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Software applications

Definitions related to software applications, including tech terms about software programs for vertical industries and words and phrases about software development, use and management.
  • front end and back end - Front end and back end are terms used by programmers and computer professionals to describe the layers that make up hardware, a computer program or a website which are delineated based on how accessible they are to a user.
  • functional testing - Functional testing is a process used to evaluate software during development to ensure that it meets the application's intended requirements and specifications.
  • fuzz testing (fuzzing) - Fuzz testing (fuzzing) is a quality assurance technique used to discover coding errors or bugs and security loopholes in software, operating systems and networks.
  • fuzzy search - A fuzzy search is a technique that uses search algorithms to find strings that match patterns approximately.
  • garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) - Garbage in, garbage out, or GIGO, refers to the idea that in any system, the quality of output is determined by the quality of the input.
  • Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles (the Principles) - Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles is a framework for managing records in a way that supports an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk mitigation, environmental and operational requirements.
  • genomics - Genomics is the study of an organism's entire genome, including all its genes and how those genes interact with each other and their environment.
  • Gmail - Gmail (pronounced Gee-mail) is a free web-based email service that provides users with 15 GB of storage for messages and the ability to search for specific messages.
  • GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) - GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a graphical user interface (GUI) and set of computer desktop applications for Linux operating system (OS) users.
  • good automated manufacturing practice (GAMP) - Good automated manufacturing practice (GAMP) is a set of guidelines manufacturers and other automation users follow to maintain operational efficiency and reliability.
  • Google ChromeOS - Google ChromeOS, formerly Chrome OS, is a lightweight operating system (OS) built on ChromiumOS, an open source OS that shares the same code base as ChromeOS.
  • Google Docs - Google Docs, first released in 2006, is a free web-based word processor in which documents can be created, edited and stored as part of the Google Docs Editors suite of free web applications.
  • Google Hangouts - Google Hangouts is a unified communications service that allows members to initiate and participate in text, voice or video chats, either one-on-one or in a group.
  • Google Maps - Google Maps is a web-based service that provides detailed information about geographical regions and sites worldwide.
  • Google Play - Google Play, formerly known as Android Market, is the official online store for digital media distributed by Google.
  • Google Sheets - Google Sheets is a web-based application that enables users to create, update and modify spreadsheets and share the data live online.
  • GraalVM - GraalVM is a tool for developers to write and execute Java code.
  • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) - The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLB Act or GLBA), also known as the Financial Modernization Act of 1999, is a federal law enacted in the United States to control the ways financial institutions deal with the private information of individuals.
  • grid computing - Grid computing is a system for connecting a large number of computer nodes into a distributed architecture that delivers the compute resources necessary to solve complex problems.
  • guest operating system (guest OS) - A guest operating system is the operating system installed on either a virtual machine (VM) or partitioned disk.
  • gzip (GNU zip) - Gzip (GNU zip) is a free and open source algorithm for file compression.
  • hackathon - A hackathon, also known as a codefest, is a social coding event that brings computer programmers and other interested people together to improve upon or build a new software program.
  • Hadoop - Hadoop is an open source distributed processing framework that manages data processing and storage for big data applications in scalable clusters of computer servers.
  • hamburger icon (slide drawer navigation) - A hamburger icon is a navigational symbol in user interface (UI) design.
  • HashiCorp - HashiCorp is a software company that provides a suite of modular DevOps infrastructure provisioning and management products.
  • headless content management system (headless CMS) - A headless content management system (CMS) delivers back-end capabilities for editing, organizing and storing all types of digital information, without regard to how that content is published, displayed or used.
  • health informatics - Health informatics is the practice of acquiring, studying and managing health data and applying medical concepts in conjunction with health information technology systems to help clinicians provide better healthcare.
  • Health Information Exchange (HIE) - Health information exchange (HIE) is the electronic transmission of healthcare-related data among medical facilities, health information organizations -- companies that oversee and govern the exchange of this data -- and government agencies according to national standards.
  • Health IT (health information technology) - Health IT (health information technology) is the area of IT involving the design, development, creation, use and maintenance of information systems for the healthcare industry.
  • healthcare CIO (healthcare chief information officer) - A healthcare CIO (healthcare chief information officer) is an executive at a healthcare organization that oversees the operation of the information technology department and consults with other C-level personnel on technology-related needs and purchasing decisions.
  • Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HP Enterprise, HPE) - Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HP Enterprise, also known as HPE) is an American multinational company that specializes in business IT (information technology).
  • HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) - The Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) is a nonprofit organization whose goal is to promote the best use of IT and management systems in the healthcare industry.
  • HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) - HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) is United States legislation that provides data privacy and security provisions for safeguarding medical information.
  • HL7 (Health Level Seven International) - HL7 (Health Level Seven International) is a set of standards, formats and definitions for exchanging and developing electronic health records (EHRs).
  • hybrid application (hybrid app) - A hybrid app is a software application that combines elements of both native apps and web applications.
  • IBM IMS (Information Management System) - IBM IMS (Information Management System) is a database and transaction management system that was first introduced by IBM in 1968.
  • IBM Watson supercomputer - Watson was a supercomputer designed and developed by IBM.
  • ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) - The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), is a global standard for classifying and coding mortality and morbidity data.
  • ICD-10-CM (Clinical Modification) - The ICD-10-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification) is a system used by physicians and other healthcare providers to classify and code all diagnoses, symptoms and procedures related to inpatient and outpatient medical care in the United States.
  • ICD-10-PCS (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System) - The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) is an American adaptation of the World Health Organization's ICD-10 system, tailored for procedural coding in inpatient and hospital settings.
  • ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) - ICD-9-CM is the current medical coding standard used in hospitals in the United States.
  • identity management (ID management) - Identity management (ID management) is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to technology resources.
  • IDoc (intermediate document) - IDoc (intermediate document) is a standard data structure used in SAP applications to transfer data to and from SAP system applications and external systems.
  • image metadata - Image metadata is text information pertaining to an image file that is embedded into the file or saved to a separate file that is associated with the image file.
  • image recognition - Image recognition, in the context of machine vision, is the ability of software to identify objects, places, people, writing and actions in digital images.
  • in-app purchase (IAP) - An in-app purchase (IAP) is something bought from within an application, typically a mobile app running on a smartphone or other mobile device.
  • Inbox Zero - Inbox Zero is a rigorous approach to email management that aims to keep an inbox empty -- or almost empty -- at all times.
  • infographic - An infographic (information graphic) is a representation of information in a graphic format designed to make the data easily understandable at a glance.
  • Information and Content Exchange (ICE) - Information and Content Exchange (ICE) is an XML-based standard protocol for electronic business-to-business (B2B) asset management.
  • information extraction (IE) - Information extraction (IE) is the automated retrieval of specific information related to a selected topic from a body or bodies of text.
  • information lifecycle management (ILM) - Information lifecycle management (ILM) is a comprehensive approach to managing an organization's data and associated metadata, starting with its creation and acquisition through when it becomes obsolete and is deleted.
  • information systems (IS) - An information system (IS) is an interconnected set of components used to collect, store, process and transmit data and digital information.
  • instance - In object-oriented programming (OOP), an instance is a specific realization of any object.
  • integrated development environment (IDE) - An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software suite that consolidates basic tools required to write and test software.
  • integration server - An integration server is a type of computer server that facilitates the interaction between different operating systems (OSes), services and applications across an enterprise IT environment.
  • integration testing or integration and testing (I&T) - Integration testing -- also known as integration and testing (I&T) -- is a type of software testing in which the different units, modules or components of a software application are tested as a combined entity.
  • intelligent character recognition (ICR) - Intelligent character recognition (ICR) is the computer translation of manually entered text characters into machine-readable characters.
  • interactive voice response (IVR) - Interactive voice response (IVR) is an automated telephony system that interacts with callers, gathers information and routes calls to the appropriate recipients.
  • internet of medical things (IoMT) or healthcare IoT - The internet of medical things (IoMT) is the collection of medical devices and applications that connect to healthcare IT systems through online computer networks.
  • interrupt - An interrupt is a signal emitted by a device attached to a computer or from a program within the computer.
  • iOS software development kit (iOS SDK) - The iOS software development kit (iOS SDK) is a collection of tools for the creation of apps for Apple's mobile operating system (OS).
  • ISV (independent software vendor) - An ISV (independent software vendor) makes and sells software products that run on one or more computer hardware or operating system (OS) platforms.
  • IT as a Service (ITaaS) - IT as a Service (ITaaS) is a technology-delivery method that treats IT (information technology) as a commodity, providing an enterprise with exactly the amount of hardware, software, and support that it needs for an agreed-on monthly fee.
  • IT chargeback system - An IT chargeback system is an accounting strategy that applies the costs of IT services, hardware or software to the business unit in which they are used.
