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Personal computing

Terms related to personal computers, including definitions about computers sold as consumer products and words and phrases about laptops, tablets and smartphones.

BRE - CRY

  • breadcrumb trail - On a Web site, a breadcrumb trail is a navigation tool that allows a user to see where the current page is in relation to the Web site's hierarchy.
  • bring your own apps (BYOA) - Bring your own apps (BYOA) is the trend toward employee use of third-party applications and cloud services in the workplace.
  • bring your own cloud (BYOC) - BYOC is a movement whereby employees and departments use their cloud computing service of choice in the workplace.
  • bring your own everything (BYOx) - Bring your own everything (BYOx) is a term that refers to employees' use of personal technology to perform work tasks.
  • browser - A browser is an application program that provides a way to look at and interact with all the information on the World Wide Web.
  • burn-in - Burn-in is a test in which a system or component is made to run for an extended period of time to detect problems.
  • Burning Man - Burning Man is an annual week-long experiment in temporary community.
  • bus master - A bus master is the program, either in a microprocessor or more usually in a separate I/O controller, that directs traffic on the computer bus or input/output paths.
  • busy lamp field (BLF) - A busy lamp field (BLF) is a light on a VoIP phone -- also known as an IP phone -- that tells end users when another extension within the system is in use by displaying a clear status on the phone's display.
  • BYOD (bring your own device) - BYOD (bring your own device) is a policy that allows employees in an organization to use their personally owned devices for work-related activities.
  • cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
  • CAD (computer-aided design) - CAD (computer-aided design) is the use of computer-based software to aid in design processes.
  • CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) - CAD /CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) is software used to design products such as electronic circuit boards in computers and other devices.
  • calibration - In information technology and other fields, calibration is the setting or correcting of a measuring device or base level, usually by adjusting it to match or conform to a dependably known and unvarying measure.
  • call tree - A call tree is a layered hierarchical communication model that is used to notify specific individuals of an event and coordinate recovery, if necessary.
  • CamelCase - CamelCase is a way to separate the words in a phrase by making the first letter of each word capitalized and not using spaces.
  • Canadian anti-spam legislation (CASL) - Canadian anti-spam legislation (CASL) is enacted regulations that require marketers and fundraisers that communicate through email, text messages or social media to obtain permission from recipients in that country.
  • capacitive touch screen - A capacitive touch screen is a touch-sensitive control display that uses the conductive touch of a human finger or a specialized device for input.
  • card (or expansion card , board , or adapter) - A card (or expansion card, board, or adapter) is circuitry designed to provide expanded capability to a computer.
  • card dipping (EMV card dipping) - Dipping can be contrasted with swiping.
  • Cartesian coordinates (rectangular coordinates) - Cartesian coordinates, also called rectangular coordinates, provide a method of rendering graphs and indicating the positions of points on a two-dimensional (2D) surface or in three-dimensional (3D) space.
  • catfish - A catfish is someone who creates a false identity online to deceive victims, often as a means of attracting romantic interest.
  • CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) - CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) is a virtual reality (VR) environment consisting of a cube-shaped VR room or a room-scale area in which the walls, floors and ceilings are projection screens.
  • CCTV (closed circuit television) - CCTV (closed-circuit television) is a television system in which signals are not publicly distributed but are monitored, primarily for surveillance and security purposes.
  • CD-ROM - .
  • Centronics parallel interface - The Centronics parallel interface is an older and still widely-used standard I/O interface for connecting printers and certain other devices to computers.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • CES (Consumer Electronics Show) - CES (International Consumer Electronics Show) is an annual technology conference for the consumer electronics industry.
  • CGI (computer-generated imagery) - CGI (computer-generated imagery) is used to produce visual content for many purposes including visual art, advertising, anatomical modeling, architectural design, engineering, video game art and film special effects, as well as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applications.
  • challenge-response authentication - In computer security, challenge-response authentication is a set of protocols used to protect digital assets and services from unauthorized users, programs or activities.
  • change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes or technologies.
  • chat room - A chat room is a Web site, part of a Web site, or part of an online service such as America Online, that provides a venue for communities of users with a common interest to communicate in real time.
  • chatting - While the term chatting or chitchat refers in general to communication between two or more parties that can occur in person, in today's modern age, it can also occur over the internet via Short Message Service (SMS) text message and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) or, for example, through tools like Slack and Microsoft Teams and social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol requiring a client or server to wait for an acknowledgment before transmitting data again.
  • Chernobyl virus - The Chernobyl virus is a computer virus with a potentially devastating payload that destroys all computer data when an infected file is executed.
