading or buying potentially malware-infested software.
  • script kiddie - Script kiddie is a derogative term that computer hackers coined to refer to immature, but often just as dangerous, exploiters of internet security weaknesses.
  • seat management - Seat management is a method of coordinating all the workstations in an enterprise network by overseeing the installation, operation, and maintenance of hardware and software at each workstation.
  • Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) - Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) is a system and electronic protocol to ensure the integrity and security of transactions conducted over the internet.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) - SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.
  • Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) - Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an open standard for sharing security information about identity, authentication and authorization across different systems.
  • security audit - A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms to an established set of criteria.
  • security awareness training - Security awareness training is a formal process for educating employees and third-party stakeholders, like contractors and business partners, how to protect an organization's computer systems, along with its data, people and other assets, from internet-based threats or criminals.
  • security clearance - A security clearance is an authorization that allows access to information that would otherwise be forbidden.
  • security debt - Security debt is a variant of technical debt that occurs when organizations do not invest enough money or resources into security efforts upfront.
  • security identifier (SID) - In the context of Windows computing and Microsoft Active Directory (AD), a security identifier (SID) is a unique value that is used to identify any security entity that the operating system (OS) can authenticate.
  • security incident - A security incident is an event that may indicate that an organization's systems or data have been compromised or that measures put in place to protect them have failed.
  • security information management (SIM) - Security information management (SIM) is the practice of collecting, monitoring and analyzing security-related data from computer logs and various other data sources.
  • security intelligence (SI) - Security intelligence (SI) is the information relevant to protecting an organization from external and inside threats as well as the processes, policies and tools designed to gather and analyze that information.
  • security operations center (SOC) - A security operations center (SOC) is a command center facility for a team of IT professionals with expertise in information security who monitors, analyzes and protects an organization from cyber attacks.
  • security policy - A security policy is a document that states in writing how a company plans to protect its physical and information technology (IT) assets.
  • security posture - Security posture refers to an organization's overall cybersecurity strength and how well it can predict, prevent and respond to ever-changing cyber threats.
  • security theater - Security theater includes any measures taken by a company or security team to create an atmosphere of safety that may only achieve the appearance of heightened security.
  • security token - A security token is a physical or digital device that provides two-factor authentication for a user to prove their identity in a login process.
  • Sender Policy Framework (SPF) - Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is a protocol designed to restrict who can use an organization's domain as the source of an email message.
  • SEO poisoning (search poisoning) - Search poisoning, also known as search engine poisoning, is an attack involving malicious websites that are designed to show up prominently in search results.
  • session ID - A session ID is a unique number that a Web site's server assigns to identify a specific user for the duration of that user's visit (session).
  • session key - A session key is an encryption and decryption key that is randomly generated to ensure the security of a communications session between a user and another computer or between two computers.
  • shadow password file - A shadow password file, also known as /etc/shadow, is a system file in Linux that stores encrypted user passwords and is accessible only to the root user, preventing unauthorized users or malicious actors from breaking into the system.
  • shareware - Shareware is software that is distributed free on a trial basis with the understanding that the user may need or want to pay for it later.
  • Shellshock - Shellshock is the common name for a coding vulnerability found in the Bash shell user interface that affects Unix-based operating systems, including Linux and Mac OS X, and allows attackers to remotely gain complete control of a system.
  • shoulder surfing - Shoulder surfing is using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone's shoulder, to get information.
  • side-channel attack - A side-channel attack is a security exploit that aims to gather information from or influence the program execution of a system by measuring or exploiting indirect effects of the system or its hardware -- rather than targeting the program or its code directly.
  • SIGINT (signals intelligence) - SIGINT (signals intelligence) is information gained by the collection and analysis of the electronic signals and communications of a given target.
  • single sign-on (SSO) - Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for example, a name and password -- to access multiple applications.
  • single-factor authentication (SFA) - Single-factor authentication (SFA) is the traditional security process that requires a user name and password before granting access to the user.