  • IT controls - An IT control is a procedure or policy that provides a reasonable assurance that the information technology (IT) used by an organization operates as intended, that data is reliable and that the organization is in compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
  • IT distributor - An IT channel distributor is a business that acts as an intermediary between vendors and value-added resellers (VARs) or system integrators (SIs) in the distribution of software or hardware.
  • IT operations management (ITOM) - IT operations management (ITOM) is a strategic approach to managing an organization's information technology needs.
  • iterative - In the world of IT and computer programming, the adjective iterative refers to a process where the design of a product or application is improved by repeated review and testing.
  • iTunes U - iTunes U is a dedicated section of Apple's iTunes Music Store that features educational audio and video files from universities, museums and public media organizations for free download to PCs and mobile devices.
  • JAR file (Java Archive) - A Java Archive, or JAR file, contains all of the various components that make up a self-contained, executable Java application, deployable Java applet or, most commonly, a Java library to which any Java Runtime Environment can link.
  • JAVA_HOME - JAVA_HOME is an operating system (OS) environment variable which can optionally be set after either the Java Development Kit (JDK) or the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is installed.
  • JAX-WS (Java API for XML Web Services) - Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS) is one of a set of Java technologies used to develop Web services.
  • Jira - Jira is an application lifecycle management (ALM) tool from Atlassian that provides different packages to suit various customer needs.
  • jitter buffer - In voice over IP (VoIP), a jitter buffer is a shared data area where voice packets can be collected, stored, and sent to the voice processor in evenly spaced intervals.
  • joint application development (JAD) - Joint application development, frequently shortened to JAD, is a methodology that involves the client or end user in the design and development of a software application through a succession of collaborative workshops called JAD sessions.
  • Joint Commission - The Joint Commission is an independent group that presently accredits 20,500 healthcare facilities in the United States by performing onsite evaluations.
  • JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) - JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used to exchange data between web clients and web servers.
  • keylogger (keystroke logger or system monitor) - A keylogger, sometimes called a keystroke logger, is a type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke on a specific device, such as a computer or smartphone.
  • kill switch - A kill switch in an IT context is a mechanism used to shut down or disable a device or program.
  • knowledge management (KM) - Knowledge management is the process an enterprise uses to gather, organize, share and analyze its knowledge in a way that's easily accessible to employees.
  • Kubernetes operator - A Kubernetes operator is a method for application packaging and deployment that extends Kubernetes' capabilities to manage more complex, stateful workloads.
  • laboratory information system (LIS) - A laboratory information system (LIS) is computer software that processes, stores and manages data from patient medical processes and tests.
  • language modeling - Language modeling, or LM, is the use of various statistical and probabilistic techniques to determine the probability of a given sequence of words occurring in a sentence.
  • Lean software development - Lean software development is a concept that emphasizes optimizing efficiency and minimizing waste in the development of software.
  • low-code and no-code development platforms - Low-code/no-code development platforms are software development tools and environments that allow enterprise developers and citizen developers to create new applications using drag-and-drop components, linking them together and creating mobile or web apps.
  • machine translation - Machine translation technology enables the conversion of text or speech from one language to another using computer algorithms.
  • MACRA (Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015) - MACRA (Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015) is U.
  • manufacturing execution system (MES) - A manufacturing execution system (MES) is an information system that connects, monitors and controls complex manufacturing systems and data flows on the factory floor.
  • marketing automation - Marketing automation is a type of software that allows companies to effectively target customers with automated marketing messages across channels including email, websites, social media and text messages to generate sales leads.
  • McKesson Corp. - McKesson Corp.
  • Meaningful Use - In the context of health IT, meaningful use is a term used to define minimum U.
  • meaningful use stage 3 - Meaningful use stage 3 is the third phase of the federal incentive program that details requirements for the use of electronic health record systems by hospitals and eligible healthcare professionals.
  • medical imaging (radiology) - Medical imaging, also known as radiology, is the field of medicine in which medical professionals recreate various images of parts of the body for diagnostic or treatment purposes.
  • medical scribe - A medical scribe is a professional who specializes in documenting patient encounters in real time under the direction of a physician.
  • medical transcription (MT) - Medical transcription (MT) is the manual processing of voice reports dictated by physicians and other healthcare professionals into text format.
  • Meditech (Medical Information Technology Inc.) - Meditech (Medical Information Technology Inc.
  • menu - A menu is a set of options presented to the user of a computer application to help them find information or execute a function.
  • mHealth (mobile health) - mHealth (mobile health) is a general term for the use of mobile phones and other wireless technology in medical care.
  • micro app - A micro app is a small, mobile application that is designed to perform one, simple task.
  • Microsoft - Microsoft is the largest vendor of computer software in the world.
Networking
  • What is wavelength?

