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  • coulomb (C) - A coulomb (C) is the standard unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI).
  • Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption protocol based on the U.
  • counterintelligence - Counterintelligence (CI) is the information gathered and actions taken to identify and protect against an adversary’s knowledge collection activities or attempts to cause harm through sabotage or other actions.
  • COVID-19 Glossary for Employers and HR Managers - We will be updating this pandemic glossary frequently over the next few weeks to help you use consistent vocabulary in your crisis communication emails, newsletters, phone scripts and telecommuter updates.
  • cow power (biogas) - Cow power is a term for the conversion of manure to usable energy.
  • CPE credit - Continuing professional education, or CPE, credit is a term referring to the points professionals receive for participating in specialized training in IT and other fields.
  • CPQ software (configure price quote software) - CPQ (configure, price, quote) is programming that helps sales representatives and self-service customers quickly generate accurate quotes for configurable products and services.
  • CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) - CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) is a specification for wireless communication networks that defines the key criteria for interfacing transport, connectivity and control communications between baseband units (BBUs) and remote radio units (RRUs), which are also called remote radio heads (RRHs).
  • CQRS (command query responsibility segregation) - CQRS (command query responsibility segregation) is a programming design and architectural pattern that treats retrieving data and changing data differently.
  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) - CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking -- a method of checking for errors in transmitted data -- that is used on E1 trunk lines.
  • credential stuffing - Credential stuffing is the practice of using stolen login information from one account to gain access to accounts on a number of sites through automated login.
  • credential theft - Credential theft is a type of cybercrime that involves stealing a victim's proof of identity.
  • crisis communication - Crisis communication is a strategic approach to corresponding with people and organizations during a disruptive event.
  • crisis management - Crisis management is the application of strategies designed to help an organization deal with a sudden and significant negative event, while maintaining business continuity.
  • crisis management plan (CMP) - A crisis management plan (CMP) outlines how an organization should respond to a critical situation that if left unaddressed, could negatively affect its profitability, reputation or ability to operate.
  • critical infrastructure - Critical infrastructure is the collection of systems, networks and public works that a government considers essential to its functioning and safety of its citizens.
  • critical path method (CPM) - The critical path method (CPM) is a step-by-step project management technique for process planning that defines critical and non-critical tasks with the goal of preventing project schedule problems and process bottlenecks.
  • CRM (customer relationship management) - Customer relationship management (CRM) is the combination of practices, strategies and technologies that companies use to manage and analyze customer interactions and data throughout the customer lifecycle.
  • CRM (customer relationship management) analytics - CRM (customer relationship management) analytics comprises all of the programming that analyzes data about customers and presents it to an organization to help facilitate and streamline better business decisions.
  • crontab - Crontab is a Unix command that creates a table or list of commands, each of which is to be executed by the operating system (OS) at a specified time and on a regular schedule.
  • cross-browser testing - Cross-browser testing, also called browser testing, is a quality assurance (QA) process that checks whether a web-based application, site or page functions as intended for end users across multiple browsers and devices.
  • cross-docking - Cross-docking is the practice of unloading goods from inbound delivery vehicles and loading them directly onto outbound vehicles.
  • cross-functional team - A cross-functional team is a workgroup made up of employees from different functional areas within an organization who collaborate to reach a stated objective.
  • cross-platform mobile development - Cross-platform mobile development is an approach to developing software applications that are compatible with multiple mobile operating systems (OSes) or platforms.
  • cross-site scripting (XSS) - Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of injection attack in which a threat actor inserts data, such as a malicious script, into content from otherwise trusted websites.
  • crosstalk - Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit.
  • crowdsourcing - Crowdsourcing is the practice of turning to a body of people to obtain needed knowledge, goods or services.
  • CRUD cycle (Create, Read, Update and Delete Cycle) - The CRUD cycle describes the elemental functions of a persistent database in a computer.
  • cruft - Cruft is the elements of a program, system or product that are either useless, poorly designed or both.
  • cryptanalysis - Cryptanalysis is the study of ciphertext, ciphers and cryptosystems to understand how they work and to find and improve techniques for defeating or weakening them.
  • crypto wallet (cryptocurrency wallet) - A crypto wallet (cryptocurrency wallet) is software or hardware that enables users to store and use cryptocurrency.
  • crypto-agility - Crypto-agility, or cryptographic agility, is a data encryption practice used by organizations to ensure a rapid response to a cryptographic threat.
  • cryptocurrency - Cryptocurrency is a digital form of currency that uses cryptography to secure the processes involved in generating units, conducting transactions and verifying the exchange of currency ownership.
  • cryptogram - A cryptogram is a word puzzle featuring encrypted text that the user decrypts to reveal a message of some sort.
  • cryptographic checksum - Generated by a cryptographic algorithm, a cryptographic checksum is a mathematical value assigned to a file sent through a network for verifying that the data contained in that file is unchanged.
  • cryptographic nonce - A nonce is a random or semi-random number that is generated for a specific use.
  • cryptography - Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications using codes, so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.
  • Cryptography quiz questions and answers: Test your smarts - Put your encryption knowledge to the test, and perhaps even learn a new word or concept in the process with these cryptography quiz questions.
  • cryptojacking - Cryptojacking is a cybercrime in which another party's computing resources are hijacked to mine cryptocurrency.
  • cryptology - Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.
  • cryptosystem - A cryptosystem is a structure or scheme consisting of a set of algorithms that converts plaintext to ciphertext to encode or decode messages securely.
  • Crystal Reports - Crystal Reports is a popular Windows-based report writer solution that allows a developer to create reports and dashboards from a variety of data sources with a minimum of code to write.
  • CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) - CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) is a protocol for carrier transmission in 802.
  • CSO (Chief Security Officer) - A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is a C-suite executive responsible for a company's physical and digital security.
  • CSR (Certificate Signing Request) - A Certificate Signing Request (CSR) is a specially formatted encrypted message sent from a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) digital certificate applicant to a certificate authority (CA).
  • CSS (cascading style sheets) - This definition explains the meaning of cascading style sheets (CSS) and how using them with HTML pages is a user interface (UI) development best practice that complies with the separation of concerns design pattern.
  • CSSLP (Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional) - CSSLP (Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional) is a certification from ISC2 that focuses on application security within the software development lifecycle (SDLC).
  • CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) - A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device about the size of a modem.
  • CSV (Cluster Shared Volumes) - CSV (Cluster Shared Volumes) is a feature in Windows Server in which shared disks are concurrently accessible to all nodes within a failover cluster.
  • Ctrl-Alt-Delete - On a personal computer with the Microsoft Windows operating system, Control+Alt+Delete is the combination of the Ctrl key, the Alt key, and Del key that a user can press at the same time to terminate an application task or to reboot the operating system.
  • cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
  • culture of failure (blameless culture) - A culture of failure is a set of shared values, goals and practices that encourages learning through experimentation.
  • cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) - In information technology, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to any of several physical problems that can result from improper or excessive use of a computer display or terminal.
  • curation - Curation is a field of endeavor involved with assembling, managing and presenting some type of collection.
  • curiosity artificial intelligence (curiosity AI) - Curiosity artificial intelligence (curiosity AI) is the simulation of human curiosity in artificial intelligence.
  • currency - Currency is anything that is generally accepted to have value as a medium of exchange so that it can be traded for goods and services.
  • current - Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms.
  • Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code - Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) is a medical code set that enables physicians and other healthcare providers to describe and report the medical, surgical, and diagnostic procedures and services they perform to government and private payers, researchers and other interested parties.
  • cursor - A cursor is the position indicator on a computer display screen where a user can enter text.
  • customer account record - A customer account record is the basic unit of information about a customer that resides in a CRM, or customer relationship management system.
  • customer acquisition cost - Customer acquisition cost is the fee associated with convincing a consumer to buy your product or service, including research, marketing and advertising costs.
  • customer analytics (customer data analytics) - Customer analytics, also called customer data analytics, is the systematic examination of a company's customer information and behavior to identify, attract and retain the most profitable customers.
  • customer base - Customer base is the group of clients to whom a business markets and sells their goods or services.
  • customer churn (customer attrition) - Customer churn, also called customer attrition, is the number of paying customers who fail to become repeat customers.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • customer data management (CDM) - Customer data management (CDM) is a set of administrative processes that allow data about customers and customer interactions from different source systems to be aggregated and normalized.
  • customer data platform (CDP) - A customer data platform (CDP) is a type of software application that provides a unified platform of customer information that can be collected, viewed or accessed by other systems.
  • customer demographics - Customer demographics are categories of consumer populations that are relevant to a business' purposes, such as marketing and product design.
  • customer effort score (CES) - Customer effort score (CES) is a system for evaluating how much effort is required on the part of a customer to achieve satisfaction in their experience with a company.
  • customer engagement - Customer engagement is the way a company creates a relationship with its customer base to foster brand loyalty and awareness.
  • customer experience (CX) - Customer experience (CX) is the sum total of customers' perceptions and feelings resulting from interactions with a brand's products and services.
  • customer health score - A customer health score is a value that indicates the long-term prospect for a customer to drop off or, conversely, to become a high-value, repeat customer through renewal or Cross-selling or up-selling strategies.
  • customer insight (consumer insight) - Customer insight, also known as consumer insight, is the understanding and interpretation of customer data, behaviors and feedback into conclusions that can be used to improve product development and customer support.
  • customer intelligence (CI) - Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources to gain insights about customer needs, motivations and behaviors.
  • customer journey map - A customer journey map is a visual representation of the stages a customer goes through when interacting with a company.
  • customer journey orchestration - Customer journey orchestration is the coordination of customer experiences in real time, in an omnichannel environment, to better understand customer needs and encourage further interaction with a brand.
  • customer lifecycle - In customer relationship management (CRM), customer lifecycle is a term used to describe the progression of steps a customer goes through when considering, purchasing, using and maintaining loyalty to a product or service.
  • customer premises equipment (CPE) - Customer premises equipment (CPE) is telecommunications and information technology equipment kept at the customer's physical location rather than on the service provider's premises.
  • customer profiling - Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by gathering and analyzing information about their demographic, psychographic and behavioral attributes.
  • customer proprietary network information (CPNI) - Customer proprietary network information (CPNI) in the United States is information that telecommunications services -- such as local, long-distance and wireless telephone companies -- acquire about their subscribers.
  • customer retention - Customer retention is a metric that measures customer loyalty, or an organization's ability to retain customers over time.
  • customer satisfaction (CSAT) - Customer satisfaction (CSAT) is a measure of the degree to which a product or service meets customer expectations.
  • customer segmentation - Customer segmentation is the practice of dividing a customer base into groups of individuals that have similar characteristics relevant to marketing, such as age, gender, interests and spending habits.
  • customer self-service (CSS) - Customer self-service is a type of electronic support (e-support) that allows end users to access information and perform routine tasks without requiring the assistance of a human.
  • customer service and support - Customer service is the support that organizations offer to customers before and after purchasing a product or service.
  • customer service charter - A customer service charter is a document that outlines how an organization promises to work with its customers along with providing insights into how an organization operates.
  • customer success - Customer success is a strategy to ensure a company's products are meeting the needs of the customer.
  • customer touchpoint - A customer touchpoint is any direct or indirect contact a customer has with a brand.
  • customer-managed relationship (CMR) - A customer-managed relationship (CMR) is a relationship in which a business uses a methodology, software, apps and perhaps internet capability to encourage the customer to control access to information and ordering.
  • CVO (Chief Visionary Officer) - The Chief Visionary Officer (CVO) is a newer title where the holder is expected to have a broad and comprehensive knowledge of all matters related to the business of the organization, as well as the vision required to steer its course into the future.
  • cyber attack - A cyber attack is any malicious attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer, computing system or computer network with the intent to cause damage.
  • cyber attribution - Cyber attribution is the process of tracking, identifying and laying blame on the perpetrator of a cyberattack or other hacking exploit.
  • cyber espionage - Cyber espionage (cyberespionage) is a type of cyber attack that malicious hackers carry out against a business or government entity.
  • cyber extortion - Cyber extortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of an attack coupled with a demand for money or some other response in return for stopping or remediating the attack.
  • cyber hijacking - Cyber hijacking, or computer hijacking, is a type of network security attack in which the attacker takes control of computer systems, software programs and/or network communications.
  • cyber insurance - Cyber insurance, also called cyber liability insurance or cybersecurity insurance, is a contract an entity can purchase to help reduce the financial risks associated with doing business online.
  • cyber resilience - Cyber resilience is the ability of a computing system to identify, respond and recover quickly should it experience a security incident.
  • cyberbullying - Cyberbullying is a type of bullying in which one or more individuals use digital technologies to intentionally and repeatedly cause harm to another person.
  • cybercrime - Cybercrime is any criminal activity that involves a computer, network or networked device.
  • cyberpicketing - Cyberpicketing is the use of the Internet to protest a corporation or other institution's wages, work conditions, products, environmental policy, or other issues.
Networking
  • subnet (subnetwork)

