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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

MIC - PIP

  • microdata - Microdata is a type of specification language that is embedded within HTML content to improve machine readability, annotate elements and analyze web pages.
  • microsecond - A microsecond (us or Greek letter mu plus s) is one millionth (10 -6) of a second.
  • Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) - Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) is a feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012 that allows users to access RemoteApp and Desktop Connection through the Start menu or a Web browser.
  • Microsoft Windows Control Panel - The Microsoft Windows Control Panel is a management tool for the Windows operating system (OS) that allows end users to change settings and manage tasks within the OS.
  • Microsoft Windows Defender - Windows Defender is Microsoft's antimalware software.
  • middleware - Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and other tools or databases.
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a protocol designed for recording and playing back music on digital synthesizers that is supported by many makes of personal computer sound cards.
  • Millennium Simulation - The Millennium Simulation is a computer program that uses the laws of physics and initial conditions at the time the universe was formed to simulate the structure and the evolution of the universe, and in particular, the evolution of black hole s, galaxies, and quasar s.
  • millimeter (mm, millimetre) - A millimeter (abbreviated as mm and sometimes spelled as millimetre) is a small unit of length/distance in the metric system, one-thousandth of a meter (which is similar in length to a yard in the Imperial system of measurement).
  • millisecond - (This definition follows U.
  • Mini-ITX 2.0 - Mini-ITX 2.0 is a motherboard designed for use in small form factor personal computers (PCs).
  • MIPS (million instructions per second) - The number of MIPS (million instructions per second) is a general measure of computing performance and, by implication, the amount of work a larger computer can do.
  • MIS (management information systems) - MIS, or management information systems, is the software and hardware to support critical business applications.
  • mobile device - A mobile device is essentially a handheld computer.
  • mobo (motherboard) - Mobo is a short form for motherboard that is sometimes used in Usenet newsgroups and Web forum discussions.
  • modeling and simulation (M&S) - Modeling and simulation (M&S) is the use of a physical or logical representation of a given system to generate data and help determine decisions or make predictions about the system.
  • mole per meter cubed (Avogadro constant) - The mole per meter cubed (mol / m 3) is the International Unit of amount-of-substance concentration.
  • molecule - A molecule is two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds, which form the smallest unit of a substance that retains the composition and properties of that substance.
  • monolithic - Monolithic, in information technology, means either very large or composed all in one piece, depending on the particular context.
  • Morse code - Morse code is a method of sending text messages by keying in a series of electronic pulses, usually represented as a short pulse (called a "dot") and a long pulse (a "dash").
  • most significant bit or byte - The most significant bit (MSB) is the bit in a multiple-bit binary number with the largest value.
  • motherboard - A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer.
  • motive power - Motive power is a term in thermodynamics referring to the harnessed energy or force that is used to power a mechanical device or system.
  • MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) - MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) is a standard technology and format for a sound sequence into a very small file (about one-twelfth the size of the original file) while preserving the original level of sound quality when it is played.
  • mu - The lowercase Greek letter mu is used to represent the prefix multiplier 0.
  • multicore processor - A multicore processor is an integrated circuit that has two or more processors attached for enhanced performance and reduced power consumption.
  • MultiMediaCard (MMC) - A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is a tiny memory card that uses flash memory to make storage portable among various devices, such as car navigation systems, cellular phones, eBooks, PDAs, smartphones, and digital cameras, music players, and video camcorders, and personal computers.
  • multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the coordinated processing of programs by more than one computer processor.
  • multitasking - Multitasking, in an operating system, is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time.
  • Murphy's Law - The original Murphy's Law was "If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, then someone will do it.
  • NACK (NAK, negative acknowledgment, not acknowledged) - NACK, or NAK, an abbreviation for negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged, is a signal used by computers or other devices to indicate that data transmitted over a network was received with errors or was otherwise unreadable.
  • nanocomputer - A nanocomputer is a computer whose physical dimensions are microscopic.
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanometer - A nanometer is a unit of spatial measurement that is 10-9 meter, or one billionth of a meter.
  • nanosecond (ns or nsec) - (This definition follows U.
  • nanotransistor - A nanotransistor is a transistor - the component that acts as an electronic signal switch or amplifier - that is near the scale of a billionth of a meter (or nanometer) in size.