    Wavelength is the distance between identical points, or adjacent crests, in the adjacent cycles of a waveform signal propagated ...

  • subnet (subnetwork)

    A subnet, or subnetwork, is a segmented piece of a larger network. More specifically, subnets are a logical partition of an IP ...

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a standard protocol on the internet that ensures the reliable transmission of data between...

Security
  • What is exposure management?

    Exposure management is a cybersecurity approach to protecting exploitable IT assets.

  • intrusion detection system (IDS)

    An intrusion detection system monitors (IDS) network traffic for suspicious activity and sends alerts when such activity is ...

  • cyber attack

    A cyber attack is any malicious attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer, computing system or computer network with the ...

CIO
  • What is a startup company?

    A startup company is a newly formed business with particular momentum behind it based on perceived demand for its product or ...

  • What is a CEO (chief executive officer)?

    A chief executive officer (CEO) is the highest-ranking position in an organization and responsible for implementing plans and ...

  • What is labor arbitrage?

    Labor arbitrage is the practice of searching for and then using the lowest-cost workforce to produce products or goods.

HRSoftware
  • organizational network analysis (ONA)

    Organizational network analysis (ONA) is a quantitative method for modeling and analyzing how communications, information, ...

  • HireVue

    HireVue is an enterprise video interviewing technology provider of a platform that lets recruiters and hiring managers screen ...

  • Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI)

    Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) is a U.S.-based credentialing organization offering certifications to HR ...

Customer Experience
  • What is the law of diminishing returns?

    The law of diminishing returns is an economic principle stating that as investment in a particular area increases, the rate of ...

  • What is an abandoned call?

    An abandoned call is a call or other type of contact initiated to a call center or contact center that is ended before any ...

  • What is an outbound call?

    An outbound call is one initiated by a contact center agent to prospective customers and focuses on sales, lead generation, ...

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