  • chip - "Chip" is short for microchip, the incredibly complex yet tiny modules that store computer memory or provide logic circuitry for microprocessors.
  • chiplet - A chiplet is a sub processing unit, usually controlled by a I/O controller chip on the same package.
  • chipset - A chipset is a group of integrated circuits (microchips) that can be used together to serve a single function and are therefore manufactured and sold as a unit.
  • chorus - In audio production, chorus is one of the two standard audio effects defined by the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI).
  • Chromebook - Google Chromebook is a thin client laptop that is configured with the Chrome operating system (Chrome OS).
  • Chromecast - Chromecast is a streaming media adapter from Google that allows users to play online content such as videos and music on a digital television.
  • CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing or supernetting) - CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) -- also known as supernetting -- is a method of assigning Internet Protocol (IP) addresses that improves the efficiency of address distribution and replaces the previous system based on class A, class B and class C networks.
  • cinemagraph - A cinemagraph is an image that combines still photography with active video to create a picture that contains a small moving element while the rest is frozen.
  • cinematography (cinematographer) - Cinematography is a blend of science and art used to capture, manipulate and store moving images for the purpose of creating a motion picture.
  • clean install - A clean install is a software installation in which any previous version is eradicated.
  • cleartext - Cleartext is transmitted or stored text that has not been subjected to encryption and is not meant to be encrypted.
  • click fraud (pay-per-click fraud) - Click fraud -- sometimes called 'pay-per-click fraud' -- is a type of fraud that artificially inflates traffic statistics for online advertisements.
  • clickwrap agreement (clickthrough agreement) - A clickwrap agreement, also known as a click through, shrink-wrap, or sign-in-wrap, is an online agreement in which the user signifies his or her acceptance by clicking a button or checking a box that states “I agree.
  • Client Access Server (CAS) - The Client Access Server (CAS) is a server role that handles all client connections to Exchange Server 2010 and Exchange 2013.
  • clipboard - A clipboard is a temporary storage area for data that the user wants to copy from one place to another.
  • clipboard hijack attack - A clipboard hijacking is an exploit in which the attacker gains control of the victim's clipboard and replaces its contents with their own data, such as a link to a malicious Web site.
  • Clonezilla - Clonezilla is a free open source disk cloning application based on Debian.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie or computer presentation.
  • cloud access security broker (CASB) - A cloud access security broker (CASB) is a software tool or service that sits between an organization's on-premises infrastructure and a cloud provider's infrastructure.
  • cloud collaboration - Cloud collaboration is a system of communication that enables employees to work together on a project that is hosted in the cloud, can be accessed at any time and can be edited by multiple users at once.
  • cloud telephony (cloud calling) - Cloud telephony, also known as cloud calling, is a type of unified communications as a service (UCaaS) that offers voice communication services through a third-party host.
  • cluster - Clusters are typically defined as collections or groups of items with similar or different characteristics.
  • cluster computing - In computers, clustering is the use of multiple computers, typically PCs or UNIX workstations, multiple storage devices, and redundant interconnections, to form what appears to users as a single highly available system.
  • CMOS sensor - A CMOS sensor is an electronic chip that converts photons to electrons.
  • CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key) - CMYK is a scheme for combining primary pigments.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • colored coin - A colored coin is a denomination of a cryptocurrency, often Bitcoin, that is repurposed by marking it with metadata.
  • com - On the Internet, "com" is one of the top-level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name.
  • command prompt - A command prompt is the input field in a text-based user interface screen for an operating system (OS) or program.
  • commercial electronic message (CEM) - A commercial electronic message (CEM) is a communication soliciting business, funding or support for something that is sent through any electronic channel, including email, social media, voicemail, text and instant messages.
  • commodity - A commodity is a type of widely-available product that is not markedly dissimilar from one unit to another.
  • commodity computer - A commodity computer is a standard-issue PC that is widely available for purchase.
  • commodity hardware - Commodity hardware, in an IT context, is a device or device component that is relatively inexpensive, widely available and more or less interchangeable with other hardware of its type.
  • common gateway interface (CGI) - Also see FastCGI.
  • Common Language Runtime (CLR) - The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is programming that manages the execution of programs written in any of several supported languages, allowing them to share common object-oriented classes written in any of the languages.
  • Common Service Center (CSC) - A Common Service Center (CSC) is an information and communication technology (ICT) access point created under the National e-Governance Project of the Indian government.
  • common short code (CSC) - Common short codes (CSC) are short telephone numbers, usually consisting of five digits, that are used to address SMS and MMS messages from cellular telephones.
  • communication portal - A communication portal is a service that allows individuals, businesses, schools and government agencies to share information from diverse sources using unified communications (UC) media.