    A subnet, or subnetwork, is a segmented piece of a larger network. More specifically, subnets are a logical partition of an IP ...

  • secure access service edge (SASE)

    Secure access service edge (SASE), pronounced sassy, is a cloud architecture model that bundles together network and cloud-native...

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a standard protocol on the internet that ensures the reliable transmission of data between...

Security
CIO
  • What is data privacy?

    Data privacy, also called information privacy, is an aspect of data protection that addresses the proper storage, access, ...

  • product development (new product development)

    Product development -- also called new product management -- is a series of steps that includes the conceptualization, design, ...

  • innovation culture

    Innovation culture is the work environment that leaders cultivate to nurture unorthodox thinking and its application.

HRSoftware
  • organizational network analysis (ONA)

    Organizational network analysis (ONA) is a quantitative method for modeling and analyzing how communications, information, ...

  • HireVue

    HireVue is an enterprise video interviewing technology provider of a platform that lets recruiters and hiring managers screen ...

  • Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI)

    Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) is a U.S.-based credentialing organization offering certifications to HR ...

Customer Experience
  • What is an outbound call?

    An outbound call is one initiated by a contact center agent to prospective customers and focuses on sales, lead generation, ...

  • What is lead-to-revenue management (L2RM)?

    Lead-to-revenue management (L2RM) is a set of sales and marketing methods focusing on generating revenue throughout the customer ...

  • What is relationship marketing?

    Relationship marketing is a facet of customer relationship management (CRM) that focuses on customer loyalty and long-term ...

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