  • nanotube (carbon nanotube) - A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a miniature cylindrical carbon structure that has hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • native - In computer systems, native means "original" or "basic.
  • native app - A native application is a software program that is developed for use on a particular platform or device.
  • native code - Native code is computer programming (code) that is compiled to run with a particular processor and its set of instructions.
  • natural language - In computing, natural language refers to a human language such as English, Russian, German, or Japanese as distinct from the typically artificial command or programming language with which one usually talks to a computer.
  • nearline storage - Nearline storage is the on-site storage of data on removable media.
  • nearshore outsourcing - Nearshore outsourcing is the practice of getting work done or services performed by people in neighboring countries rather than an organization's country.
  • net metering - Net metering is a utility resource usage and payment scheme in which a customer who generates their own power is compensated monetarily.
  • network availability - Network availability is the amount of uptime in a network system over a specific time interval.
  • network protocol - A network protocol is a set of established rules that dictate how to format, transmit and receive data so that computer network devices -- from servers and routers to endpoints -- can communicate, regardless of the differences in their underlying infrastructures, designs or standards.
  • network socket - Sockets are created and used with a set of programming requests or "function calls" sometimes called the sockets application programming interface (API).
  • neuromarketing - Neuromarketing is the study of how people's brains respond to advertising and other brand-related messages by scientifically monitoring brainwave activity, eye tracking and skin response.
  • newton - The newton is the Standard International (SI) unit of force.
  • nibble - In computers and digital technology, a nibble (pronounced NIHB-uhl; sometimes spelled nybble) is four binary digits or half of an eight-bit byte.
  • nil - In general use, nil (a contraction of Latin "nihil") means "nothing" or the absence of something.
  • nomadicity - Nomadicity is the tendency of a person, or group of people, to move with relative frequency.
  • non-geographic number - A non-geographic number, also called a virtual number, is a telephone number associated with a country, but not to any single geographic location within that country.
  • null set - In mathematical sets, the null set, also called the empty set, is the set that does not contain anything.
  • OA&M (operations, administration, and management) - OA&M (operations, administration, and management) is a general term used to describe the costs, tasks involved, or other aspects of operating, administering, and managing something such as a computer network.
  • object code - Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a computer.
  • object ID (OID) - An object identifier (OID) is an unambiguous, long-term name for any type of object or entity.
  • obliquity - In systems engineering, obliquity is a theory that proposes the best way to achieve a goal when you are working with a complex system is to take an indirect approach instead of a direct one.
  • Ockham's razor (Occam's razor) - Ockham's razor (also spelled Occam's razor, pronounced AHK-uhmz RAY-zuhr) is the idea that, in trying to understand something, getting unnecessary information out of the way is the fastest way to the truth or to the best explanation.
  • octet - In computers, an octet (from the Latin octo or "eight") is a sequence of eight bit s.
  • OEM (original equipment manufacturer) - OEM, or original equipment manufacturer, is a broad term that describes a web of relationships among IT hardware vendors, hardware component makers, software vendors and channel partners such as resellers and distributors.
  • offline - Offline is the condition of being capable of but currently not connected to a network of computers or other devices.
  • offshore outsourcing - Offshore outsourcing, a type of business process outsourcing (BPO), is the exporting of IT-related work from the United States and other developed countries to areas of the world where there is both political stability and lower labor costs or tax savings.
  • ohnosecond - An ohnosecond is that very short moment in time during which you realize that you have pressed the wrong key and deleted hours, days, or weeks of work.
  • OK - OK (pronounced oh-KAY and occasionally spelled okay) is a short way to say "I agree.
  • on the fly - In relation to computer technology, "on the fly" describes activities that develop or occur dynamically rather than as the result of something that is statically predefined.
  • on-demand computing - On-demand computing (ODC) is an enterprise computing delivery model in which computing resources are made available to the user as needed.
  • online - Online is the condition of being connected to a network of computers or other devices.
  • onshore outsourcing (domestic outsourcing) - Onshore outsourcing, also known as domestic outsourcing, is the obtaining of services from someone outside a company but within the same country.
  • open - In information technology, a product or system is described as open when its workings are exposed to the public and capable of being modified or improved by anyone.
  • open system - In a computing context, an open system is an open source operating system, typically composed of coordinated modular components from a number of sources and not reliant upon any proprietary elements.
  • operand - In computers, an operand is the part of a computer instruction that specifies data that is to be operating on or manipulated and, by extension, the data itself.
