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Personal computing

Terms related to personal computers, including definitions about computers sold as consumer products and words and phrases about laptops, tablets and smartphones.
  • personal computer (PC) - A personal computer (PC) is a microcomputer designed for use by one person at a time.
  • personal digital assistant (PDA) - Personal digital assistant is a term for a small, mobile, handheld device that provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for keeping schedules, calendars and address book information handy.
  • phishing kit - A phishing kit is a collection of tools assembled to make it easier for people with little technical skill to launch a phishing exploit.
  • Photoshop - Photoshop is an image creation, graphic design and photo editing software developed by Adobe.
  • phubbing - Phubbing, a contraction of the words “phone snubbing,” is the act of ignoring a companion in favor of using a smartphone.
  • Picture in Picture (PIP) - Picture in Picture (PIP) is a video effect which places several complete images on the screen at the same time.
  • ping - A ping (Packet Internet or Inter-Network Groper) is a basic internet program that enables a user to test and verify if a particular destination Internet Protocol (IP) address exists and can accept requests in computer network administration.
  • Pinterest - Pinterest is a social curation website for sharing and categorizing images found online.
  • pixel - The pixel -- a word invented from picture element -- is the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image.
  • plotter - A plotter is a printer that interprets commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper with one or more automated pens.
  • PNG (Portable Network Graphics) - PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is a file format used for lossless image compression.
  • POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) - POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) is the most recent version of a standard protocol for receiving e-mail.
  • port number - Port number is a way to identify a specific process to which an internet or other network message is to be forwarded when it arrives at a server.
  • port replicator - A port replicator is an attachment for a notebook computer that allows a number of devices such as a printer, large monitor, and keyboard to be simultaneously connected.
  • Portable Document Format (PDF) - Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format that has captured all the elements of a printed document as an electronic image that users can view, navigate, print or forward to someone else.
  • POST (Power-On Self-Test) - A Power-On Self-Test (POST) is an operation initiated by a computer after it has been turned on but before it boots up the OS.
  • Postscript - Postscript is a programming language that describes the appearance of a printed page.
  • power take-off (PTO) - Power take-off (PTO) is a device that transfers an engine's mechanical power to another piece of equipment.
  • power-up (or power-on) - Power-up (or the synonym "power-on") is a verb meaning to apply electrical power to a device - that is, to "turn it on" as most of us would say about turning on a light switch when entering a dark room.
  • PPD file (Postscript Printer Description file) - A PPD (Postscript Printer Description) file is a file that describes the font s, paper sizes, resolution, and other capabilities that are standard for a particular Postscript printer.
  • pre-roll ad - A pre-roll ad is a promotional video message that plays before the content the user has selected.
  • predictive text - Predictive text is an input technology that facilitates typing on a device by suggesting words the user may wish to insert in a text field.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP) is a concept in computer security that limits users' access rights to only what is strictly required to do their jobs.
  • print server - A print server is a software application, network device or computer that manages print requests and makes printer queue status information available to end users and network administrators.
  • printer - A printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard-size, 8.
  • Printer Control Language (PCL) - Printer Control Language (PCL) is a language (essentially, a set of command code s) that enables applications to control HP DeskJet, LaserJet, and other HP printers.
  • printer pool - Printer pooling is a standard feature of Windows NT, 2000, XP, Vista and Windows 7 that allows agroup of printers to share the same name and function as if they were one printer.
  • privacy policy - A privacy policy is a legal document that explains how an organization handles any customer, client or employee information gathered in its operations.
  • PST file - A PST file is a personal folder file in Microsoft Outlook.
  • push (or server-push) - Push (or "server-push") is the delivery of information on the Web that is initiated by the information server rather than by the information user or client, as it usually is.
  • QR code (quick response code) - A QR code (quick response code) is a type of 2D bar code that provides easy access to information through a smartphone camera.
  • quantum computing - Quantum computing is an area of study focused on the development of computer technologies based on the principles of quantum theory.
  • quantum internet - The quantum internet is a theoretical system of interconnected quantum computers that uses quantum signals to send information rather than radio waves.
  • QWERTY keyboard - The QWERTY (pronounced KWEHR-tee) keyboard is the standard typewriter and computer keyboard in countries that use a Latin-based alphabet.
  • RAM (random access memory) - Random access memory (RAM) is the hardware in a computing device that provides temporary storage for the operating system (OS), software programs and any other data in current use so they're quickly available to the device's processor.
  • Rankine cycle - The Rankine cycle is a method of providing power in a closed system where a fluid is evaporated to perform a task and re-condensed.
  • real-time communications (RTC) - Real-time communications (RTC) is any mode of telecommunications in which all users can exchange information instantly or with negligible latency or transmission delays.
  • real-time location system (RTLS) - A real-time location system (RTLS) is one of a number of technologies used to pinpoint the current geographic position and location of a target.
  • Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) - Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network standard designed for transmitting audio or video data that is optimized for consistent delivery of live data.
  • remote desktop - A remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows a user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as if it were local.
  • remote desktop protocol (RDP) - Remote desktop protocol (RDP) is a secure network communications protocol from Microsoft.
  • Remote Desktop Session Host (RDSH) - Remote Desktop Session Host (RDSH) is a role in Remote Desktop Services (RDS).
  • Request for Comments (RFC) - A Request for Comments (RFC) is a formal document from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that contains specifications and organizational notes about topics related to the internet and computer networking, such as routing, addressing and transport technologies.
  • resolution - Resolution is the number of pixels -- picture elements or individual points of color -- that can be contained on a display screen or in a camera sensor.
  • restore point - A system restore point is a backup copy of important Windows operating system (OS) files and settings that can be used to recover the system to an earlier point of time in the event of system failure or instability.
  • return on marketing investment (ROMI) - Return on marketing investment (ROMI) is a metric used to measure the overall effectiveness of a marketing campaign to help marketers make better decisions about allocating future investments.
  • Rich Internet Application (RIA) - A rich Internet application (RIA) is a Web application designed to deliver the same features and functions normally associated with deskop applications.
  • rich presence technology (RPT) - Rich presence is an enhanced form of presence awareness in which participants can determine if other users are online and if so, observe to a limited extent what they are doing and how they are doing it.
  • Rich Text Format (RTF) - Rich Text Format (RTF) is a file format that lets you exchange text files between different word processors in different operating systems.
  • RickRoll - On the Internet, a RickRoll is a prank where a visitor who clicks on a specific link is intentionally misdirected to a video of pop star Rick Astley's hit "Never Gonna Give You Up.
