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Personal computing

Terms related to personal computers, including definitions about computers sold as consumer products and words and phrases about laptops, tablets and smartphones.
  • IRL (in real life) - IRL (in real life) is an abbreviation used to explain when person is speaking about something real and outside the digital world of communication, gaming or virtual reality.
  • ISP (internet service provider) - An ISP (internet service provider) is a company that provides individuals and companies access to the internet and other related services.
  • iTunes U - iTunes U is a dedicated section of Apple's iTunes Music Store that features educational audio and video files from universities, museums and public media organizations for free download to PCs and mobile devices.
  • jailbreaking - Jailbreaking, in a mobile device context, is the use of an exploit to remove manufacturer or carrier restrictions from a device such as an iPhone or iPad.
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) - JPEG (pronounced JAY-peg) is a graphic image file compressed with lossy compression using the standard developed by the ISO/IEC Joint Photographic Experts Group.
  • JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) - JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used to exchange data between web clients and web servers.
  • Ken Burns effect - Ken Burns effect is the use of still photographs along with zooming, panning and transitions such as fading as the base for video content.
  • kernel panic - A kernel panic refers to a computer error from which the system's operating system (OS) cannot quickly or easily recover.
  • keyboard wedge (KBW) - A keyboard wedge can be either a software program or an inserted hardware device that translates digital signals from a barcode reader or magnetic strip reader (MSR) into keyboard strokes for a computer.
  • Klout score - A Klout score is a measure of a social influence that aggregates one's reach on various social media platforms.
  • LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - LAMP is an open source Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language.
  • laptop - A laptop, sometimes called a notebook computer by manufacturers, is a battery- or AC-powered personal computer (PC) smaller than a briefcase.
  • LARP (Live Action Role Playing) - LARP (Live Action Role Playing), also called LARPing, is a character-driven type of gameplay that is conducted in the physical world.
  • laser printer - A laser printer is a popular type of computer printer that uses a non-impact photocopier technology where there are no keys striking the paper.
  • LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) - LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is a type of flat panel display which uses liquid crystals in its primary form of operation.
  • leet speak (leet) - Leet speak, also known as simply leet, is the substitution of a word's letters with numbers or special characters.
  • Link Control Protocol (LCP) - In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard way to transport multiprotocol data over point-to-point links; within PPP, Link Control Protocol (LCP) establishes, configures and tests data link internet connections.
  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute network traffic across a pool of servers known as a server farm.
  • longitudinal time code (LTC) - Longitidinal time code (LTC) is a timing signal that is part of an audio tape recording.
  • LPT (line print terminal) - LPT (line print terminal) is the usual designation for a parallel port connection to a printer or other device on a personal computer.
  • LTE (Long-Term Evolution) - LTE (Long-Term Evolution) is a fourth-generation (4G) wireless standard that provides increased network capacity and speed for cellphones and other cellular devices compared with third-generation (3G) technology.
  • Luddite - A Luddite is a person resistant to increased industrialization or new technologies, especially computers.
  • MacBook Air - MacBook Air is a thin, lightweight laptop from Apple.
  • Macintosh - The Macintosh, now called the Mac, was the first widely sold personal computer (PC) with a graphical user interface (GUI) and a mouse.
  • mail bomb - A mail bomb is a form of a denial-of-service (DoS) attack designed to overwhelm an inbox or inhibit a server by sending a massive number of emails to a specific person or system.
  • mail server (mail transfer/transport agent, MTA, mail router, internet mailer) - A mail server -- also known as a mail transfer agent, or MTA; mail transport agent; mail router; or internet mailer -- is an application that receives incoming email from local users and remote senders and forwards outgoing messages for delivery.
  • malware - Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is intentionally harmful to a computer, network or server.
  • massive open online course (MOOC) - A massive open online course (MOOC) is a typically free web-based distance learning program that's designed for large numbers of geographically dispersed students.
  • micro USB - A micro USB is a miniaturized version of the Universal Serial Bus interface developed for connecting compact and mobile devices, such as smartphones, MP3 players, Global Positioning System devices, printers and digital cameras.
  • microblogging - Microblogging is a short blog post designed for quick and typically direct audience interactions.
  • microcomputer - A microcomputer is a complete computer on a smaller scale and is generally a synonym for the more common term, personal computer or PC, a computer designed for an individual.
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • Microsoft Connectivity Analyzer (MCA) - The Microsoft Connectivity Analyzer (MCA) is a diagnostics tool for troubleshooting and testing connectivity to several Microsoft messaging products from a client machine on an organization's network.
  • Microsoft Edge - Microsoft Edge is a cross-platform browser created by Microsoft and installed by default on all new Windows devices.
  • Microsoft Exchange Control Panel - The Exchange Control Panel (ECP) is a Web-based management interface introduced in Exchange Server 2010.
  • Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication Service (MRS) - The Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication Service (MRS) is a feature that handles mailbox import, export, migration and restoration requests on Exchange Server.
  • Microsoft Exchange Management Shell (EMS) - Microsoft Exchange Management Shell (EMS) is a scripting platform that enables administrators to manage Exchange Server.
  • Microsoft Exchange RBAC (Role Based Access Control) - Microsoft Exchange RBAC is a permissions model used in Exchange Server 2010 and Exchange Server 2013.
  • Microsoft Exchange Server - Microsoft Exchange Server is Microsoft's email, calendaring, contact, scheduling and collaboration platform.
  • Microsoft OneDrive - OneDrive (formerly SkyDrive) is an online cloud storage service from Microsoft.
  • Microsoft Outlook - Microsoft Outlook is the preferred email client used to send and receive emails by accessing Microsoft Exchange Server email.
  • Microsoft Outlook on the web (formerly Outlook Web App, OWA) - Outlook on the web is the browser-based email client for users to access email, calendars, tasks and contacts from Microsoft's on-premises Exchange Server and cloud-based Exchange Online.
  • Microsoft Teams - Microsoft Teams is cloud-based team collaboration software that offers core capabilities, including business messaging, calling, video meetings and file sharing.
  • Microsoft USMT (User State Migration Tool) - The Microsoft User State Migration Tool (USMT) is a command-line utility used to transfer user files and settings between computers.
  • Microsoft Windows Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) - Microsoft Windows Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) is a command-line tool that allows IT administrators to service Windows desktop images and virtual hard disks prior to deployment to users.
  • Microsoft Windows File Explorer - Microsoft Windows File Explorer is a graphical file management utility for the Windows operating system (OS).
  • Microsoft Windows System Image Manager (SIM) - Microsoft Windows System Image Manager (SIM) is a tool in the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit that IT professionals can use to create and manage unattended setup answer files for Windows before installing the operating system.
  • Microsoft Windows Update - Microsoft Windows Update is a security service for Windows users that, once activated, automatically searches for and installs updates.
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is a standard to transmit and store music, originally designed for digital music synthesizers.
  • Millennials (Generation Y) - Millennials, also known as Generation Y, is a demographic that includes individuals who reached adulthood around the turn of the 21st century.
  • MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) - MIME, or Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, is an extension of the original email protocol.