  • compatibility - Compatibility is the capacity for two systems to work together without having to be altered to do so.
  • compositing - Compositing used to create layered images and video in advertisements, memes and other content for print publications, websites and apps.
  • computational photography - Computational photography is the use of computer processing capabilities in cameras to produce an enhanced image beyond what the lens and sensor pics up in a single shot.
  • Computer History Museum - The Computer History Museum is an institution dedicated to the preservation of artifacts and information related to the development of computers.
  • computer-intensive - Computer-intensive is a term that applies to any computing application that requires the resources of a lot of computers, such as grid computing.
  • configuration profile (CP) - A configuration profile (CP) is an XML file that an IT administrator can use to customize settings on an end user's Apple iOS or Mac OS X device.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • Consensus Algorithm - A consensus algorithm is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single data value among distributed processes or systems.
  • consumerism - Consumerism is a cultural model that promotes the aquisition of goods, and especially the purchase of goods, as a vehicle for personal satisfaction and economic stimulation.
  • content - Many people agree that on the World Wide Web, "content is King.
  • context awareness - Context awareness is the ability of a system or system component to gather information about its environment at any given time and adapt behaviors accordingly.
  • contextual computing - Contextual computing, also called context-aware computing, is the use of software and hardware to automatically collect and analyze data about a device's surroundings in order to present relevant, actionable information to the end user.
  • cooperative games - Cooperative games are games where players work with one and other in order to achieve a common objective.
  • COPE (corporate-owned, personally enabled) - COPE (corporate-owned personally-enabled) is a business model in which an organization provides its employees with mobile computing devices and allows the employees to use them as if they were personally-owned notebook computers, tablets or smartphones.
  • cord cutting - Cord cutting, in a telecommunications context, is the practice of stopping a cable or  satellite television service in favor of less expensive options, or getting rid of your landline phone and relying solely on cellular or VoIP (voice over IP) service.
  • corporate email policy - A corporate email policy is a form of management that outlines how employees can use email and other electronic communication tools, such as instant messaging, in a corporate environment.
  • corportal (corporate portal) - Corportals, short for corporate portals, are sometimes referred to as enterprise information portals and are used by corporations to build their internal web presence by leveraging a company's information resources.
  • coworking - Coworking is a business services provision model that involves individuals working independently or collaboratively in shared office space.
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • CPI - For a given font, cpi (characters per inch) is the number of typographic character that will fit on each inch of a printed line.
  • creative destruction - Creative destruction is a process through which something new brings about the demise of whatever existed before it.
  • crossfade - In digital audio production, a crossfade is editing that makes a smooth transition between two audio files.
  • crowdfunding - Crowdfunding is a financing method that involves soliciting relatively modest contributions from a group of individuals.
  • crowdsourcing - Crowdsourcing is the practice of turning to a body of people to obtain needed knowledge, goods or services.
  • cryptocurrency - Cryptocurrency is a digital form of currency that uses cryptography to secure the processes involved in generating units, conducting transactions and verifying the exchange of currency ownership.
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    Network security encompasses all the steps taken to protect the integrity of a computer network and the data within it.

  • cloud-native network function (CNF)

    A cloud-native network function (CNF) is a service that performs network duties in software, as opposed to purpose-built hardware.

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    Wi-Fi 6E is one variant of the 802.11ax standard.

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    Incident response is an organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a security breach or cyberattack, also ...

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    Privacy compliance is a company's accordance with established personal information protection guidelines, specifications or ...

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    A contingent workforce is a labor pool whose members are hired by an organization on an on-demand basis.

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    Product development, also called new product management, is a series of steps that includes the conceptualization, design, ...

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    Talent acquisition is the strategic process employers use to analyze their long-term talent needs in the context of business ...

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    Digital marketing is a general term for any effort by a company to connect with customers through electronic technology.

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    Hockey stick growth is a growth pattern in a line chart that shows a sudden and extremely rapid growth after a long period of ...

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    Salesforce Trailhead is a series of online tutorials that coach beginner and intermediate developers who need to learn how to ...

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