  • ripping (digital extraction) - Ripping, more formally known as digital extraction, is the process of copying audio or video content from a compact disc, DVD or streaming media onto a computer hard drive.
  • Robert Metcalfe - Robert 'Bob' Melancton Metcalfe, born April 7, 1946, is an American engineer, entrepreneur, professor, writer and venture capitalist.
  • role-playing game (RPG) - A role-playing game (RPG) is a game in which each participant assumes the role of a character that can interact within the game's imaginary world.
  • room-scale virtual reality (VR) - Room-scale (or roomscale) virtual reality (VR) is the use of clear space to allow movement for someone using a VR application such as a VR game.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization -- also known as route aggregation -- is a method to minimize the number of routing tables in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector protocol that uses hop count as its primary metric.
  • routing table - A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that's used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed.
  • RPC over HTTP - Remote Procedure Call over HTTP (RPC over HTTP) is a Microsoft protocol that enables Microsoft Outlook clients to access Microsoft Exchange servers over HTTP.
  • Ryzen (AMD Ryzen) - Ryzen (pronounced RYE zen) is an AMD CPU aimed at the server, desktop, workstation, media center PC and all-in-one markets.
  • Samsung Galaxy - Samsung Galaxy is a product line of Android smartphones, tablets and internet of things devices manufactured by Samsung Electronics.
  • scanner - A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages and similar sources for computer editing and display.
  • scareware - Scareware is a type of malware tactic used to manipulate victims into downloading or buying potentially malware-infested software.
  • screen door effect - The screen door effect is the occurrence of thin, dark lines or a mesh appearance caused by the gaps between pixels on a screen or projected image.
  • script kiddie - Script kiddie is a derogative term that computer hackers coined to refer to immature, but often just as dangerous, exploiters of internet security weaknesses.
  • SDP (Session Description Protocol) - SDP (Session Description Protocol) is a set of rules that defines how multimedia sessions can be set up to allow all end points to effectively participate in the session.
  • search operator - A search operator (sometimes referred to as a search parameter) is a character or string of characters used in a search engine query to narrow the focus of the search.
  • search string - A search string is the combination of text, numbers and sometimes special characters that a user enters into an application's search form to find specific types of information.
  • Secure Digital Extended Capacity card (SDXC) - A Secure Digital Extended Capacity (SDXC) card is a very small flash memory card that has greater storage capacity than the original SD (Secure Digital) memory cards.
  • Sender Policy Framework (SPF) - Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is a protocol designed to restrict who can use an organization's domain as the source of an email message.
  • Serial ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA) - Serial ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA) is a command and transport protocol that defines how data is transferred between a computer's motherboard and mass storage devices, such as hard disk drives (HDDs), optical drives and solid-state drives (SSDs).
  • shadow banning (shadowban) - Shadow banning, in discussion forums and social media, is the practice of making a particular user's posts visible only to that user.
  • Short Message Service (SMS) - SMS (Short Message Service), commonly referred to as 'text messaging,' is a service for sending short messages of up to 160 characters (224 character limit if using a 5-bit mode) to mobile devices, including cellular phones, smartphones and tablets.
  • short message service center (SMSC) - The short message service center (SMSC) is the portion of a mobile phone network that handles text message operations.
  • Siri - Siri is Apple's virtual assistant for iOS, macOS, tvOS and watchOS devices that uses voice recognition and is powered by artificial intelligence (AI).
  • skeuomorphism - Skeuomorphism is when something is designed with extra ornamentation to make it resemble another object so it is more familiar.
  • slot (or expansion slot) - In computers, a slot, or expansion slot, is an engineered technique for adding capability to a computer in the form of connection pinholes (typically, in the range of 16 to 64 closely-spaced holes) and a place to fit an expansion card containing the circuitry that provides some specialized capability, such as video acceleration, sound, or disk drive control.
  • smartphone - A smartphone is a cellular telephone with an integrated computer and other features not originally associated with telephones, such as an operating system (OS), web browsing and the ability to run software applications.
  • smartphone addiction (cell phone addiction) - Smartphone addiction is a disorder involving compulsive overuse of mobile devices, usually quantified as the number of times users access their devices and/or the total amount of time they are online over a specified period.
  • smartwatch - A smartwatch is a wearable computing device that closely resembles a wristwatch or other time-keeping device.
  • SMS gateway - An SMS gateway is a website that allows users to send SMS messages from a web browser to people within the cell served by that gateway.
  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving email.
  • Snapchat dysmorphia - Snapchat dysmorphia is a body-image disorder characterized by the need to heavily edit one's own digital image.
  • soap opera effect (motion interpolation) - The soap opera effect is the colloquial name for a visual effect caused by motion interpolation on television sets that some people find undesirable.
  • social comparison - Social comparison can lead to issues caused by the fear of missing out (FOMO), including anxiety, depression and a lack of self-esteem.
  • social computing - Social computing is the collaborative and interactive nature of online behavior.
  • social contract - A social contract is an agreement to adhere to acceptable behaviors and meet obligations in a particular environment, such as a nation, a business or a social media site.
  • social media - Social media is a collective term for websites and applications that focus on communication, community-based input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration.
  • social networking - Social networks are websites and apps that allow users and organizations to connect, communicate, share information and form relationships.
  • SODOTO (See One, Do One, Teach One) - SODOTO (See One, Do One, Teach One) is a methodology of teaching and learning skills and best practices through direct observation of a task, hands-on practical experience performing the task and teaching the task to another person.
  • soft copy - A soft copy (sometimes spelled 'softcopy') is an electronic copy (or e-copy) of some type of data, such as a file viewed on a computer's display or transmitted as an email attachment.
  • soft reset - A soft reset is a restart of a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, laptop or personal computer (PC).
  • software agent - A software agent is a persistent, goal-oriented computer program that reacts to its environment and runs without continuous direct supervision to perform some function for an end user or another program.
  • solar power - Solar power is a renewable form of energy harvested from the sun for the purpose of producing electricity or thermal energy (heat).
  • sound card - A sound card is a computer component responsible for generating and recording audio.
  • spam filter - A spam filter is a program used to detect unsolicited, unwanted and virus-infected emails and prevent those messages from getting to a user's inbox.
  • spam trap - A spam trap is an email address that is used to identify and monitor spam email.
  • spambot - A spambot is an automated system that sends unwanted, unsolicited messages to users, known as spam.
  • spear phishing - Spear phishing is a malicious email spoofing attack that targets a specific organization or individual, seeking unauthorized access to sensitive information.
  • spoliation - Spoliation is the destruction, alteration, or mutilation of evidence that may pertain to legal action.
  • spool (simultaneous peripheral operations online) - To spool (which stands for "simultaneous peripheral operations online") a computer document or task list (or "job") is to read it in and store it, usually on a hard disk or larger storage medium so that it can be printed or otherwise processed at a more convenient time (for example, when a printer is finished printing its current document).
Networking
  • local area network (LAN)