  • Mini-ITX - Mini-ITX is a compact motherboard configuration designed to support relatively low-cost computers in small spaces such as in automobiles, set-top boxes and network devices.
  • mixed reality (hybrid reality, extended reality) - Mixed reality (MR) is a user environment in which physical reality and digital content are combined in a way that enables interaction with and among real-world and virtual objects.
  • mob mentality (herd/hive mentality) - Mob mentality -- also called herd or hive mentality -- is the inclination that some humans have to be part of a large group, often neglecting their individual feelings in the process, and adopting the behaviors and actions of the people around them.
  • mobile app - A mobile app (or mobile application) is a software application developed specifically for use on small, wireless computing devices, such as smartphones and tablets, rather than desktop or laptop computers.
  • mobile application development - Mobile application development is the set of processes and procedures involved in writing software for small, wireless computing devices.
  • mobile browser - A mobile browser is one that is optimized for the small display screen and limited resources of a handheld computing device such as a smart phone.
  • mobile computing - Mobile computing refers to the set of IT technologies, products, services and operational strategies and procedures that enable end users to access computation, information and related resources and capabilities while mobile.
  • mobile data - Mobile data is internet content delivered to mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets over a wireless cellular connection.
  • mobile device management (MDM) - Mobile device management (MDM) software allows IT administrators to control, secure and enforce policies on smartphones, tablets and other endpoints.
  • mobile printing - Mobile printing is the process of sending data to a printer wirelessly from a smartphone or tablet.
  • moonshot - In technology, a moonshot is an ambitious, exploratory and groundbreaking project undertaken without the assurance of near-term profitability or benefit and, perhaps, without a full investigation of potential risks and benefits.
  • motherboard - A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer.
  • MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) - MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) was the Microsoft-marketed version of the first widely-installed operating system in personal computers.
  • Muda, Mura and Muri - Muda, mura and muri are three types of wasteful actions that negatively impact workflow, productivity and ultimately, customer satisfaction.
  • multi-channel network (MCN) - A multi-channel network (MCN) is a company or entity that works with multiple channels and content creators, consulting or assisting towards success on streaming video platforms such as YouTube.
  • multicore processor - A multicore processor is an integrated circuit that has two or more processors attached for enhanced performance and reduced power consumption.
  • multifunction peripheral (MFP) - A multifunction peripheral (MFP) is a device that performs a variety of functions that would otherwise be carried out by separate peripheral devices.
  • Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) - Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a communications technology developed by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) to enable the transmission of multimedia content via text message.
  • National Electrical Code (NEC) - National Electrical Code (NEC) is a set of regularly updated standards for the safe installation of electric wiring in the United States.
  • NBMA (non-broadcast multiple access) - Non-broadcast multiple access (NBMA) is one of four network types in the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol.
  • nearline storage - Nearline storage is the on-site storage of data on removable media.
  • net neutrality - Net neutrality is the concept of an open, equal internet for everyone, regardless of content consumed or the device, application or platform used.
  • netizen - A netizen is a person who uses the internet, especially as a forum, for the expression of views and participation in political society.
  • Netscape - Netscape Communications Corporation ("Netscape") was a computer services company best known for its web browser, Navigator.
  • Network Address Translation (NAT) - A Network Address Translation (NAT) is the process of mapping an internet protocol (IP) address to another by changing the header of IP packets while in transit via a router.
  • newsgroup - A newsgroup is an online discussion forum where users can post messages, exchange ideas and read the comments of others.
  • non-fungible token (NFT) - A non-fungible token (NFT) is a unique cryptographic asset used to create and authenticate ownership of digital assets.
  • non-interlaced display - A non-interlaced display is a screen display in which the lines are scanned progressively from the top to the bottom of the screen.
  • notebook computer - A notebook computer is a battery- or AC-powered personal computer generally smaller than a briefcase that can easily be transported and conveniently used in temporary spaces, such as airplanes, libraries, temporary offices and meetings.
  • Nvidia - Nvidia Corporation is a technology company known for designing and manufacturing graphics processing units (GPUs).
  • OAB (offline address book) - An Offline Address Book is a downloaded copy of a Microsoft Outlook user's address list which allows the user access to email addresses when disconnected from Exchange Server.
  • offset printing (offset lithography) - Offset printing, also called offset lithography, is a method of mass-production printing in which the images on metal plates are transferred (offset) to rubber blankets or rollers and then to the print media.
  • Ogg Vorbis - Vorbis is an open source patent-free audio compression format, developed as a replacement for proprietary digital audio encoding formats, such as MP3, VQF, and AAC.
  • OLED TV (organic light-emitting diode television) - An OLED TV (organic light-emitting diode television) is a type of display technology that uses OLEDs to render images on the panels used for TV screens.
  • on-screen display (OSD) - An on-screen display (OSD) is a control panel superimposed on a computer monitor, mobile device, television screen or another electronic device display that enables users to select viewing options and/or adjust components of the display, such as brightness, contrast, and horizontal and vertical positioning.
  • operating system (OS) - An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all of the other application programs in a computer.
  • optical mouse - An optical mouse is an advanced computer pointing device that uses a light-emitting diode (LED), optical sensor and digital signal processor (DSP) in place of the traditional mouse ball and electromechanical transducer.
  • OST file (.ost) - An OST file (.
  • OTA update (over-the-air update) - An over-the-air (OTA) update is the wireless delivery of new software, firmware or other data to mobile devices.
  • P2P lending (peer-to-peer lending) - P2P lending (peer-to-peer lending) is a type of platform that allows participants to borrow and lend sums of money without having to rely on a conventional financial institution to control transactions.
  • page description language (PDL) - A page description language (PDL) specifies the arrangement of a printed page through commands from a computer that the printer carries out.
  • Parallels Desktop for Mac - Parallels Desktop for Mac is desktop virtualization software that allows Microsoft Windows, Linux and Google Chrome OSes and applications to run on an Apple Mac computer.
  • password entropy - Password entropy is a measurement of a password's strength based on how difficult it would be to crack the password through guessing or a brute-force attack.
  • PC as a service (PCaaS) - PC as a service (PCaaS) is a device lifecycle management model in which an organization pays a monthly subscription fee to lease endpoint hardware and management services from a vendor.
  • peer-to-peer (P2P) - Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a decentralized communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.
  • pegged cryptocurrency - A pegged cryptocurrency is a cryptocurrency whose value is linked to a specific bank-issued currency, financial instrument or tradable commodity.
  • Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe, PCI-E) - Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe or PCI-E) is a serial expansion bus standard for connecting a computer to one or more peripheral devices.
  • Perl - Perl is a family of script programming languages that is similar in syntax to the C language.
  • personal area network (PAN) - A personal area network (PAN) interconnects technology devices, typically within the range of a single user, which is approximately 10 meters or 33 feet.
Networking
  • local area network (LAN)