  • operation - An operation, in mathematics and computer science, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
  • operations research (OR) - Operations research (OR) is an analytical method of problem-solving and decision-making that is useful in the management of organizations.
  • out of the box - "Out of the box" is an expression that describes nonconformal, creative thinking.
  • outsourcing - Outsourcing is a business practice in which a company hires a third-party to perform tasks, handle operations or provide services for the company.
  • overhead - In business accounting, overhead is general operating expenses, including such items as heat and electricity for the premises, that have no direct relationship to the production or selling of a company's goods and services.
  • packet-switched - Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data called packets are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet.
  • page - On the World Wide Web, a page is a file notated with the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
  • pagefile - In storage, a pagefile is a reserved portion of a hard disk that is used as an extension of random access memory (RAM) for data in RAM that hasn't been used recently.
  • paper and binding sizes - Standard weights and measures provided by S.
  • para-site - A para-site is a Web site that frames other Web sites or pages within its own site.
  • parallel - In the context of the Internet and computing, parallel means more than one event happening at a time.
  • parallel processing - Parallel processing is a method in computing of running two or more processors (CPUs) to handle separate parts of an overall task.
  • parity - Parity is a method of detecting errors in data transmissions between computers, while parity bit and parity checking are used in RAID technology to guard against data loss.
  • pascal - The pascal (Pa) is the unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI).
  • PC Card - A PC Card (previously known as a PCMCIA card) is a credit card-size memory or I/O device that fits into a personal computer, usually a notebook or laptop computer.
  • Pepys' weblog - The famous diary that Samuel Pepys (pronounced PEEPS), once the head of England's Navy, kept during the years 1660-1669 is being made available online in the form of a weblog.
  • performance - Performance seems to have two meanings: The speed at which a computer operates, either theoretically (for example, using a formula for calculating Mtops - millions of theoretical instructions per second) or by counting operations or instructions performed (for example, (MIPS) - millions of instructions per second) during a benchmark test.
  • personal operating space (POS) - A personal operating space (POS) is a roughly spherical region that surrounds a portable or handheld digital wireless device operated by a person.
  • personality profile - A personality profile is a knowledge management tool used to provide an evaluation of an employee's personal attributes, values and life skills in an effort to maximize his or her job performance and contribution to the company.
  • pervasive computing (ubiquitous computing) - Pervasive computing, also called ubiquitous computing, is the growing trend of embedding computational capability (generally in the form of microprocessors) into everyday objects to make them effectively communicate and perform useful tasks in a way that minimizes the end user's need to interact with computers as computers.
  • petaflop - A petaflop is a measure of a computer's processing speed and can be expressed as a quadrillion (thousand trillion) floating point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent websites without their knowledge or consent.
  • phase-change memory (PCM) - Phase-change memory (PCM) is a form of computer RAM (random-access memory) that stores data by altering the state of the matter from which the device is fabricated.
  • phenomenon - A phenomenon, in a scientific context, is something that is observed to occur or to exist.
  • photonics - Photonics is an area of study that involves the use of radiant energy (such as light), whose fundamental element is the photon.
  • physical security - Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware, software, networks and data from physical actions and events that could cause serious loss or damage to an enterprise, agency or institution.
  • pi - Pi is a numerical constant that represents the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter on a flat plane surface.
  • pictograph - In graph theory, a pictograph is a graph that shows numerical information by using picture symbols or icons to represent data sets.
SearchNetworking
  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

  • overlay network

    An overlay network is a virtual or logical network that is created on top of an existing physical network.

SearchSecurity
  • encryption

    Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information's true meaning.

  • X.509 certificate

    An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public key infrastructure (PKI) ...

  • directory traversal

    Directory traversal is a type of HTTP exploit in which a hacker uses the software on a web server to access data in a directory ...

SearchCIO
  • resource allocation

    Resource allocation is the process of assigning and managing assets in a manner that supports an organization's strategic ...

  • chief digital officer (CDO)

    A chief digital officer (CDO) is charged with helping an enterprise use digital information and advanced technologies to create ...

  • security audit

    A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

  • customer intelligence (CI)

    Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources ...

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