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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

SIL - TRU

  • silicon (Si) - Silicon is a chemical element (its symbol in chemical formula expressions is "Si") that is present in sand and glass and which is the best known semiconductor material in electronic components.
  • Silicon Alley - Silicon Alley is the growing community of Internet and computer-oriented businesses, mainly startup companies, in the New York metropolitan area, particularly Manhattan's downtown.
  • single-system image (SSI) - Single-system image (SSI) is the idea that the resources provided by cluster computing or in any system which aggregates resources should present a single interface to the user.
  • site map - A site map is a visual or textually organized model of a Web site's content that allows the users to navigate through the site to find the information they are looking for, just as a traditional geographical map helps people find places they are looking for in the real world.
  • six degrees of separation - Six degrees of separation is the theory that any person on the planet can be connected to any other person on the planet through a chain of acquaintances that has no more than five intermediaries.
  • Six Sigma - Six Sigma is a business methodology for quality improvement that measures how many defects there are in a current process and seeks to systematically eliminate them.
  • SKU (stockkeeping unit) - SKU (stockkeeping unit, sometimes spelled "Sku") is an identification, usually alphanumeric, of a particular product that allows it to be tracked for inventory purposes.
  • SkunkWorks project (Skunk Works) - A skunk works is a small group of people who work on a project that needs to be completed quickly.
  • slack space (file slack space) - Slack space is the difference between its logical and physical size.
  • sleep mode - Sleep mode, sometimes called standby or suspend mode, is a power-sparing state that a computer can enter when not in use.
  • slice and dice - To slice and dice is to break a body of information down into smaller parts or to examine it from different viewpoints so that you can understand it better.
  • slowness movement - The slowness movement is a grassroots reaction to the hectic pace, overwork, and lack of leisure typical of modern life.
  • Small Office Home Office (SOHO) - In information technology, SOHO is a term for the small office or home office environment and business culture.
  • smart machines - A smart machine is a device embedded with machine-to-machine (M2M) and/or cognitive computing technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning or deep learning, all of which it uses to reason, problem-solve, make decisions and even, ultimately, take action.
  • smart wristwatch - A smart wristwatch is a wristwatch that not only tells time but, using a wireless connection to an information source, can show you the news, stock, sports scores, or weather; remind you of meetings on your Outlook calendar; provide instant messaging input from others; and update the time when you move to another time zone.
  • SMB (small and medium-sized business or small and midsized business) - SMB is an abbreviation for small and medium-sized business, sometimes seen as small and midsized business.
  • smiley - In Internet e-mail messages and Web discussions, a smiley is a sequence of typed characters that graphically produces the sideways image of someone smiling, like this::-)The first use of a smiley is currently attributed to Scott E.
  • snap-in - Snap-in, in general, refers to an object that can be attached to another object and that will then function as part of the whole.
  • sneakernet - Sneakernet is a jargon term for the method of transmitting electronic information by personally carrying it from one place to another on floppy disk or other removable medium.
  • Sniglet - Words that should be in the dictionary (but aren't) - A sniglet is a word that should be in the dictionary but isn't.
  • soft copy - A soft copy (sometimes spelled "softcopy") is an electronic copy of some type of data, such as a file viewed on a computer's display or transmitted as an e-mail attachment.
  • soft error - A soft error is an issue that causes a temporary condition in RAM that alters stored data in an unintended way.
  • soft reset - A soft reset is a restart of a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, laptop or personal computer (PC).
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software documentation - In the software development process, software documentation is the information that describes the product to the people who develop, deploy and use it.
  • software package - A software package is an assemblage of files and information about those files.
  • Software patch/fix - A software patch or fix is a quick-repair job for a piece of programming designed to resolve functionality issues, improve security or add new features.
  • solid - A solid is a state of matter that retains its shape and density when not confined.
  • sound card - A sound card (also referred to as an audio card) is a peripheral device that attaches to the ISA or PCI slot on a motherboard to enable the computer to input, process, and deliver sound.
  • sound wave - A sound wave is the pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water or any other liquid or solid matter) as it propagates away from the source of the sound.
  • space - Space is a term that can refer to various phenomena in science, mathematics and computing and generally encompasses the concept of an area or region.
  • spectrum analyzer - A spectrum analyzer is a device that measures and displays signal amplitude (strength) as it varies by frequency within its frequency range (spectrum).
  • speech synthesis - Speech synthesis is the computer-generated simulation of human speech.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • SRAM (static random access memory) - SRAM (static RAM) is a type of random access memory (RAM) that retains data bits in its memory as long as power is being supplied.