    A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and peripheral devices that are connected together within a distinct ...

  • TCP/IP

    TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect ...

  • firewall as a service (FWaaS)

    Firewall as a service (FWaaS), also known as a cloud firewall, is a service that provides cloud-based network traffic analysis ...

Security
  • identity management (ID management)

    Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to ...

  • fraud detection

    Fraud detection is a set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses.

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

CIO
  • change management

    Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes...

  • IT project management

    IT project management is the process of planning, organizing and delineating responsibility for the completion of an ...

  • chief financial officer (CFO)

    A chief financial officer (CFO) is the corporate title for the person responsible for managing a company's financial operations ...

HRSoftware
  • core HR (core human resources)

    Core HR (core human resources) is an umbrella term that refers to the basic tasks and functions of an HR department as it manages...

  • HR service delivery

    HR service delivery is a term used to explain how an organization's human resources department offers services to and interacts ...

  • employee retention

    Employee retention is the organizational goal of keeping productive and talented workers and reducing turnover by fostering a ...

Customer Experience
  • martech (marketing technology)

    Martech (marketing technology) refers to the integration of software tools, platforms, and applications designed to streamline ...

  • transactional marketing

    Transactional marketing is a business strategy that focuses on single, point-of-sale transactions.

  • customer profiling

    Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by ...

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