  • smart card - A smart card is a physical card that has an embedded integrated chip that acts as a security token.
  • smart home or building (home automation or domotics) - A smart home is a residence that uses internet-connected devices to enable the remote monitoring and management of appliances and systems, such as lighting and heating.
  • SMS spam (cell phone spam or short messaging service spam) - SMS spam (sometimes called cell phone spam) is any junk message delivered to a mobile phone as text messaging through the Short Message Service (SMS).
  • snooping - Snooping, in a security context, is unauthorized access to another person's or company's data.
  • Snort - Snort is an open source network intrusion detection system (NIDS) created by Sourcefire founder and former CTO Martin Roesch.
  • Snowden effect - The Snowden effect is an increase in public awareness about information privacy and security due to Edward Snowden's revelations about the U.
  • social engineering - Social engineering is an attack vector that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves manipulating people into breaking normal security procedures and best practices to gain unauthorized access to systems, networks or physical locations or for financial gain.
  • social engineering penetration testing - Social engineering pen testing is designed to test employees' adherence to the security policies and practices defined by management.
  • software attack surface - The software attack surface is the complete profile of all functions in any code running in a given system that are available to an unauthenticated user.
  • spambot - A spambot is a program designed to collect, or harvest, e-mail addresses from the Internet in order to build mailing lists for sending unsolicited e-mail, also known as spam.
  • spear phishing - Spear phishing is a malicious email spoofing attack that targets a specific organization or individual, seeking unauthorized access to sensitive information.
  • spim (instant messaging spam) - Spim is spam delivered through instant messaging (IM) instead of through e-mail messaging.
  • SPIT (spam over Internet telephony) - SPIT (spam over Internet telephony), sometimes known as vam (voice or VoIP spam), is unsolicited bulk messages broadcast over VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) to phones connected to the Internet.
  • spyware - Spyware is a type of malicious software -- or malware -- that is installed on a computing device without the end user's knowledge.
  • SS7 attack - An SS7 attack is a security exploit that takes advantage of a weakness in the design of SS7 (Signaling System 7) to enable data theft, eavesdropping, text interception and location tracking.
  • stack overflow - A stack overflow is an undesirable condition in which a particular computer program tries to use more memory space than the call stack has available.
  • stateful inspection - Stateful inspection, also known as dynamic packet filtering, is a firewall technology that monitors the state of active connections and uses this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall.
  • stealth virus - A stealth virus is a computer virus that uses various mechanisms to avoid detection by antivirus software.
  • stingray (IMSI catcher) - A stingray is a mobile surveillance device also known as an IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) catcher or a cell site simulator.
  • STIX (Structured Threat Information eXpression) - STIX (Structured Threat Information eXpression) is an XML programming language that allows cybersecurity threat data to be shared.
  • storage encryption - Storage encryption is the use of encryption/decryption of backed-up and archived data, both in transit and on storage media.
  • storage security - Storage security is the group of parameters and settings that make storage resources available to authorized users and trusted networks -- and unavailable to other entities.
  • stream cipher - A stream cipher is a method of encrypting text (to produce ciphertext) in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to each binary digit in a data stream, one bit at a time.
  • strong password - A strong password is one that is designed to be hard for a person or program to guess.
  • Stuxnet - The Stuxnet worm is a rootkit exploit that targets supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems.
  • supercookie - A supercookie is a type of tracking cookie inserted into an HTTP header by an internet service provider to collect data about a user's internet browsing history and habits.
  • supply chain attack - A supply chain attack is a type of cyber attack that targets organizations by focusing on weaker links in an organization's supply chain.
  • supply chain security - Supply chain security is the part of supply chain management that focuses on the risk management of external suppliers, vendors, logistics and transportation.
  • surveillance metadata - Surveillance metadata is details about data pertaining to the actions of an observed party.
  • SYN flood attack - A SYN flood attack is a type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a computer server.
  • SYN scanning - SYN scanning is a tactic that a malicious hacker can use to determine the state of a communications port without establishing a full connection.