  • stack - TCP/IP is frequently referred to as a "stack.
  • standard - A standard is a generally agreed-upon technology, method or format for a given application.
  • standards organization - A standards organization, sometimes referred to as a standards body, is an organization with authority to endorse official standards for given applications.
  • standby power - Standby power is electrical power that a device consumes when not in present use, but plugged in to a source of power and ready to be used.
  • state machine - In general, a state machine is any device that stores the status of something at a given time and can operate on input to change the status and/or cause an action or output to take place for any given change.
  • statistical mean, median, mode and range - The terms mean, median, mode, and range describe properties of statistical distributions.
  • STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) - STEM is an educational program developed to prepare primary and secondary students for college and graduate study in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).
  • steradian - The steradian (symbolized sr) is the Standard International (SI) unit of solid angular measure.
  • stereoscopy (stereoscopic imaging) - Stereoscopy, sometimes called stereoscopic imaging, is a technique used to enable a three-dimensional effect, adding an illusion of depth to a flat image.
  • stickiness - Stickiness is anything about a Web site that encourages a visitor to stay longer.
  • storage (computer storage) - Data storage is the collective methods and technologies that capture and retain digital information on electromagnetic, optical or silicon-based storage media.
  • storage consolidation - Storage consolidation, also called storage convergence is a method of centralizing data storage among multiple servers.
  • storage filer - A storage filer is a type of file server designed and programmed for high-volume data storage, backup and archiving.
  • storage medium (storage media) - In computers, a storage medium is a physical device that receives and retains electronic data for applications and users and makes the data available for retrieval.
  • storage utilization - Storage utilization is a measure of how well the available data storage space in an enterprise is used.
  • storage volume - A storage volume is an identifiable unit of data storage.
  • straw man - In general, a straw man is an object, document, person, or argument that temporarily stands in for and is intended to be "knocked down" by something more substantial.
  • streaming media - Streaming media is video or audio content sent in compressed form over the Internet and played immediately, rather than being saved to the hard drive.
  • suffix - A suffix is something added at the end of a word that conditions its usage or meaning.
  • summation (sum) - A summation, also called a sum, is the result of arithmetically adding numbers or quantities.
  • Sun Microsystems - Sun Microsystems (often just called "Sun"), the leading company in computers used as Web servers, also makes servers designed for use as engineering workstations, data storage products, and related software.
  • supercomputer - A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the highest operational rate for computers.
  • superposition - Superposition is the ability of a quantum system to be in multiple states at the same time until it is measured.
  • support - In information technology, support refers to functionality that is provided between or among products, programs, devices, modes, or accessories.
  • symmetric communications - Compare asymmetric communications.
  • synchronicity - Synchronicity is a concept developed by psychologist Carl Jung to describe a perceived meaningful coincidence.
  • synchronous - In general, synchronous (pronounced SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek syn-, meaning "with," and chronos, meaning "time") is an adjective describing objects or events that are coordinated in time.
  • system - A system is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose.
  • system administrator (sysadmin) - A system administrator (sysadmin) is an information technolog professional who supports a multiuser computing environment and ensures continuous, optimal performance of IT services and support systems.
  • system software - System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer's hardware and application programs.
  • systems thinking - Systems thinking is a holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system's constituent parts interrelate and how systems work over time and within the context of larger systems.
  • table - In computer programming, a table is a data structure used to organize information, just as it is on paper.
  • Table of Physical Constants - Quick look-up chart.
  • talk time - In customer relationship management (CRM), talk time is the amount of time a call center agent spends with a caller during a transaction.
  • taxonomy - Taxonomy is the science of classification according to a predetermined system, with the resulting catalog being used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion or analysis.
  • TCO (total cost of ownership) - Total cost of ownership (TCO) is an estimation of the expenses associated with purchasing, deploying, using and retiring a product or piece of equipment.
  • tebibyte (TiB) - A tebibyte (TiB) is a unit of measure used to describe computing capacity.
  • technical requirements - Technical requirements, in the context of software development and systems engineering, are the factors required to deliver a desired function or behavior from a system to satisfy a user’s standards and needs.
  • technobabble - In information technology and other specialized areas, technobabble is the use of technical or "insider" terms that, to the uninitiated, have no meaning.
  • technological convergence - Technological convergence is a term that describes bringing previously unrelated technologies together, often in a single device.