    A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and peripheral devices that are connected together within a distinct ...

  • TCP/IP

    TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect ...

  • firewall as a service (FWaaS)

    Firewall as a service (FWaaS), also known as a cloud firewall, is a service that provides cloud-based network traffic analysis ...

Security
  • identity management (ID management)

    Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to ...

  • single sign-on (SSO)

    Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for ...

  • fraud detection

    Fraud detection is a set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses.

CIO
  • IT budget

    IT budget is the amount of money spent on an organization's information technology systems and services. It includes compensation...

  • project scope

    Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, ...

  • core competencies

    For any organization, its core competencies refer to the capabilities, knowledge, skills and resources that constitute its '...

HRSoftware
  • recruitment management system (RMS)

    A recruitment management system (RMS) is a set of tools designed to manage the employee recruiting and hiring process. It might ...

  • core HR (core human resources)

    Core HR (core human resources) is an umbrella term that refers to the basic tasks and functions of an HR department as it manages...

  • HR service delivery

    HR service delivery is a term used to explain how an organization's human resources department offers services to and interacts ...

Customer Experience
  • martech (marketing technology)

    Martech (marketing technology) refers to the integration of software tools, platforms, and applications designed to streamline ...

  • transactional marketing

    Transactional marketing is a business strategy that focuses on single, point-of-sale transactions.

  • customer profiling

    Customer profiling is the detailed and systematic process of constructing a clear portrait of a company's ideal customer by ...

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