  • tailgating (piggybacking) - Tailgating, sometimes referred to as piggybacking, is a physical security breach in which an unauthorized person follows an authorized individual to enter a secured premise.
  • TCP Wrapper - TCP Wrapper is a public domain computer program that provides firewall services for UNIX servers.
  • tcpdump - Tcpdump is an open source command-line tool for monitoring (sniffing) network traffic.
  • TDL-4 (TDSS or Alureon) - TDL-4 is sophisticated malware that facilitates the creation and maintenance of a botnet.
  • thingbot - A thingbot is something with an embedded system and an Internet connection that has been coopted by a hacker as a part of a botnet.
  • threat actor - A threat actor, also called a malicious actor or bad actor, is an entity that is partially or wholly responsible for an incident that impacts – or has the potential to impact -- an organization's security.
  • threat ignorance - Threat ignorance is a concept used by security professionals to determine the level of vulnerability a company or user’s computer or system has to an attack.
  • threat intelligence (cyber threat intelligence) - Threat intelligence, also known as cyber threat intelligence (CTI), is information collected from various sources about current or potential attacks that threaten an organization.
  • threat modeling - Threat modeling is a procedure for optimizing application, system or business process security by identifying objectives and vulnerabilities, and then defining countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the effects of threats to the system.
  • timing attack - A timing attack looks at how long it takes a system to do something and allows the attacker, through statistical analysis, to learn enough about the system to find the decryption key needed to gain access to it.
  • token - In general, a token is an object that represents something else, such as another object (either physical or virtual), or an abstract concept as, for example, a gift is sometimes referred to as a token of the giver's esteem for the recipient.
  • tokenization - Tokenization is the process of replacing sensitive data with unique identification symbols that retain all the essential information about the data without compromising its security.
  • Top 10 spyware threats - The top 10 spyware list describes the 10 common spyware threats behind famous spyware attacks and is frequently identified by Webroot's Spy Audit, a free spyware scanner tool.
  • Tor browser - The Tor (the onion routing) browser is a web browser designed for anonymous web surfing and protection against traffic analysis.
  • Transport Layer Security (TLS) - Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard protocol that provides authentication, privacy and data integrity between two communicating computer applications.
  • TrickBot malware - A TrickBot is malware designed to steal banking information.
  • trigraph - A trigraph is a three-character replacement for a special or nonstandard character in a text file.
  • Trojan horse (computing) - In computing, a Trojan horse is a program downloaded and installed on a computer that appears harmless, but is, in fact, malicious.
  • trusted computing - Trusted computing is a broad term that refers to technologies and proposals for resolving computer security problems through hardware enhancements and associated software modifications.
  • trusted computing base (TCB) - A trusted computing base (TCB) is everything in a computing system that provides a secure environment for operations.
  • Trusted Platform Module (TPM) - A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a specialized chip on a device designed to secure hardware with cryptographic keys.
  • tunneling or port forwarding - Tunneling is the transmission of data intended for use only within a private, usually corporate network through a public network in such a way that the routing nodes in the public network are unaware that the transmission is part of a private network.
  • two-factor authentication (2FA) - Two-factor authentication (2FA), sometimes referred to as two-step verification or dual-factor authentication, is a security process in which users provide two different authentication factors to verify themselves.
  • Twofish - Twofish is a symmetric-key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and variable-length key of size 128, 192 or 256 bits.
  • unexplained wealth order (UWO) - An unexplained wealth order (UWO) is an investigative tool used by law enforcement that can be used with other civil powers to identify and retrieve the proceeds of criminal activities from the recipients.
  • unified threat management (UTM) - Unified threat management (UTM) describes an information security (infosec) system that provides a single point of protection against threats, including viruses, worms, spyware and other malware, and network attacks.
  • USB Killer - USB Killer is a device that connects to USB drives and delivers a surge which can damage or destroy unprotected hardware.
  • user profile - In a Windows environment, a user profile is a record of user-specific data that define the user's working environment.
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