  • telecommuting - Telecommuting is an arrangement to work outside the traditional office or workplace, usually at home or in a mobile situation.
  • Terabyte (TB) - A terabyte (TB) is a unit of digital data that is equal to about 1 trillion bytes.
  • teraflop - A teraflop is a measure of a computer's speed and can be expressed as: A trillion floating point operations per second 10 to the 12th power floating-point operations per second 2 to the 40th power flops Today's fastest parallel computing operations are capable of teraflop speeds.
  • text - In information technology, text is a human-readable sequence of characters and the words they form that can be encoded into computer-readable formats such as ASCII.
  • theory of relativity - Albert Einstein's theory of relativity is actually two separate theories: his special theory of relativity, postulated in the 1905 paper, The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies and his theory of general relativity, an expansion of the earlier theory, published as The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity in 1916.
  • thin-film transistor (TFT) - A display screen made with TFT (thin-film transistor) technology is a liquid crystal display (LCD), common in notebook and laptop computers, that has a transistor for each pixel (that is, for each of the tiny elements that control the illumination of your display).
  • thing (in the Internet of Things) - A thing, in the context of the Internet of things (IoT), is an entity or physical object that has a unique identifier, an embedded system and the ability to transfer data over a network.
  • throughput - Throughput is a term used in information technology that indicates how many units of information can be processed in a set amount of time.
  • TIFF (Tag Image File Format) - TIFF (Tag Image File Format) is a common format for exchanging raster graphics (bitmap) images between application programs, including those used for scanner images.
  • tilde - A tilde (pronounced TILL-duh or TILL-dee) looks like this: ~.
  • timeshifting - Timeshifting is the process of recording and storing data for later viewing, listening, or reading.
  • tipping point - The tipping point is the critical point in an evolving situation that leads to a new and irreversible development.
  • token - In general, a token is an object that represents something else, such as another object (either physical or virtual), or an abstract concept as, for example, a gift is sometimes referred to as a token of the giver's esteem for the recipient.
  • torque - Torque is a twisting or turning force that tends to cause rotation around an axis; it can also be thought of as the ability of something that is rotating, such as a gear or a shaft, to overcome turning resistance.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) - Total Quality Management is a management framework based on the belief that an organization can build long-term success by having all its members, from low-level workers to its highest ranking executives, focus on quality improvement and, thus, delivering customer satisfaction.
  • transcription error - A transcription error is a specific type of data entry error that is commonly made by human operators or by optical character recognition (OCR) programs.
  • transparent - In computers, transparent means something a little different than its general meaning of having the quality of being easily seen through, coming closer to meaning invisible or undetectable.
  • transparent GIF - A transparent GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is an image file that has one color assigned to be "transparent" so that the assigned color will be replaced by the browser's background color, whatever it may be.
  • tree network - In telecommunication networks, a tree network is a combination of two or more star networks connected together.
  • trigraph - A trigraph is a three-character replacement for a special or nonstandard character in a text file.
  • trinary - Trinary logic is three-level digital logic, with states represented by the numbers -1, 0, and 1.
  • troubleshooting - Troubleshooting is a systematic approach to problem-solving that is often used to find and correct issues with complex machines, electronics, computers and software systems.
  • true multitasking - True multitasking is the capacity of an operating system to carry out two or more tasks simultaneously rather than switching from one task to another.
  • trusted execution environment (TEE) - A trusted execution environment (TEE) is an area on the main processor of a device that is separated from the system’s main operating system (OS) to ensure that sensitive data can be stored and managed in a secure environment.
  • truth table - A truth table is a breakdown of a logic function by listing all possible values the function can attain.
SearchNetworking
  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

  • overlay network

    An overlay network is a virtual or logical network that is created on top of an existing physical network.

SearchSecurity
  • encryption

    Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information's true meaning.

  • X.509 certificate

    An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public key infrastructure (PKI) ...

  • directory traversal

    Directory traversal is a type of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a web server to access data in a directory ...

SearchCIO
  • resource allocation

    Resource allocation is the process of assigning and managing assets in a manner that supports an organization's strategic ...

  • chief digital officer (CDO)

    A chief digital officer (CDO) is charged with helping an enterprise use digital information and advanced technologies to create ...

  • security audit

    A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

  • customer intelligence (CI)

    Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources ...

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